If you are looking for MDC-005 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Development: Information and Communication Technologies, you have come to the right place. MDC-005 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in PGDDC, MADJ courses of IGNOU.
MDC-005 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: MDC-005/ July 22- Jan 2023
Course Code: MDC-005
Assignment Name: Development: Information and Communication Technologies
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
Maximum Marks: 100
Note: Answer all the questions; they carry equal marks. (Answer in 500 Words)
Q1. Define Information and Communication Technologies. Explain role of ICT in education.
Ans) The term "information and communication technology" (ICT) refers to any technologies that make it possible to communicate while gaining access to various sorts of information. These technologies cover all available recording and storage mediums as well as all technical capabilities for broadcasting and transmitting data across a variety of channels, such as audio, text, and video. As technology develops, there are more and more services and technologies that fall under this umbrella, allowing for the transmission of more data at faster and faster rates. Information and communications technology (ICT) is a term used to describe an extension of information technology (IT) that emphasises the importance of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals) and computers as well as the essential enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual that allow users to access, store, transmit, understand, and manipulate information.
ICT can also refer to the integration of computer networks, telephone networks, and audio-visual networks via a single cabling or link system. The use of a single unified system for cabling, signal distribution, and management would allow the computer network system and telephone network system to be combined economically. Any communication equipment, including radio, television, cell phones, computer and network hardware, satellite systems, and so on, as well as the various services and tools associated with them, such video conferencing and distant learning, falls within the broad definition of ICT. Analog technology, such as paper communication, and any modality that conveys communication are also included in ICT.
ICT is a large field, and the ideas constantly changing. It applies to any product that can electronically store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit, or receive data in a digital form (e.g., personal computers including smartphones, digital television, email, or robots). One of many approaches for describing and managing competencies for ICT professionals in the twenty-first century is the Skills Framework for the Information Age.
ICT is a potent tool for expanding formal and informal educational possibilities to all segments of society, especially to the underserved population. ICT can be used to enhance educational content development, support administrative procedures in schools and other educational establishments, and increase access to education for both teachers and students via distance learning, according to the International Institute for Communication and Development (IICD). Two ideas, e-learning and blended learning, are currently being employed to strengthen the role of ICT in education. This is related to the use of ICT in education.
"E-learning" is defined by Tinio as "learning at all levels, both formal and non-formal, that employs an information network-the internet; an intranet (LAN) or extranet (WAN) - whether fully or in part, for course delivery, engagement, and/or facilitation." Others like the phrase "online learning," which refers to learning through an internet browser. Web-based learning is a subset of e-learning. Blended learning is another phrase used in relation to educational technology. It describes instructional strategies that mix conventional classroom instruction with online learning tools. For instance, traditional students may receive both print-based and online assignments, participate in online mentorship sessions with their teachers through chats, and join a class email list. "These technologies offer significant promise for knowledge dissemination, effective learning, and the development of more efficient education services," according to UNESCO.
Q2. Explain the Information and Communication Technologies integration in ODL.
ICTs in Supplementary Role in ODL
You will discover that ICTs were not a part of the core curriculum or pedagogy if you look back at the early practises where they were used in ODL. The primary form of instruction was through print-based information, which was seen as self-sufficient. When radio and television first became popular in the second generation, audio-video programmes were employed to augment the teaching-learning process. For a very long time, it was common practise to create one or two audio/video programmes on any important subject matter from the entire course curriculum and offer these to students as extra learning resources. Even the course material in text, audio, and video was frequently the same. At the time, open universities and institutes did not have access to many resources for producing television programmes. ICTs were also used in addition to traditional counselling sessions at study centres to supplement tutor-learning interactions through radio-counselling or teleconferencing.
ICTs in Complimentary Role in ODL ICT for ODL
Practices altered with the third generation of ICT integration in ODL. The value of audio-visual content and interaction is now acknowledged on a global scale. Broadcasting has become a crucial component of teaching-learning, and ICT-based learning materials have grown in importance in pedagogy. There have been experiments in ODL universities where content developed using audio/video programmes and interaction through radio counselling and teleconferencing have started complementing the traditional print-based material. Content planning has begun taking the media and technology to be used into consideration. The likelihood of content repetition is decreased because curriculum developers began planning for it to be delivered through various media at the time of planning; however, until recently, there was no real integration because the designated content was being delivered through audio/video and printed materials.
