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MDV-108: Development Communication and Extension

MDV-108: Development Communication and Extension

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for MDV-108 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Development Communication and Extension, you have come to the right place. MDV-108 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in MADVS, MACSR courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: MDV-108/TMA/2021-22

Course Code: MDV-108

Assignment Name: Development Communication and Extension

Year: 2021-2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Marks: 100

Q1) Discuss the five essential phases of extension process as applied to development programmes with suitable example.

Ans) The process of extension, as applied to development programmes, involves five

essential phases.

Analysing the Situation: This necessitates a wealth of information on all aspects of the context in which extension work is to be undertaken. Information regarding people's interests, education, needs, social norms, farming systems, water bodies, and so on is required. These facts can be collected through participatory rural appraisal / fast rural appraisal, and they aid in the identification of appropriate developmental programmes to address the issues.

Objectives / Goals to be Accomplished: Beneficiaries of development programmes must be involved in the selection of a small number of objectives that describe the anticipated behavioural changes as well as economic or social results.

Teaching: Teaching is the process of establishing settings in which the things to be learned are brought to people's attention, their curiosity is piqued, and a desire for change is sparked, i.e., they are prompted to take action. An extension worker's primary responsibility is to establish successful learning environments that include the following characteristics.

  1. Instructor - extension worker like you.

  2. Learners - all stakeholders of development programmes.

  3. Subject matter - developmental action that is planned. Participatory irrigation management, community forest management, animal mineral mixture feeding, and so forth are examples.

  4. Teaching materials - on participatory irrigation management, there will be a flannel board, blackboard, charts, models, samples, slides, a video display, and so on.

  5. Physical facilities - sitting accommodation, good visibility, etc.

Evaluating the Teaching: The goal of evaluation is to see how far the objectives have been met. Plans for evaluation should be incorporated into the work plans at an early stage. Keep in mind that there should be a separation between mere records of accomplishments and the declared original aims.

Reconsidering: This step entails an evaluation of prior efforts and outcomes, which reveals a new scenario. If this new circumstance indicates that further work is required, the entire process might be restarted with new or changed goals.

These procedures are merely meant to clarify the measures that must be taken in order to carry out a planned extended educational effort. This does not mean that these steps are in any way distinct from one another. Planning, teaching, and evaluation occur in varied degrees throughout all phases of the extension process, according to several experiences.

Q2) How do you select extension teaching methods for various teaching occasions? Illustrate.

Ans) The following guidelines are helpful in the selection of suitable extension teaching


Education level of the audience

  1. For illiterates - Personal visits.

  2. For educated - Written materials.

Size of the audience.

  1. For less than 30 - Lecture, Group discussion.

  2. For more than 30- Mass methods.

Teaching objective

  1. To bring awareness - Mass methods.

  2. To change attitude - Group discussion.

  3. To impart skill - Demonstration.

Subject matter

  1. To prove value of a recommended practice - Result demonstration.

  2. To teach a new skill, or an old one in an improved way - Method demonstration.

  3. To disseminate simple technology – News article.

  4. To teach a complex technology – Face-to-face contact with audio visual aids.

Extension organization’s credibility

  1. New organization, yet to gain confidence of people – Result demonstration.

  2. Well established organization with proven success- Circular letter.

Size of extension staff

  1. Few staff members - Group and mass contact methods.

  2. Large number of staff - Individual contact methods.

Availability of media

  1. For creating awareness and reinforcement of ideas – Television, radio, newspaper.

Time of dissemination

  1. Emergency for an individual – Phone call.

  2. Emergency for a group of people, or a large number of people – Radio, television, public address system.

Other factors to consider when selecting extension teaching methods include relative costs, the extension worker's familiarity with teaching methods, the needs of the people, the length of time the extension programme has been running in the area, the availability of physical facilities, and weather conditions.

Q3) Critically discuss the role of communication channels in development work with suitable examples?

Ans) A communication channel is a conduit by which communications are passed from one person to another. Channels of mass media and interpersonal channels are two examples.

All means of sending messages that involve a mass medium such as radio, television, newspapers, and so on, and which enable a source of one or a few individuals to reach a large audience are referred to as mass media channels. Interpersonal channels entail a face-to-face conversation between two or more people. Interpersonal channels are more effective at persuading people to embrace new ideas, especially when the interpersonal channel connects two or more people with similar socioeconomic level and education.

