top of page
MDV-110: Training and Development

MDV-110: Training and Development

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for MDV-110 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Training and Development, you have come to the right place. MDV-110 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in MADVS, MACSR courses of IGNOU.

Looking to download all solved assignment PDFs for your course together?

MDV-110 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity

Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: MDV-110/TMA/20121-22

Course Code: MDV-110

Assignment Name: Training and Development

Year: 2021-22

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Marks: 100

Q1) Discuss how to plan and carry out an effective training programme with an example.

Ans) Six Stages in Effective Training

Training that is successful is the result of rigorous planning and preparation. We'll go over training in six stages to execute it as part of an FPD project:

  1. Analyse training needs,

  2. Set clear training objectives,

  3. Design the training (e.g. the course agenda, trainer guides, training aids and handouts),

  4. Select participants and the venue,

  5. Carry out the training, and

  6. Evaluate the training.

Training Needs Assessment

A 'training needs assessment' (TNA) aids in the identification of a target group's educational requirements. Typically, project management has an opinion on what training would be required based on information gathered during the project's preparation and the project's planned activities. Semi-structured interviews (where there is a checklist of information needed that will be developed in a conversational approach with informants) and other participatory procedures can be used to obtain information for the TNA; questionnaires are best avoided in village environments. There are three parts to a TNA:

Characteristics of the Participants

  1. Level of education/literacy,

  2. Gender, age,

  3. Ethnic group/religion,

  4. Importance of poultry to livelihoods.

Existing Knowledge and Skills

  1. Disease control: awareness/use of medicines to treat poultry or use of vaccine,

  2. Housing: protection from predators, type of housing in use,

  3. Knowledge of improved breeds,

  4. Knowledge on any other subject on which training of this target group is being considered.


  1. What do they think about change to poultry production?

  2. What are their views on traditional medicine?

The TNA paints a picture of the current level of expertise and the training that is required to improve poultry keeping. The training requirements of FP keepers are clearly determined by their current management level and production restrictions at the time of training. The participants' expectations are crucial information to know. Expectations and training objectives should be well aligned for the course to be successful and the learners to be motivated.

We may define the training objectives once the TNA has provided a clearer understanding of the training needs and participant profiles.

Training Objectives

Following the TNA, the training's general goal should be put down, as well as specific training objectives, which should be described in terms of what the participants will be able to perform following the training. An excellent training goal is SMART, which means:

  1. Specific

  2. Measurable

  3. Achievable

  4. Realistic and

  5. Time-bound.

It concentrates on the information that participants require for their jobs. It is stated in terms of what the participants will be able to accomplish following the training.

Setting training objectives is an essential aspect of training design, and sufficient time should be spent defining 'SMART' objectives. The training course design follows defined training objectives. The objectives naturally provide the essential learning points for each training session, and the subtopics reveal what is pure theory (e.g. vaccination age) and what lends itself to practical instruction (e.g. how to vaccinate a bird).

Design the Training

  1. Begin with the training's goal and objectives. Keep referring back to the goal and objectives while you prepare the training materials to make sure you're on track.

  2. Make a list of all conceivable learning points that could lead to the training goals being met. Determine which are "need-to-know" and which are "nice-to-know."

  3. Keep the essentials and remember that the rest can be skipped if time is of the essence. Determine the optimal course duration.

  4. Divide the workout into sessions, each of which should be no more than 90 minutes long. Keep in mind that folks who aren't used to formal schooling can find a full day of instruction overwhelming. Be flexible with the agenda to accommodate local customs, such as prayer times.

  5. Make a training schedule for each session. Each training session must have a distinct training goal. Plan an introduction to the session (name the subject, summarise the objectives) as well as a summary of key learning points for the session's conclusion, to ensure that everyone is on the same page and to reinforce the points.

  6. Choose the training strategies you'll employ in each session. These must include a mix of talks.

PowerPoint presentations as well as interactive, participation events like:

  1. hands-on practice,

  2. role play,

  3. brainstorms, and

  4. group work where groups are set a question that they discuss and provide feedback in plenary, often using flip-chart paper.

Consider what practical possibilities are available when choosing training aids.

For example, if there is no stable electricity supply, flip-charts, blackboards, or whiteboards should be used instead. A session plan similar to the one above is created for each session and serves as the trainer's guide for that particular session. To keep things fresh, the mix of training methods used during the session changes from session to session. Chambers (2002) offers numerous proposals for ways of interactive training.

Select Participants and Venue

  1. The overall number of participants should allow for proper trainer monitoring (s). Having two trainers is good. The best group size for really practical instruction is 12. Up to 24 trainees are sufficient for more theoretical sessions.