Integration in ODL
When considering integration, it's important to consider how it differs from the supplemental and complementary roles that ICTs play in ODL. When ICTs are integrated into ODL, it refers to practises where they coexist side by side with traditional print media and where curriculum developers have begun to consider, plan, and include ICTs into curricular and pedagogical practises. Effective ICT integration into teaching and learning is a major topic of concern. Different researchers and practitioners have created several integration models. You must investigate a few crucial ones.
Model of ICT Integration
Dr. Ruben Puentedura created the SAMR framework to describe how to incorporate technology into teaching and learning. Substitution is the lowest degree of integration, and substitution is the highest. The initials "SAMR" stand for Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, and Redefinition.
It falls under substitution if a tutor intends to use any ICT-based material to directly substitute traditional print-based material. For instance, if there are five key portions in a unit of ODL print content, and the unit writer substitutes one or two of those sections with a video, audio, or online link and instructs learners to view those materials. The suggested ICT resource is also connected to the self-assessment practise and quiz. Sometimes, it can also be a word document, an excel spreadsheet, or a PPT.
Q3. Discuss models of E - Governance in rural development.
Ans) A variety of models are being tested to show off ICT solutions for development that would help rural populations. Numerous governmental and non-governmental organisations have contributed to this cause, either separately or jointly. E-governance is frequently mentioned as one of the key services provided by ICT interventions.
Broadcasting/Wider Dissemination Model
The Broadcasting and Sharing concept is based on the dissemination of knowledge that is already in the public domain and is pertinent to better governance. For a wider audience, it makes use of ICT and convergent media. This approach is justified by the idea that an informed populace is better able to comprehend the government processes, is better equipped to exercise its rights and duties, and can make more informed decisions. Furthermore, there is a higher chance that in a society where everyone has access to information, the agenda and methods of administration won't be skewed in favour of a select few. The broader dissemination approach creates a new avenue for people to get information and to verify information from outside the local domain that is already available.
Critical Flow Model
This concept is centred on using ICT and convergent media to deliver information of vital importance to a specific audience or disseminate it to a larger audience. Understanding the importance of a specific information set and making effective use of it call for foresight. Locating users for whom the availability of a specific information set would make a significant impact in the start of good governance may also be necessary. The intrinsic property of ICT that renders the concepts of distance and time superfluous is the strength of the Critical Flow Model. Due to the time gap between information becoming available to different users, this lessens the instances of exploitative governance that were previously conceivable.
Comparative Analysis Model
The Comparative Analysis Model is based on investigating information that is available in the public or private sector and contrasting it with the real known information sets to create strategic arguments and learnings. The model continuously incorporates fresh information outputs and makes use of them as a benchmark to assess, persuade, or promote modifications to the present governance practises. The comparison could be done between two separate conditions to determine the success of an intervention or between two different situations across time to gain a snapshot of the past and present scenario (with or without analysis).
Mobilisation and Lobbying Model
One of the most popular digital governance methods is the mobilisation and lobbying approach, which has regularly helped developing country civil society organisations have an impact on global decision-making processes. The information flow in the model is planned, directed, and strategic in order to create powerful virtual allies and support real-world action. It adopts the proactive strategy of creating online groups with same beliefs and concerns, encouraging active information sharing across these communities, and connecting them to actual actions. The diversity of its online community and the knowledge, skills, and resources amassed through online networking are this model's strengths.
Q4. Write a short essay on the role of Digital Media in society.
Ans) Previously, media in a broad sense only included print and the audio-visual medium, but with the materialisation of digital media, media now has a dual identity. In order to make space for digital media, the heritage of media as a single entity has been broken up and put back together through cultural, economic, and political processes. Therefore, the areas of production, consumption, and outlet patterns are where conventional media and new media converge. Essentially as a result of the collapse of space and time as well as a mode of production, media as an institution has evolved into a space of convergent and divergent spaces with overlapping characteristics of conventional media and new media. Television news channels, internet news platforms, newspapers, magazines, and the news industry as a whole have all improved debate and news consumption habits. This reality is obvious in every aspect of life and society.
