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MDC-004: Development Journalism for Social Change

MDC-004: Development Journalism for Social Change

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for MDC-004 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Development Journalism for Social Change, you have come to the right place. MDC-004 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in PGDDC, MADJ courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: MDC-004/2021-22

Course Code: MDC-004

Assignment Name: Development Journalism for Social Change

Year: 2021-2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Maximum Marks: 100

Note: Answer all the questions; they carry equal marks. (Answer in 500 Words)

Q1. Define development. Discuss significant development areas in the 21st Century with an example.

Ans) Growth, advancement, good change, or the addition of physical, economic, environmental, social, and demographic components are all examples of development. The goal of development is to improve people's living standards and quality of life, as well as to create or expand local regional income and employment possibilities while preserving the environment's resources. Development is apparent and beneficial, although not always right away, and involves aspects of quality change as well as the establishment of conditions for that change to continue.

The following are important development areas in the twenty-first century:

The Economic Situation

The economy remains important in our understanding of development today, but the field's scope has expanded significantly. The analysis of statistics and trends in economic reporting helps to clarify and demystify complex situations. Data is frequently used in economic reporting. Primary, secondary, and tertiary or services industries make up the economy, with infrastructure and telecommunications being the most important. Agriculture is in the primary sector, whereas industry and manufacturing are in the secondary sector. Information technology, energy, transportation, finance, and social services are all significant fields in their own right.

Sector of the Social

In the framework of development, there is a strong emphasis on gender ratio. For example, girl children's access to education, nutrition for girls versus boys, and so on. As part of the Human Development Report, the UNDP compiles gender-adjusted income accounts and development statistics. The analysis of variations in GDP estimates has received a lot of attention in the Indian media and policy planning circles. Unfortunately, examining HDI figures does not receive the same level of attention. In the area or other emerging countries with similar economic development rates, India has not fared well in HDI rankings. The various facets of a country's HDI can be a suitable subject for development stories for a development journalist because HDI includes social sector factors such as education and health.

Governance and Government

In development, governance has always been a major concern. Ibn Khaldun, a social theorist who wrote about social change, cited the quality of governance as one factor in a civilization's rise or fall. From the 1980s forward, the World Bank literature has stressed the importance of governance quality or good governance. All development stories that feature the state as a player or as a reformer focus on governance and policy planning. Even economic tales based on foreign direct investment trends are frequently linked to the government's stability and reasonable governance procedures. It is difficult to attract foreign capital for investment if the view is that the administration is unstable, inept, or corrupt.


Today, the environment is a significant beat. Various international environmental agreements are significant tales. Many environmental tales are intertwined with development and analysing processes over a longer period of time is the best way to understand them. Climate change and global warming are subjects that have been the focus of numerous development stories. Alternative energy, such as solar or wind, has also emerged as a major development and environmental reporting factor. The Indian press is increasingly covering air pollution, its causes, and the consequences for human health. The media has helped to popularise anti-pollution initiatives. Because of consistent media coverage, issues such as particle matter and crop burning have become well-known.


The railways are possibly the most important employer in the world, not just in India. Passenger, freight, pricing, safety, customer service, new routes, track maintenance, staff concerns, and other topics could be included in Indian railway development stories. Another area that has ramifications for the entire economy is telecommunications. Telecommunications systems have a multiplier effect on the economy, affecting all three sectors: primary, secondary, and tertiary. Telecommunications development stories could include spectrum, price, service penetration, new applications, and comparative growth trends between states or regions.


In India, the agricultural industry is in shambles. Farmers frequently go bankrupt after taking out loans that they cannot repay. They frequently ask the government for loan forgiveness, a rise in the minimum support price, and other advantages. There are few well-developed cold storage networks in India. As a result, a lot of agricultural produce goes to waste since it isn't processed. The recent increase in farmer suicides serves as a sharp reminder that the industry is plagued by issues. Everybody Loves a Good Drought, a collection of P. Sainath's development reports on agricultural and development concerns, sheds light on the issues confronting India's agriculture and rural sectors. Rural challenges include access to education and health care, in addition to agriculture. Aspects such as livelihoods are also significant. Various government programmes have aimed to alleviate poverty and distress in rural areas. There are few good news stories about rural issues in general.

Q2. Write a short essay on the significance of Science and Technology reporting in regional newspapers with examples.

Ans) Science and technology reporting has become a specialist sector in the media as a result of several advances and the rising relevance of science in today's modern environment. Science reporting is distinct from other journalistic disciplines. Science fiction is typically shorter than other genres of fiction. The following are some unique characteristics:

  1. Science journalism is concerned with informing the general public about complicated scientific subjects.

  2. Reporting on science and technology sometimes includes reporting on abstract, complex, and difficult-to-understand happenings, events, and concepts for a lay audience. As a result, a reporter should know exactly what he or she is going to write about and how to communicate it in layman's terms.