  2. If group numbers reach these restrictions, it is difficult to ensure that everyone participates fully.

  3. Make sure women are involved, especially if they are the primary poultry keepers in the family. It may be important in some societies to train women apart from men and with female trainers. Consider this when putting together your workout schedule.

  4. Prior to the meeting, find out about the participants' past experience and expertise. You'll be able to draw on the expertise of some to assist with the training of others. This also helps individuals who are familiar with part of the material avoid boredom.

  5. Before training begins, visit the training place(s).

Consider Distractions:

  1. Make sure that you will not be standing in front of a window when training,

  2. Try sitting in different places in the room, and check that everyone will be able to see,

  3. Check where power points for any training aids like projectors are,

  4. Check that electrical equipment works properly,

  5. Make sure the room is quiet enough,

  6. If the climate is suitable, consider training outdoors, e.g. in the shade of a tree.

Space available for the activities planned:

  1. If you plan to do any energising games, will there be space in the middle of the room, or can you do them outside?

Get your materials ready:

  1. Make sure you have enough paper and pens,

  2. Consider handouts, flip-chart, projector, etc.

Consider seating alternatives.:

  1. Try to avoid the class-room approach with the tables in lines, like at school.

  2. A U-shape or circle is good,

  3. Group can sit around tables ‘café style.’

Carryout the Training

Try to stick to the schedule. Make a note if some sessions took longer or shorter than expected so that the agenda can be adjusted before repeating the process. Review the important concepts covered that day at the end of each training day. It's a good idea to name a participant at the beginning of the day who will deliver a summary of the day's training the next day.

Evaluate the Training

  1. The degree to which learners are able to learn and use the knowledge and skills acquired during training is referred to as training effectiveness. Training Evaluation measures the effectiveness of training in terms of reactions, learning, behaviour, and results of the training.

  2. The demand for training programme evaluation is increasing as funders and stakeholders in FPD projects want to know what was done with their money.

  3. What are the benefits of continuing to sponsor FPD training programmes? Is it true that the training programmes are effective? What steps will you take to improve or end ineffective FPD projects?

  4. What new training programmes should be put in place to satisfy the needs of FP keepers or to address the FPD's challenges? Training evaluation is critical for answering these concerns and for providing empirical indications for FPD project funding.

Distribute an evaluation form at the end of the course for participants to submit their thoughts on:

  1. he course objectives and relevance,

  2. The content of the course,

  3. Their opinion of the trainer(s),

  4. Their view on the venue and catering, and

  5. Any other comment.

The trainer(s) analyses the evaluation forms, and the results are used to improve the training content and delivery in the future.

Q2) Explain the four major training needs identification approaches with their advantages and disadvantages.

Ans) Different writers have recommended four major ways for identifying training needs. Below is a quick summary of each strategy.

Performance Analysis

This method focuses on determining the training's performance environment. The development manager in charge of human resource development, for example, must find a solution to the question, "What training can increase the job performance of village level development workers (VLWs)?" To obtain an answer to this question, one must first comprehend how VLWs effect a development organization's success at the village level, as well as examine their job performance.

VLWs' job performance components and techniques for improving them must be figured out. To answer the following questions, data must be acquired using methods such as interviews, observations, and case studies.

  1. What is the actual job performance of VLWs ?

  2. What is the expected job performance of VLWs?

  3. What is the gap between actual and expected job performance of VLWs?

  4. What are the reasons for gap in job performance?

  5. To what extent can training bridge the gap in job performance?

Based on the findings, we can design training programmes to improve the performance.

Advantages of performance analysis

  1. This strategy can be used to link work performance to knowledge and skill requirements.

  2. Training requirements can be prioritised and the impact of training requirements on work performance assessed.

Disadvantages of performance analysis

  1. It is costly, takes time, and requires skill.

Task Analysis

Task analysis is a popular and successful method for assessing training requirements. This style of training must be linked to training requirements and task performance. The development manager in charge of human resource development must answer the question, "What training do the VLWs require?" in this manner. Because the training must be based on the VLWs' job/task performance, an analysis of their tasks is required. As a result, this method necessitates a thorough examination of the jobs performed by various personnel.

Data must be gathered using methods such as interviews, case studies, and observation.

Advantages of task Analysis

  1. Activities, knowledge, and skills required to complete particular tasks are clearly identified.

  2. The influence of training can be linked to task performance, which is linked to staff productivity overall.

Disadvantages of task analysis

  1. It is a time-consuming and expensive procedure.

  2. Other elements affecting job performance in a given environment are not considered in this method.

Competency Study

A competency study is now the preferred tool for determining training needs.

In this strategy, the human resource development manager must answer the question, "What are the distinct traits needed for an efficient VLW, and how do we teach the VLW in these competencies?" Expert assistance will be sought in determining competencies.

As a result, under this strategy, data collecting to identify training needs will include discussions with experts.