Although such objective evaluations are not wholly unimportant, especially to the very first persons who adopt, most people do not judge an innovation on the basis of scientific research of its repercussions. Instead, most people rely mostly on subjective evaluations of advances, which they receive from people who have already accepted the improvements. This reliance on the experiences of close peers implies that dissemination is a social process, with the heart of the process consisting of potential adopters mimicking and imitating their network partners who have already adopted. When two or more people belong to the same group, live or work near one other, and have similar interests, they communicate more effectively. In terms of knowledge acquisition, attitude formation, and overt behaviour change, more effective communication occurs in such homophilous conditions.

One of the most distinguishing characteristics of the diffusion of innovations is that the participants are frequently heterophilous. Because the individuals do not speak the same language, this disparity typically leads to inefficient communication. In fact, there can be no dissemination when two people have the same technical understanding of an innovation because there is no new information to exchange. Because of the nature of diffusion, at least some degree of heterophily between two participants is required.

The Channel is the connecting element in the communication process between the sender and the recipient. The receiver can also use the channel to provide feedback to the sender. As a result, both the sender and the receiver are highly reliant on the channel's capacity for message transmission. It should be noted that the audience or recipients of development messages may not have access to modern channels such as radio, television, or newspapers to provide feedback to the sender because these channels only allow for one-way transmission, unlike a telephone, which allows for instant feedback. The receiver is unable to provide constant and continuous input in this situation, resulting in a breakdown in communication between the sender and the receiver.

We can compare the process of ferrying things from one location to another by utilising a truck as a 'carrier' to illustrate the meaning of Channel.

Channel transports ideas, information, and meaning to the destination in the same way that a truck transports materials to another location. The goods/material will not be able to reach their destination without the assistance of the truck. The truck's speed and carrying capacity will decide how much weight it can carry and how long it takes to deliver products without losing any material or causing a delay in transporting them. Children are frequently seen playing the mock-telephone game, in which two players utilise matchstick boxes connected by a string at both ends as two instruments for passing messages between them. In this case, the matchboxes take on the role of a carrier or channel. This raises the issue of channel efficiency, time taken, and capacity to carry information. Human and machine channels are both possible.

Human and machine channels are both possible. Doesn't that seem like a contradictory statement?

To further illustrate, consider the mediaeval era, when humans relied on sign or oral language to communicate information, ideas, and meaning with family and community members. Language was crucial, and each civilization and community of people developed a language, and eventually a script, to match their abilities to interact with one another. The printed word became a bearer of God's word to its people when the printing press was invented in England in the late 15th century. The printing of the Bible, followed by the printing of Church edicts and state regulations, aided in reaching a greater public. Previously, it was customary to make announcements from one location to the next. Because the printed word in the form of books, pamphlets, and posters could be read by people at different times and reach far and wide distances, the printing press enabled people to escape the restrictions of time and place.

Q4) Explain the innovation-decision process model with the help of a diagram.

Ans) Diffusion scholars have previously favoured the notion of the five stages in the adoption process. However, there are some drawbacks to this model:

  1. It indicates that the process always leads to adoption decisions, but rejection is also a possibility. As a result, a broader word than "adoption process" is required, one that encompasses both adoption and rejection.

  2. The five stages listed above do not always occur in the sequence listed, and some of them, particularly the trial stage, may be bypassed. Rather than occurring only at one of the five stages, evaluation occurs throughout the process.

  3. Adoption seldom ends the process since more information may be sought to confirm or reinforce the decision, or the individual may subsequently move from adoption to foster care rejection (discontinuance). Rogers has come up with a model of Innovation-Decision Process to overcome the above limitations.

During the innovation-decision process, communication sources and channels deliver stimuli to the individual. The average person learns about the innovation primarily through cosmopolitan and mass media sources. The individual creates his perception of the invention through more localite and interpersonal channels at the persuasion function. An invention may be accepted at the decision stage and utilised indefinitely, or it may be rejected at a later stage (a discontinuation).

Discontinuance can occur as a result of the invention being replaced by a better idea or as a result of disenchantment (disappointment) with the innovation. Due to changes in how the individual perceives the innovation, the new idea may be rejected at the end of the process but adopted subsequently. Because the individual wants to confirm his decision, he frequently seeks additional information during the confirmation function. However, sometimes individuals receive contradictory (to the innovation decision) messages, which leads to abandonment or later adoption.