  3. Reporting on science and technology is about human development and what the future may hold. As a result, a reporter should be able to see future developments and their consequences.

  4. In addition to challenging data, science reporting entails looking into scientific misconduct, conflicts of interest, and ethical violations.

  5. Science is never stagnant, and new discoveries are made every day. A smart science journalist should keep up with current events on a regular basis.

The art of successful science reporting necessitates two prerequisites: a fundamental understanding of science and journalistic training on how to cover science and technology topics. A good science degree is unquestionably beneficial. Some well-known science journalists and authors, such as Carl Zimmer and David Quammen, did not have any professional science training. Many great science writers, including New York Times science writer Walter Sullivan and many other journalists and science writers from major newspapers around the world, were self-taught. However, one thing they all had in common was a love of science and technology. It is always wise to prepare for any interview. Before interviewing a scientist, make sure you know the basics of his or her field. Meteorologists will not be happy if you think they look for meteors. If you do not have information available, why not ask one of your contacts for some basic background facts before interviewing your chosen scientist?

Some reporters actually show their story to their informants before publishing it. This is more common in feature articles than in hard news stories. If you do this, you must make it clear that they are only being asked to check the facts. You must not allow them to dictate how you write the story. They may be the experts on science or technology, but you must be the expert in what is newsworthy. It will help if you explain your needs clearly to your informants before you start interviewing. You can explain whether this will be a lengthy feature, a documentary or just a short news item. You can also explain who your audience will be and how simple (or complicated) the information needs to be. This will avoid a lot of misunderstanding and possible bad feelings.

For example, you may interview a botanist about a new type of disease-resistant seed-corn she has developed. She may give you lots and lots of detailed information about it, enough to satisfy the readers of a farming magazine, when all you need are a few basic details for a general news story. Unless you have warned her first, she may be upset about how little of her information you eventually use. Remember, most scientists are so involved in their work that they often cannot understand that everyone else - especially you and your readers or listeners - do not have the same depth of interest.

Q3. Analyse the role of mass media in issues related to education.

Ans) The role of mass media in issues related to education:

During recent history, "Listening involvement" is a feature of educational radio programmes:

The emphasis in radio is on sound rather than picture. Many educational programmes are broadcast on the radio, and important events and (occurrences from around the world are brought directly into the classroom from the source. An educational programme may be preceded by an introduction by the class teacher and followed by a protracted debate among students on the subject-matter under the broadcast discussion as part of classroom teaching. For the advantage of the students, a gifted teacher may teach via radio. Important events, elections, inventions, international political developments, and other current issues can all be heard and discussed in the classroom.

Radio broadcasts for educational purposes are an efficient way to present music, drama, and appreciation:

Radio is an important source of entertainment as well. Various radio speeches, debates, and conversations are incredibly educational and valuable. Different aspects of school curriculum might be given to students in the form of dramatized programmes. Dramatization, conversation, musical aspects, and other creative programmes, which are not possible in day-to-day classroom teaching, distinguish educational radio. Aside from these, school concerts, folk and classical music, drama, and discussion programmes from local and other states are occasionally broadcast for other Indian schools to listen in on.

Team-teaching demos are included on educational radio broadcasts:

Students can also participate in various radio programmes such as quiz competitions, trip discussions, dramas, and stories, as well as the production of lessons, projects, and work programmes in the form of team-teaching demonstrations. This is being organised by the collaboration of the best resources, in cooperation with specialists and other subject experts. While completing the programme, subject substance, curriculum validity, age group fit, and teaching methods are all taken into consideration.

Local teachers and students participate in educational radio broadcasts:

Well-planned radio broadcasts are presented in such a way that local teachers and students actively participate. As a result, prior to the broadcast, there should be some preparatory research and discussion on the subject. The class may be urged to continue the debate, project, or creative activity with broadcast ideas. Before delivering the programme, both the professors and the students should thoroughly prepare the material. They should use all available resources to produce a programme that is of very high quality and worth listening to in terms of substance, speech, style, audibility, and presentability.

In the long run, educational radio broadcasting aids in the development of an open learning system:

Individuals can use educational radio to receive corrective programming for self-learning. It can reach people at work, at play, in the drawing room, and at leisure centres, transcending all conventional educational limits and constraints. Despite its high cost, it has spread to villages and is now available to people from all walks of life. Since learning directly from a teacher is rare, there is a growing emphasis on an open learning system to overcome the rigidities of formal education, and there is a greater emphasis on learning through various forms of mass media. Educational radio broadcasts are projected to play a significant part in the development of an open learning system. Educational radio's non-formal approaches can help to supplement the de-schooling movement. All of the programmes aim to create a learning society in which anybody can learn at any time and in any location.