Advantages of competency studies

  1. This method is relatively inexpensive and fast.

Disadvantages of competency studies

  1. Sometimes, it will not be possible to relate the competencies and skill requirements with job output and organizational performance.

Training Needs Survey

  1. Surveys are commonly used to identify training requirements. The opinions of people being questioned are used to determine training requirements.

  2. As a result, the human resource development manager must answer the question, "What training is required for VLWs?" To determine training needs, VLWs, supervisors, or clients will be consulted. The information will be gathered through a postal questionnaire, interviews, and small group sessions.

Advantages of training need survey

  1. This method is fast and inexpensive.

  2. A large number of people can participate in identifying training needs.

Disadvantages of training need survey

  1. Because the conclusions of the analysis are dependent on the opinions of respondents, they may be imprecise.

Q3) What is a training project? Describe training project formulation with the help of Logistic Framework Approach.

Ans) A training programme is a set of activities that includes taking one or more courses in order to increase one's performance, productivity, abilities, and knowledge. It's usually a low-cost, flexible-schedule endeavour.

Logistic Framework Approach in Training Project Formulation

The majority of donor organisations now need a logistic framework when submitting project applications. The logical frame work analysis is a method for promoting coherent conceptual thinking about what a project will accomplish and how it will accomplish it. It's logical because it makes internal connections between project goals, outcomes, and activities (inputs).

The steps for constructing a logical framework are listed below:

Step 1: Define the overall goal which the training project intends to achieve.

Step 2: Define the objectives (Purposes) to be achieved by the training project.

Step 3: Define outputs for achieving the objective

Step 4: Formulate activities for achieving each output.

Step 5: Define the assumptions that success in attaining one level's goal will contribute to accomplishing goals at the following level.

Step 6: At the aim, objective, output, and activity levels, define the Objectively Verifiable Indicator (OVI).

Contents of the Log Frame Matrix

Objective (Narrative Summary)

Objectively Verifiable Indicators

Means of Verification

Important Assumptions

Goal: (Development Objective)

What are the quantitative and qualitative methods for determining if these broad objectives have been met?

What information sources are available or can be offered at a reasonable cost?

What external elements are required to achieve long-term objectives?

Purpose: (Immediate Objectives)

What quantitative or qualitative evidence may be used to assess the achievement and distribution of impacts and benefits?

What sources of information are available or may be offered at a reasonable cost? Is it necessary to include collection in the inputs-outputs section?

What external conditions are required if the project's objective is to contribute to the attainment of the project's goal?

Outputs: Identify each of the project's outputs that will be produced in order to meet the project's goal.

What are the types and quantities of outputs that will be produced, and when will they be produced?

What are the information sources?

What are the issues outside of the project's control that, if not addressed, are likely to stymie progress from outputs to project goals?

Activities: List all of the tasks that must be completed in order to achieve the outcomes.

All activities should be accompanied by verifiable indicators. This is necessary for project reporting and monitoring in accordance with the Logical Framework.

What are the different types of information sources?

What external elements must be taken into account in order to meet deadlines for anticipated outputs? What kinds of decisions or acts outside the project's control are required for the project's genesis or completion?

The goal is to improve our understanding of health mortality.

By 2018, the child mortality rate had dropped from 50% to 30%.

Primary Health Care Center Records

Objective: Improve the health of children aged 0 to 5 years.

From —- percent to — percent, the percentage of deliveries made by trained individuals increased.

By 2018, the incidence of ARI and diarrhoea has decreased from —- percent to percent.

Records from hospitals and clinics

The death rate among children aged 0 to 5 years old has decreased.

Outputs: Improved health worker efficiency in immunisation programme delivery.

Health workers' ability to identify referral instances has improved.

By 2018, the immunisation rate has risen from — percent to —- percent.

The percentage of referral cases sent to a referral centre increased from —-9% to -%.

Attendance at the clinic. Register of patients at the hospital

When it comes to dealing with kid health care issues, health personnel became more efficient.

Training on antenatal care delivery is one of the activities. To provide hands-on instruction in how to perform aseptic deliveries and care for new-borns. To enhance knowledge on how to administer various vaccinations to children aged 0 to 5. To provide education on the treatment of respiratory infections and diarrhoea.

On child health care, health workers' knowledge grew from —- percent to —- percent. The ability of health workers to administer immunizations improved by —- percent. Health professionals' knowledge and skill in identifying referral cases of respiratory illness and diarrhoea improved by —- percent.

Interacting with the field visit unit and planning activities.

Health personnel are inspired to strive for the betterment of children's health.

Q4) Explain the factors that determine selection of training methods with suitable examples.