Technology and Society From printing, photography, through television, to telecommunications, the media sector has continuously undergone technological, institutional, and cultural change or development. With the introduction of digital media, change hasn't been the continuous evolution that the media witnessed but has instead accelerated since the late 1980s.
The emergence of digital media was influenced by the larger frameworks of cultural and social change that occurred in varying degrees from the 1960s onward, particularly the transition from modernity to postmodernity, which intensified the processes of globalisation and the transition from the industrial age of manufacturing to the postindustrial information age. The ideas of new media, online media, and digital media were first exposed to us during this revolution. As a general term, "new media" introduces an arbitrary distinction between "old media" and "new media," which includes both digital and online media as well as other developing media forms. This tacitly highlights the change in media logic, which explores the openness and conflict between various ideas, users, and logics. The term "online media" generally refers to the Internet, which is the standard new medium. The concept of "online media" emphasises connectedness, or how one connects with other media, most notably computers and, more recently, mobile phones.
Evolution and Development of Digital Media
Charles Babbage is credited with conceptualising codes and information for machines in the early 1800s. Ada Lovelace followed in 1822 and 1823 by writing the first instructions for computing numbers on Babbage's machines. However, Konrad Zuse's Z3, an electromechanical "Z" machine, launched the history of digital media in 1941. It is recognised as one of the first computers since it was the first operational device with binary arithmetic and some degree of programmability, and it existed before the 1944 development of the Harvard mark 1, a sizable electromechanical computer. After World War II, starting in 1947 and continuing until 1968, digital equipment such as the Xerox machine, communication satellite, microprocessor, virtual reality, and augmented reality Head Mounted Display (HMD) system were developed.
The World Wide Web's potential was first stated by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990, which led to a further uptick in the rate of media creation. The next ten years saw a boom in technological advancements all over the world, including the creation of the first digital still camera, internet website, digicam, short message service (SMS) to a mobile phone, DVD, and the first digital television service (DirectTV).
Q5. Explain challenges and opportunities of E - Governance.
Ans) The debate above emphasised how important ICTs are to governance. We need to build enough and adequate infrastructure, supply enough funding and investment, provide simple and more extensive accessibility, and produce enough and skilled human resources in order to fully reap the benefits of ICTs.
Telecommunications services provide the basis of e-governance. Infrastructures must be built in order to develop telecommunication so that the end user may quickly and efficiently access the services. The National Task Force on Information Technology and Software Development recommended broadband connection (also known as "the last mile") linkage for IT promotional organisations, Internet service providers (ISPs), and IT applications service providers (ASPs) in 1998 to strengthen the infrastructure with the goal of "boosting efficiency and enhancing market integration" through the Internet and intranet for sustainable regional development.
To develop a digital economy, a high rate of IT capital investment and a supporting environment are required. Due to the government's resource shortage, the market and private sector must be used to develop resources. As the private sector can engage and provide financial and knowledge support, the public-private collaboration may be advantageous in this regard.
There are currently over 10 million Internet users in the nation. The irony is that more than 75% of these users are in India's urban areas. The underserved and rural areas still lack access to the Internet. However, by including Gram Panchayats, attempts are being made to increase ICT access in rural areas. In states like Andhra Pradesh, NIC has established a comprehensive web-based programme for Panchayati raj and rural applications. The majority of panchayats now have computers, making it simple to access a variety of services.
The utility of information
It is necessary to offer pertinent information. Information should be presented in a way that people will find it interesting, useful, and appealing. In this regard, the Indian government and a few state governments have created a vision plan for e-governance while keeping in mind the requirements of the populace. Even though many departments have their citizens' charters available online, these facilities nevertheless need more promotion in order for the public to have access to the relevant data.
If there are trained human resources available, service delivery will be beneficial. Except in a few instances, all required public employees are receiving computer training, yet successful ICT use has yet to be observed. In addition, a nationwide "Train the Teachers Program" must be started right away (3T Programme). At all levels, including at schools and colleges, this should be done. Additionally, instruction that combines both virtual and practical training is required.
Changing the Mindset of Government Functionaries
Both service providers and recipients must adopt a new mindset in order to embrace the shift. Government employees need to be made aware that their role is to fulfil the needs of the public in accordance with policies and programmes, and that technology advancement is merely a means to an end, not a problem in and of itself. It is necessary to give service providers orientation and training programmes in order to shift their perspective.
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