Q4. What is fake news? How to identify fake news? What are the implications of fake news?

Ans) 'Fake news' is one of the most serious dangers to the journalism profession today. Because the Internet is overloaded with information on social media platforms, it is critical to distinguish between authentic and false videos. Many bogus videos go viral, leading to horrible crimes including lynching, kidnappings, and rape followed by murders or suicides. As a result, a professional MoJo reporter's job would be to assess the news' reliability and double-check, triple-check, and recheck the subject's veracity. Reporters for the MoJo should strive to be objective and fair in their reporting. They should endeavour to contact as many sources and parties involved as possible when covering news items. Mobile applications that are not authorised or licenced should not be used. Because the authenticity of the content is so vital, skilled reporters must use applications with extreme caution and use extreme prudence when shooting and editing journalistic content.


Call your sources' credibility into doubt. You will be expected as a student to locate, assess, and reference reliable information sources in a variety of media. When you use fake news as proof for your arguments or as part of your study, it raises questions about the overall integrity of the sources you utilise and your ability to identify reliable material. Cite only real, reliable news and information sources to maintain the respect of your teachers, peers, friends, and family.

Make incorrect, misleading, or deceptive information available to you in order for you to make a decision or take action. It's risky to act without all the facts, but it's much riskier to act based on false information. You must be able to discern when the information you are receiving can be trusted to help you make an intelligent, fact-based decision, whether it is political, medical, intellectual, or personal.

Confirm your prejudices. It's even more difficult to doubt evidence that confirms your beliefs or lends credence to a claim you're making. However, just as an article promoting something with which you disagree isn't always fake news, information with which you agree isn't always true. When judging news, have an open mind and leave your views and opinions out of it.

As a result, there is a lack of faith or trust in scientific discoveries. Researchers are increasingly being forced to explain the legitimacy of their findings as more people fall for online material that directly contradicts scientific study. Individuals had less opportunity to publicly remark on, criticise, or contradict knowledge offered by professionals when information delivery was limited to print, television, and radio. With the advent of social media and the internet in general, it is now possible for groups to spread misinformation that supports their beliefs while disparaging those who do not.

Q5. Discuss media ethics briefly concerning civic journalism.

Ans) The classic definition of journalism is the gathering, evaluation, creation, and dissemination of news and information to the general public. Journalism is characterised by a wide range of qualities and practises. The interpretation of journalism has shifted dramatically as a result of the new or modern media. Civic journalism is an attempt to include the public more aggressively in the reporting process, to listen to how citizens describe their problems and what they view as solutions to those problems. The information can then be used by another mainstream journalist to enhance news reports. In many industrialised countries around the world, civic journalism is done by newspapers, radio stations, and television stations.

Citizen Voice reports are made available to the public in a public forum. The Citizen Voices Project has provided journalists with a fresh viewpoint on how to cover urban political concerns, blurring the boundary between journalistic independence and objectivity. Civic reporting is about engagement, advocacy, and activism on the one hand, and independent and detached reporting on the other. A growing international demand for both the print and electronic press to restore an ethics of social responsibility so that the world's cultural diversity can be fairly represented through stories, images, and voices is a recent addition to the multi-sided pressures faced by the news industry (corporate media concentration and convergence, audience fragmentation, citizen journalism "bloggers," fusing of news and entertainment, shifts in advertising revenue streams).

The issue is that in metropolitan areas, we tend to focus on the news media. According to studies, mainstream news builds the poor, immigrants, refugees, indigenous peoples, and other marginalised groups through third-party sources, and mainstream journalism rarely includes or directly addresses the voices of marginalised communities. Can media claim to have an ethical responsibility to inform its audience about the multiplicity of cultural manifestations that exist on the margins of the dominant group? By constructing stories from where the subject (citizen or non-citizen) is situated, civic journalism aims to bridge the gap between the groups being reported on and the journalist's implicit audience. There is a need to create a new set of civic media ethics.

Instead of providing objective descriptions of agents, events, and concerns, the new ethics would see journalism as a facilitator of an ongoing public conversation among varied groups. This will be furthered by the first methodological innovation, which is the diagnosis and questioning of genealogies of how subjects are traditionally constructed. The second phase of innovation contrasts a genealogical critique of mainstream news framing with a blending of more inclusive narrative strategies and educational alternatives that will be evaluated in the field with practitioners, communities, and scholars. This method could draw on a variety of disciplines to develop new dialogue principles between journalists, the excluded, and news-media audiences. Journalism, sociology, communications, anthropology, and history make up the original combination.

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