Ans) Broadly, the factors influencing training methods selection are:

Training Objectives

The sort of learning results expected from the training programme is defined by the training objectives. If the goal of training is to improve knowledge, approaches that allow you to explain concepts with examples in a logical order and review essential aspects will be most effective. The approaches that are appropriate for this purpose are given below.

  1. Reading assignment

  2. Lecture

  3. Audio and video tapes

  4. Case study

  5. Demonstration

  6. Group discussion

  7. Buzz session

  8. Brain storming

If the goal of training is to assist trainees in gaining new abilities, it is vital to select training techniques that will aid in the acquisition and practise of those skills, as well as delivering positive and negative feedback on the goal's achievement. The following are examples of appropriate techniques.

  1. Demonstration

  2. Role play

  3. Video tapes

  4. Structured exercise

  5. Workshop

The strategies that follow will be effective if the goal of training is to change attitudes, i.e., to assist trainees in acquiring new values, ideas, and advantages.

  1. Role play

  2. Case study

  3. Demonstration

  4. Field visit

  5. Film and video tapes

  6. Structured games and exercises

  7. Instrumented exercises

Subject Matter

The topic matter or contents have an impact on the training approach used.

For example, if the training's content is focused on theoretical or conceptual clarity, methods such as lectures, audio, and video cassettes, and reading assignments might be appropriate. Again, if the subject matter has only one correct answer and requires little argument, a lecture, audio, or film instruction technique will suffice. If the subject matter involves a controversial outcome, however, training methods such as group discussion, workshops, and case studies are appropriate.

Whether the training is meant to produce a general or specific degree of knowledge and expertise will also influence the training technique. For example, lectures, videos, and discussion may be used to establish a general level of pest control expertise. However, field demonstrations and on-the-job work experience may be used to build a certain degree of expertise and understanding in integrated pest management, for example.

Categories of Participants

A training method may vary according to the participants, learning style, their experience, and the size of the group:

Learning Styles: The four types of learners listed below require distinct sorts of orientation.

  1. Self-discovery methods, independent research, clinical experience, practical exercises, and interviewing are examples of accommodators.

  2. Group activities, brainstorming, role playing, stimulation, debate, and discussion approaches will pique the diverges' attention.

  3. Theoretical analysis, lectures, conceptual papers, and abstract problem solving are preferred by the assimilators.

  4. Demonstrations, problem-based learning, laboratory, and practical exercises are among the approaches available to converges.

Learners’ Experience: Understanding the educational level, age, and amount of fieldwork involvement of participants will aid in the selection of training approaches.

For clarification of higher-level concepts, participants with postgraduate qualifications may not be opposed to the lecture technique of self-study through reading. If the participants merely have a high school education and are working in the field, demonstration and on-the-job training would be the most acceptable training approaches.

Size of Group: One of the most essential criteria in determining the training approach is the size of the trainee group. If the simulation approach is to be used, for example, a minimum of eight to ten participants will be necessary. A good rule of thumb for determining the optimal number of participants for various training methods.

Resource Availability

When deciding on training methods, the availability of sufficient resources to carry out the programme must be taken into account. Before deciding on a method, the following questions should be addressed.

  1. Do the trainers have adequate skills on the methods being contemplated?

  2. Do you have the financial means to hire outside consultants?

  3. What resources are accessible for using demonstrations, audiovisual aids, and other forms of electronic media?

  4. Is it possible to undertake simulation methods at the training location?

  5. What about commercial audio and video resources linked to the subject of training that are available on the market?

  6. Do you have sufficient cash and time resources to build new resources?


In many circumstances, the participants only have a certain number of days to devote to training. As a result, trainers are pressed to cover a wide range of topics in the limited time allotted for instruction, which has an impact on the training style used. For example, the subject of motivation can be covered in one hour using the lecture technique. However, it takes at least six to eight hours to teach motivation through trial tasks. The ideal amount of time to devote to various training methods.


The location of the training programme has a significant impact on the training methods used. The majority of training takes place in a classroom setting.

Field-based training programmes, on the other hand, may limit the use of facilities that are readily available in the classroom. Furthermore, if the training takes place outside of the training organisation, it will be difficult to use the training facilities that are accessible within the training organisation.


If money is not an issue, a method that is acceptable for the learning objectives might be used. If sufficient funds are not available, however, one must make do with the best alternative approach that fits within budgetary constraints. Who will pay for the training? The fact that it is borne by the participants or by the training organisation will influence the training methods chosen. Participants who cover the entire program's costs are more likely to arrive with a higher level of motivation and expectations. Such participants are likely to expect some visible results or impact on their job performance as a result of the training.

Participants whose training expenses are covered by the training organisation and who are sent for training as a ritual or a routine affair may lack sufficient incentive to learn. For this group of individuals, participatory training approaches will be useful in increasing their motivation and participation. Aside from these concerns, the trainer must also take into account other factors while selecting training methods.