The model is made up of five functions or stages, namely:

Knowledge Stage

The knowledge stage of the innovation decision-making process begins when an individual is exposed to the invention and develops some understanding of how it works. The primary role of knowledge is cognitive or knowing. Individuals commence knowledge seeking, which is heavily impacted by their predispositions.

A need is a feeling of dissatisfaction or irritation that develops when one's wants outnumber one's needs. When a person learns of a better way, such as an innovation, he may create a need. As a result, necessities can lead to inventions, and vice versa. This strategy to change is used by some change agents to create needs among their customers by pointing out the desirable outcomes of a new idea. As a result, knowing about innovations can help motivate others to adopt them.

For example, a farmer has spent years cultivating low-yielding crop varieties. After hearing about hybrid varieties and their high yielding potential, the farmer may feel compelled to adopt them in his environment. A need might encourage someone to look for information about a new product, and knowledge about a new product can help them meet that need. 'What is the innovation?' is an example of a question. The fundamental concerns of an individual concerning an innovation are 'How does it work?' and 'Why does it work?'

Persuasion Stage

At the persuasion stage of the innovation decision process, an individual develops a favourable or unfavourable opinion toward the innovation. Whereas cognitive (or knowing) thinking predominated in the knowledge stage, emotive thinking predominated at the persuasive stage (or feeling). The individual grows more psychologically invested with the invention and actively seeks knowledge about it during the persuasion stage. Individual personality traits, as well as social system norms, might influence information seeking behaviour and interpretation. At the attitude development stage, selective perception is crucial in defining the receiver's communication behaviour. A widespread perception of the innovation is formed during the persuasive stage. At this point, perceptions of an innovation's relative benefit, compatibility, and complexity are very crucial.

Before determining whether or not to try the new idea, the individual may mentally apply it to a current or projected future scenario in order to establish a favourable or unfavourable attitude toward it. This could be considered a vicarious trial. At the persuasive stage, where forward planning is required, the ability to conceive hypothetically and counter-factually, as well as project into the future, is a crucial mental capability.

Decision Stage

At the decision stage of the innovation-decision process, individuals participate in actions that lead to a decision to adopt or reject the invention. If the innovation is trailable, this option entails an immediate consideration of whether or not to try it. Most people will not accept a new technology without first testing it on a small scale to see if it is useful in their environment. The small-scale trial is a crucial aspect of the adoption decision since it reduces the perceived risk of the innovation for the adopter. Because some innovations cannot be split for testing, they must be adopted or rejected in their entirety. In general, innovations that may be divided for experimental use are adopted more quickly. Individuals proceed to an adoption choice if the innovation has a specific degree of relative advantage during the trial stage.

Implementation Stage

When an individual or other decision-making unit puts an innovation into practise, it is called implementation. At this point, the individual is mostly concerned with where to obtain the innovation, how to implement it, and what operational issues will arise and how to address them. Implementation may entail modifications in the enterprise's management and/or a modification of the innovation to better suit the demands of the individual who adopts it.

Confirmation Stage

The choice to adopt or reject an innovation is not the final step in the decision-making process. The human mind is in a state of flux, and people are continuously assessing their surroundings. If the individual believes the invention regularly produces excellent or unsatisfactory results, he or she may continue to adopt or reject the innovation. The individual wants confirmation for their innovation decision at the confirmation function, but if they are exposed to a contradicting message regarding the innovation, they may change their prior decision. The confirmation stage lasts indefinitely after the adoption or rejection decision has been made. During the confirmation function, the individual tries to avoid or lessen internal disequilibrium or dissonance if it happens.

Dissonance : It is an unpleasant mental condition that the person wishes to lessen or eradicate. When a person is dissatisfied, he is usually motivated to improve his situation by changing his knowledge, attitude, or behaviours. This can happen in the following three approaches of dissonance reduction in the event of inventive behaviour: When a person becomes aware of a perceived need or problem and seeks information on ways to address it, such as through innovation. As a result, a receiver's awareness of a need for innovation can spur information-gathering regarding the invention. In the innovation-decision process, this happens at the knowledge stage.