Other Considerations

The option to provide opportunities for practise, interaction, and feedback will also influence the training approach chosen. The range of training approaches in terms of participation, possibilities, and feedback.

Q5) Discuss the salient features of National Training Policy 2012.

Ans) The Department of Personnel and Training (DoPT) is the Government of India's focal department for matters concerning training and policy. The National Training Policy was created in 1996 to fulfil this purpose. The strategy was revised in conjunction with all ministries and departments in light of the changing environment and growing difficulties, and the National Training Policy - 2012 was created. The following are the key characteristics of the National Training Policy - 2012:


In April 1996, the National Training Policy was released as part of a set of Operational Guidelines for the development of the government's human resources. This came when the economy was liberalised through deregulation and delicensing, which began in 1991, and the 73rd and 74th Amendments to the Constitution, which went into effect in 1993, establishing the third tier of government at the Panchayat and Municipal levels. These, as well as other changes since then, such as rapid economic growth, devolution of funds, functions, and functionaries to Panchayats and Municipalities, increased transparency through the right to information, globalisation, climate change, and extremism, have created a complex and challenging environment in which the civil service must operate at a time when there are increasing expectations of its performance and ability to respond more efficiently and effectively.

Government personnel administration systems continue to be primarily concerned with the rules and procedures regulating civil service recruitment, retention, and advancement. Systematic civil servant training has remained primarily reserved for the upper civil services, with a large percentage of Group B and C staff receiving infrequent, if any, training. The training of officials in Panchayat and Municipal governments has become a critical priority since the establishment of the third tier of government. Moving to a strategic human resource management system, which views the individual as a valuable resource to be appreciated, motivated, developed, and empowered to fulfil the Ministry/Department/goal Organisation's and objectives, is critical for modernising the civil service. Individual competencies must be matched to the jobs they must perform as part of this transformational process, and competency gaps for present and future positions must be bridged through training.

Competency Framework

Competencies are made up of knowledge, skills, and behaviour. required in a person to properly fulfil the duties of a position Competencies can be classified into two types: basic skills and advanced skills. For example, civil servants would need to be proficient in a variety of areas. various functions or levels Some of these skills are related to leadership. project management, financial management, people management, information technology communication and management The second set of skills relates to the professional or specialised talents relevant for specialised duties such as road construction, irrigation projects, flood control, etc. Civil aviation, medical treatment, and other services The competency framework's basic tenet is that each job should be unique. be carried out by someone who possesses the necessary skills for the job. Training has typically been centred on the responsibilities of a specific position. There hasn't been a thorough assessment or classification of all of the posts in in accordance with the duties to be performed and the needed abilities thither.

As a result, the question of whether or not a person possesses the requisite skills arises. The ability to carry out the duties of a position has not been addressed. For relocating It would be necessary to classify the competencies in order to use a competency-based approach. to distinguish between different sorts of jobs and to specify the skills needed to fill them work in these positions Once the competences have been established, an individual's performance can be measured. The development of skills can be more objectively related to the skills required for the job. jobs now or in the future Career advancement and placement must be based on these factors. matching an individual's skills to the requirements of a job. The instruction Each Ministry's/Department's/plan Organisation's must address the disparity between the two. give opportunity for the existing and desired competencies personnel to improve their abilities.

Training Objectives

The goal of the training will be to create a civil service that is professional, unbiased, and responsive to the requirements of the population. In doing so, special attention will be paid to the development of proper ethics, job commitment, and empathy for vulnerable groups such as the differently abled, senior persons, and the socially disadvantaged. The competency framework will be used to ensure that government officials have the necessary knowledge, skills, and attitude to fulfil their duties effectively. The effectiveness of training will be determined by how well civil workers perform.

Training Target

  1. a)     All civil servants will receive training to ensure that they have the skills they need for their present or future roles. The following training will be provided:

  2. i)       At the time of their entry into service, and

  3. ii)     At appropriate intervals in the course of their careers.

  4. b)     All civil officials, from the lowest level functionaries to the highest ones, will have access to such training.

  5. c)     Training will not be limited to specified points in a career but will be available to fulfil requirements as they occur through a combination of traditional courses, distance learning, and digital learning.

  6. d)     Front-line staff training, particularly soft skills training, would be prioritised in order to increase customer orientation and the quality-of-service delivery to people.

Role of Ministries/Departments

Each Ministry/Department shall adopt a Systematic Approach to Training and shall:

  1. Appoint a Training Manager to serve as the Ministry/Nodal Department's Person for the training function's implementation.

  2. To help the Training Manager, create a Training Cell including HR and Capacity Building Professionals.

  3. All positions should be classified with a clear job description and needed competences.

  4. Develop Cadre Training Plans (CTPs) based on required competencies and training needs to ensure that all cadres under the Ministry/Department or its attached/subordinate offices have a clearly articulated scheme for the development of their capabilities, as well as a list of mandated programmes.

  5. Individuals' training and competency growth should be linked to their career progression, and this should be ensured by revising service rules or issuing administrative instructions.

  6. Ascertain that any non-training interventions that are required to complement training interventions are properly implemented.

  7. Make the immediate supervisor responsible for the training of the employees that work under him;

  8. Include a provision in each new plan to guarantee that necessary training is provided to ensure its proper implementation and long-term viability;

  9. Use the Training Institutions' services to design cadre training programmes, outsource training, and/or provide advice or consultancy services to the Ministry wherever possible.

  10. Prepare an annual training schedule for all cadres under its command;

  11. Implement the Annual Training Plan (ATP), either through the institutions under it or from outside sources, such that internal training capacity is not a barrier to the plan's implementation;

  12. Appropriate funding should be set aside to allow the training to be carried out by either internal or external institutions.

  13. Include a section in the Ministry's annual report detailing training and capacity-building activities carried out over the year;

  14. Provide new entrants with induction training and create and post induction materials to the Ministry/website Department's for easy access; organise 'On the Job' and 'In House' training as needed.

Role of Training Institutions

The training system's heart is made up of government training institutions. They really are. Expertise distilled from the real world is stored in these repositories. The level of quality and What their trainees impart and how they function has a direct impact on what they imbue and how they function. take them with you They will continue to be the primary source of civil servant training. Given their position, they must assume leadership roles in the process. facilitating learning and transformation They ought to:

  1. Have the necessary personnel, facilities, and funds to carry out their duties;

  2. Through a process of self-assessment and benchmarking, strive to become examples of excellence in the quality of the training they provide and as learning organisations.

  3. Provide technical help and guidance in the creation of the Ministry's/yearly Department's training plans, as well as in the outsourcing of training (where necessary).

  4. Assist Ministries/Departments in the process of transitioning to a competency-based framework for training (where applicable);

  5. Assimilate technology in order to provide its clients with the ability to learn anywhere, at any time;

  6. Distance and eLearning courses can be used to supplement their current programmes.

  7. Conduct field research and field studies as part of the process of becoming knowledge repositories in their sectoral or functional specialisations (where appropriate).

  8. Provide (as needed) advising and/or consulting services;

  9. Collaboration with other universities to share learning resources, skills, and experience;

  10. Facilitate the creation of domain-specific trainers, as well as tenure security and possibilities for academic advancement;

  11. Ensure that all new trainers are deputed to the institute as soon as feasible to participate in "Training of Trainers" programmes;

  12. Maintain a database of trained personnel for future reference; place a special emphasis on behavioural and attitude training.

Trainer Development

The Trainer Formation Programme (TDP) is one of the most effective examples of learning transfer under a donor initiative that resulted in the development of a cadre of trainers. Its effectiveness has been supported by the concept of "once a trainer, always a trainer," which was enunciated in the National Training Policy of 1996. The Trainer Development Program, on the other hand, is built on curriculum and content that have been established over the last three decades. While the fundamental principles of learning have not changed, there have been advancements in training methodologies, particularly in the use of technology to enable and facilitate large-scale teaching. It is critical to discover current international best practises in training skills and methodologies, as well as to establish a cadre of trainers in these areas.

There is also a need to establish a Learning Resources Centre (LRC), particularly under the auspices of an appropriate public-private partnership, in order to develop long-term indigenous capability in this field. Trainer certification under the Trainer Development Program must be renewable and based on them actually performing a certain number of training programmes as well as attending courses to improve their abilities. While the Trainer Development Program has evolved through time to focus on training techniques and skills, the development of domain-specific trainers has largely been overlooked. Given the abundance of training institutions in all sectors of government operation, it is desirable to build trainer cadres in various sectoral and functional specialities.

Different Ministries/Departments will have to take the lead in developing such trainers in their respective areas.

In acknowledgment of the importance of this duty and to recruit a larger spectrum of officers to this function, the Sixth Central Pay Commission has recommended considerable incentives for Central Training Institutions for Group A officers, such as a 30% Training Allowance, rent-free housing, and so on. It is suggested that state governments offer comparable incentives to state training institution faculty.

Foreign Training

Foreign education fills a critical need in the educational system. It allows officers to obtain exposure to the most up-to-date thinking on a variety of topics at some of the world's most prestigious institutions. It exposes students to the experiences and best practises of countries with varying development and governance approaches. Since 2001, the Domestic Funding for Foreign Training (DFFT) initiative has become the primary means by which officers are sent abroad for training.