When an individual learns about a new idea that he likes, the dissonance between what he believes and what he does motivates him to adopt the innovation. This behaviour occurs at the decision-making stage of the innovation process. After making the innovative decision to adopt, the person may obtain more knowledge that convinces him that he should not have adopted. Discontinuing the innovation may help to alleviate this dissonance. Alternatively, if he initially rejected the innovation, he may be exposed to pro-innovation messaging, resulting in cognitive dissonance that can be alleviated by acceptance. During the confirmation function of the innovation choice process, certain forms of behaviour (discontinuance or later adoption) occur.

These three ways of dissonance reduction involve modifying one's behaviour to bring one's attitudes and actions closer together.

Discontinuance : Discontinuance refers to a decision to reject something as innovative after previously adopting it. There are three types of discontinuity.

  1. Replacement discontinuance : It is the decision to reject a concept in favour of a better idea that takes its place. Hybrid varieties, for example, have an advantage over traditional varieties.

  2. Disenchantment discontinuance: It is the decision to reject a concept due to dissatisfaction with its execution. Crop varieties, for example, tend to decline over time. If superior kinds are available, they are replaced, or they may not be cultivated at all.

  3. Forced Discontinuance : Because of government policies, people are forced to stop doing what they've always done. Chemicals such as DDT and BHC, for example, have been outlawed by the government.

Q5) Name different types of consequences of innovations. Discuss desirable and undesirable consequences of innovations with suitable examples.

Ans) The changes that occur to an individual or a social system as a result of the adoption or rejection of an innovation are known as consequences. Despite their evident importance, change agents and diffusion scholars have paid insufficient attention to the repercussions of innovations.

Consequences have not been thoroughly investigated because:

  1. Change agencies have placed too much emphasis on adoption, expecting that the outcomes of an invention will be favourable.

  2. Consequences are typically difficult to measure, and traditional survey research methods may not be suited for researching them.

The classification of inventions into a taxonomy is one step toward a better understanding of their implications. Consequences do not have a one-dimensional nature. They come in a variety of shapes and sizes, and they can be conveyed in a variety of ways. We find that examining three dimensions of outcomes is beneficial:

  1. Desirable versus undesirable consequences

  2. Direct versus indirect consequences, and

  3. Anticipated versus unanticipated consequences.

Desirable versus Undesirable Consequences

The functional benefits of an innovation on an individual or a social system are known as desirable outcomes. The unfavourable repercussions of an innovation on a person or a societal system are known as undesirable consequences. The impact of the invention on the adopters determines whether the implications are functional or dysfunctional. An innovation can have ramifications for people who aren't its early adopters. Rejecters of a novel idea, for example, may be impacted because an innovation benefits other members of the system who embrace it, widening the socioeconomic divide between adopters and rejecters. Whether they are adopters or rejectors, everyone in a system is usually affected by the effects of technical innovation.

Consider the Internet, which benefits some people but hinders others due to the digital divide. An innovation may be useful for a system, but it may not be useful for certain of the system's users. The Green Revolution began with the adoption of miracle rice and wheat varieties in India and other countries in recent decades. Higher crop yields and farm earnings, as well as decreased consumer food prices, were key benefits for farmers and society.

The Green Revolution also resulted in a decrease in the number of farmers, as well as migration to slums in cities and increasing unemployment rates. Despite the fact that many people benefited, the Green Revolution resulted in unequal conditions for the system as a whole. So whether the effects are acceptable or unpleasant depends on whether the reference point is specific individuals or the entire system. With generalisation, we can say that the repercussions of an innovation are rarely manageable in terms of separating the good from the unwanted outcomes.

Innovators frequently benefit from a type of economic gain known as windfall profits as a result of being the first in the sector. The early adopters of a novel idea in a system gain a distinct advantage known as windfall profits. Their unit costs are often smaller, and their contributions to overall production have little impact on the product's selling price. However, when all members of a system adopt a new idea, overall production rises, and the product or service's price falls. To gain windfall profits, an innovator must take risks.

Not all new ideas succeed, and the innovator periodically gets his or her fingers burned. Adoption of an ineffective or non-economic innovation can result in "windfall losses" for the early adopters. The diffusion of pocket calculators is an example of windfall losses. The initial model, which was released in 1971 and cost $249, could only add, subtract, multiply, and divide. Within a year, the price of a four-function calculator had dropped to $100; within another year, it had dropped to $50; and within a decade, it had gone to less than $10. It shrank down to the size of a credit card. Waiting to adopt provided a windfall benefit to subsequent adopters in this situation.

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