The DFFT plan, as well as other comparable schemes run by various cadre regulating agencies, must be continued, and strengthened so that officers can participate in both long- and short-term programmes to build in-depth skills in a variety of subjects/areas or specific specialised subjects.

This is especially crucial for officers who are expected to assume positions at the highest levels of government, because they must be aware of and consider the broader global context as well as international best practises when formulating policies.


Each ministry, department, or organisation is responsible for providing sufficient funding to meet the training requirements. The National Training Policy of 1996 recommended that each department set aside 1.5 percent of its wage budget for the express purpose of training. Given the probable rise in the requirement for training as a result of the transition to a competency-based system, each Ministry/Department/Organization should set aside at least 2.5 percent of its pay budget for training.

Training for Urban and Rural Development

By prescribing constitutionally mandated devolution of powers and resources to the Panchayati Raj Institutions and Urban Local Bodies as the third tier of government, the 73rd and 74th Amendments of the Constitution resulted in a radical change in the status of the Panchayati Raj Institutions and Urban Local Bodies. These institutions are crucial for the development of rural and urban areas, as well as the provision of a variety of essential services to citizens. The national flagship programmes for rural and urban development have emphasised the importance of building capacity in rural and urban institutions in order to effectively implement the programmes.

Functionaries of rural and urban local governments must have the necessary skills to do their jobs effectively, hence training is critical. Officers of the IAS and State Civil Services must be familiar with grassroots institutions of rural and urban administration because they play such a vital role in the administrative structure at all levels. Trainees may be provided 'hands on experience' at grass root level administration in Panchayati Raj Institutions and Urban Local Bodies by posting them as Executive Officers of Gram Panchayats/Municipalities for a sufficient period, as in the case of attachment with other Departments.

This arrangement could be developed within the broader context of the 'Syllabus Review Committee' suggestions for induction training. Similar attachments may be considered by the State Government for inclusion in the training programme of State Civil Service probationers. Capacity building in rural and urban development is suggested in the following areas: Rural Development: Rural Sociology, Rural Development/Welfare Programs, Rural Planning, Agricultural Marketing and Agricultural Finance, Rural Industries, Rural Cooperatives, Conflict Management in Rural Areas; Urban Development: Decentralization and Urban Governance, Urban Land Issues, Urban Environment, Urban Transportation, Urban Planning and Infrastructure Development, Urban Poverty and Social Development.

Implementation and Coordination

A National Training Council will be established, chaired by the Minister of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions, to provide overall guidance for the execution of this Policy. A Committee chaired by the Secretary, Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions, and consisting of the Secretaries of the Departments of Urban Development and Rural Development, Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances, the Director of the LBSNAA, and three representatives each of the State and Central Training Institutes shall be formed to monitor the implementation of the National Training Policy and to take appropriate steps to facilitate it. The Committee will meet twice a year. The Department of Public Instruction's Training Division will serve as the policy's nodal agency, issuing relevant instructions to amplify and assist its implementation.

Development of Competency Framework: With the shift to a competency-based framework for human resource management, including training, the Training Division will need to strengthen its own capacity (in terms of staff and competencies) to be able to provide leadership in detailing the manner in which the work is to be done, providing guidance and handholding support to Ministries and Departments, and monitoring progress to ensure that the quality standards in developing.

Capacity Building for National Flagship Programmes: National Flagship Programmes like the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM), Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme (MGNREGP), National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), and Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) are devoting considerable sums for capacity building. In this situation, it's even more critical to make sure that training/capacity-building programmes are well-conceived, planned, administered, and evaluated so that the money spent serves the intended purpose. The Training Division would have to take the lead in improving the competencies of Ministry Training Managers so that they can better support and guide their Ministries in the design and implementation of capacity-building programmes.

Through the creation/augmentation of training infrastructure, faculty development, and outsourcing of training, the Training Division must give technical support to the Ministries concerned and the States in the formulation of need-based training programmes. Many states already have great infrastructure in place, including top-tier training institutes, SIRDs, and SIUDs. Synergy can be produced with state ATIs by good coordination, allowing existing capacities to be optimally utilised.

Distance and E Learning: Distance learning and e-learning offer unrivalled prospects for satisfying the training demands of a huge number of civil servants spread across the country in various cities, towns, and villages. By partnering with IGNOU to promote distant learning in a wide range of subjects and courses, the Training Division has taken a significant step in this direction. Technology allows users to access a wide library of learning materials and courses over the internet, giving them a great deal of choice and flexibility in their learning.

The Training Division must take the lead in ensuring that institutions make training courses/material available through an E Learning Portal as well as more traditional remote learning means. The portal would serve as a platform for bringing together a variety of government and non-government training institutions in order to provide a single point of entry to a repository of training resources. The Training Division should also create databases of available training materials, such as calendars of training programmes at various institutions, faculty in various areas, and so on.

Capacity Building in States: State Training Policies: It is proposed that each state develop/adopt a training policy based on and similar to the new National Training Policy so that training can be performed in a formal, articulated framework at the state level. This would allow states to prepare an action plan for educating state civil servants, which would include identifying institutions, training programmes, and trainers, among other things. The Training Division may create a model State Training Policy to aid States in the formulation of training policies.

State Administrative Institutes (ATIs) Play a Key Role: It is proposed that state governments designate the State Administrative Training Institutes as the state's Apex Training Institutions and empower them to coordinate training across sectors and departments. Furthermore, the ATIs must be bolstered with sufficient funding, infrastructure, people, and decision-making authority. Support from the Training Division: The Training Division continues to play a critical role in assisting the States in developing their training capacity. It must be given with sufficient finances to support need-based training programmes that the states may propose. It should pay special attention to the following:

  1. Supporting the establishment of decentralised training infrastructure (at the divisional, district, and sub-district levels), as well as trainers at those levels;

  2. Specifically supporting training of civil servants at the grassroots level, including Panchayat functionaries, to improve service delivery by upgrading their skills and knowledge and improving their responsiveness in meeting citizens' needs by strengthening and empowering State training institutions (including improving the quality of faculty selection and development).

Monitoring and Evaluation

Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is a useful tool for governments and organisations to improve the way they achieve objectives. According to research, rigorous monitoring and assessment of training programmes improves the efficiency of training and development. Training cannot remain an act of faith in the age of globalisation and competition. It must be able to show a positive return on investment.

Evaluation of training efficacy is a critical yet difficult part of training administration. In many training institutes, evaluation is confined to post-course surveys in which learners are asked to remark on the course, teacher, and training materials. This is insufficient to determine if training expenditures are reasonable. As a result, comprehensive impact evaluation must be embedded in the training eco system, where evaluation is not limited to the quality of training programmes or the learning gained by participants, but also includes changes in job behaviour as a result of the programme, its impact on organisational effectiveness, and an increase in client/citizen satisfaction.

Role of Training Division

  1. Monitoring the National Training Policy's implementation

  2. Maintain a database of several Ministries/Departments' training and development initiatives.

  3. Issue periodic advises to ensure that training programmes are conducted using a "Systematic Approach to Training" and that Ministries/Departments and training institutions in the area have the capacity to do so.

  4. Ensure that Training Managers are appointed to all Central Government Ministries and Departments, that their capacity is built, and that they work closely with them.

Role of Ministry/Department

Develop a Training Management Information System (TMIS) to help the Ministry/Department with its training and development efforts. Conduct a benchmarking/evaluation study of training institutions under the Ministry's/authority Department's in order to transform them into Centers of Excellence. Commission surveys/studies to determine the level of client/customer satisfaction with the Ministry's/services.

Department's Examine the Annual Training Plan, Cadre Training Plan, and the operation of Training Institutions (including attached/subordinate offices) under the Ministry/Department, with a focus on the following:

  1. Adequacy of physical and training infrastructure, faculty, finances, and delegation of powers for carrying out the institutes' mandate; Utilization of training capacity; Quality of training conducted; Adequacy of physical and training infrastructure, faculty, finances, and delegation of powers for carrying out the institutes' mandate;

  2. Proper selection and development of professors, incentives for them, and tenure stability for Group B and C employees, particularly those at the cutting-edge level (where applicable). The selected faculty's behaviour and character should reflect the principles and ideals taught in the classroom.

  3. Role of Training Institution

  4. Keep track of the most recent and international training and development trends and replicate/assimilate them in the Indian setting.

  5. Assess and appraise trainers'/faculty members' performance as trainers/faculty members' skills in new and emerging training techniques and methodologies on a regular basis.

  6. Review and adapt curricula, material, and training approaches on a regular basis to account for training feedback and client demands;

  7. Set up a systematic approach for evaluating training programmes and assessing their impact on individual performance over time; and

  8. Conduct evaluation studies to determine the influence of the company's training programmes on organisational performance.

100% Verified solved assignments from ₹ 40  written in our own words so that you get the best marks!
Learn More

Don't have time to write your assignment neatly? Get it written by experts and get free home delivery

Learn More

Get Guidebooks and Help books to pass your exams easily. Get home delivery or download instantly!

Learn More

Download IGNOU's official study material combined into a single PDF file absolutely free!

Learn More

Download latest Assignment Question Papers for free in PDF format at the click of a button!

Learn More

Download Previous year Question Papers for reference and Exam Preparation for free!

Learn More

Download Premium PDF

Assignment Question Papers

Which Year / Session to Write?

Get Handwritten Assignments

bottom of page