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MDV-111: Local Self Governance and Development

MDV-111: Local Self Governance and Development

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for MDV-111 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Local Self Governance and Development, you have come to the right place. MDV-111 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in MADVS, MACSR courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: MDV-111 / TMA / July 2022 – January 2023

Course Code: MDV-111

Assignment Name: Local Self Governance and Development

Year: 2022 - 2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Answer all the questions. Each question carries 20 marks.


Q 1. What are the problems faced by the women leaders of marginalized sections in Panchayati Raj Institutions? Explain the need for capacity-building of women leaders.

Ans) Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) were established in India with the aim of decentralized governance and empowering marginalized communities, including women. Despite this, women leaders in PRIs continue to face numerous challenges that limit their ability to effectively lead and bring about positive change in their communities.


One of the main problems faced by women leaders in PRIs is a lack of recognition and support from male counterparts and the community at large. This often results in women leaders being marginalized and excluded from decision-making processes. In many cases, women leaders are not even given the respect and authority that they deserve, leading to their ideas and initiatives being disregarded.


Another significant challenge is the lack of resources and capacity building opportunities. Women leaders in PRIs often lack the necessary training and skills to effectively discharge their duties and responsibilities. They are not equipped with the knowledge and technical know-how to design and implement effective development programs and projects. This often results in poorly planned and executed programs that do not effectively address the needs of the community.


The issue of gender-based violence is also a major hindrance for women leaders in PRIs. Female leaders who try to assert their authority and bring about change often face resistance and retaliation in the form of physical, verbal or sexual abuse. This not only makes it difficult for women to carry out their duties but also creates a sense of fear and insecurity among women who may consider entering politics.


In addition to these challenges, women leaders in PRIs also face systemic barriers that prevent them from effectively participating in politics and decision-making processes. These include discriminatory laws, policies and practices, lack of access to resources and information, and limited representation in political institutions.

Need for Capacity-Building Women Leaders

Despite these challenges, there is a growing recognition of the need to support and empower women leaders in PRIs. This is because of the role they play in promoting gender equality and empowering marginalized communities. Women leaders bring a unique perspective and experience to the table, which can lead to the implementation of more effective and inclusive development programs. To address these challenges, it is crucial to implement capacity-building programs for women leaders in PRIs. These programs should be designed to provide women with the knowledge, skills and resources they need to effectively discharge their duties and responsibilities. They should focus on areas such as leadership, governance, financial management, and project planning and implementation.


Capacity building programs should also be designed to address the specific needs of women leaders, taking into account their experiences, challenges and limitations. For example, programs aimed at addressing gender-based violence should focus on building the confidence and leadership skills of women leaders, so that they can effectively address violence in their communities. In addition to capacity building programs, it is also important to provide women leaders with access to resources and information. This can include training on the use of new technologies and information management systems, as well as access to development-related data and information. Another critical aspect of empowering women leaders in PRIs is ensuring that they are represented and involved in decision-making processes. This can be achieved through the implementation of gender-sensitive policies and practices that ensure equal representation and participation of women in political institutions.


In conclusion, women leaders in PRIs play a critical role in promoting gender equality and empowering marginalized communities. However, they continue to face numerous challenges that limit their ability to effectively lead and bring about positive change. It is therefore crucial to implement capacity building programs and other support mechanisms that empower women leaders and address the specific needs and challenges they face. By doing so, we can create a more inclusive and equitable society where women have equal opportunities to participate in governance and bring about positive change in their communities.


Q 2. What do you understand by Parallel Bodies? What are the factors responsible for the growth of parallel bodies?

Ans) Parallel bodies refer to organizations or groups that operate outside the formal governance structures and systems established by the state. These bodies may have similar or overlapping functions as the formal governance structures, but they operate independently and often have their own leadership and decision-making processes. Parallel bodies are groups set up by communities and government departments to carry out the same set of responsibilities at the same time. In the same area, the Panchayati Raj institutions were set up by the constitution to carry out the same set of responsibilities. Parallel bodies are vehicles with a specific goal that are used to run programmes from both the central and state governments. For effective implementation of schemes and programmes, the centrally sponsored schemes of the central ministries have come up with specific ways to set up focused committees. The main argument in this case is that even though Panchayati Raj institutions have been set up and are required by the constitution to help with development and social justice at the local level, centrally funded schemes, MLAs, and MPs tend to go around them.


Factors Responsible for the Growth of Parallel Bodies


Participation of Beneficiaries: with the launching of the Minimum Needs Programmes in the Fifth Five Year Plan, both the Central and State governments, as well as various national and international agencies are investing a lot of money in socio-economic development. These organisations have village committees and groups to make these programmes work. JFMs and water user groups are examples (WUGs). Even though the Eleventh Schedule covers minor irrigation, water management and watershed development, and minor forest produce, PRIA found that these bodies operate independently. Participant lists and project implementation are underway. They also hinder PRIs in other ways. Gujarati JFM committees and village panchayats disagree on who should manage minor forest products.


Provision of Technical Input/ Expertise: customarily, Panchayati Raj institutions, in general, and village panchayats, in particular, do not have technical experts to handle projects and programme. Because there wasn't enough expertise, governments and outside donor agencies set up these bodies to make sure that projects and programmes got done. But it is clear that instead of helping and empowering PRIs, these bodies have turned into parallel bodies that make it harder for PRIs to grow and become more powerful. Because the elected bodies don't have enough technical people, these groups have been supported and have gained ground in both rural and urban municipal areas. The number of parallel bodies is limited by the development of technical and human resources in local self-government institutions.


Ensure Efficiency: the third important function of parallel bodies is its efficiency in the implementation of developmental projects. Putting power in the hands of the Panchayati Raj bodies without developing their skills at the same time has led to the creation of parallel bodies. Parallel bodies have been able to interfere with the work of PRIs because they work well and efficiently.


Non-existence of Statutory Committees: the growth of parallel bodies can be attributed to the non-existence of statutory committees such as an Education Committee, Health Committee, or Production Committee at different levels of local self-government. Besides, even where they do exist, these committees are not adequately empowered to carry out the duties and responsibilities assigned to them by the State Panchayati Raj Act. The parallel bodies are virtually performing all the duties and responsibilities of these committees.


Bureaucratic Control Mechanism: Most bureaucracies don't want to empower local self-government. They prefer parallel bodies to PRIs for programme implementation. They usually think PRIs can't manage projects and programmes. They indirectly oppose PRI power. Thus, parallel bodies grow because they need government assistance. Jannabhoom in Andhra Pradesh ranks high. Janmabhoom addressed all local issues related to local institutions and government programmes, according to PRIA. It also secretly took over Panchayat duties.


Q 3. Explain the importance and need for capacity- building of local self-government representatives. Describe various principles of capacity building.

Ans) Capacity-building refers to the process of developing and strengthening the skills, knowledge, and abilities of individuals and organizations to effectively perform their tasks and fulfil their responsibilities. Reasons why local self-government representatives need capacity-building:

  1. Improved decision-making: With adequate capacity-building, local self-government representatives can make informed decisions that are in the best interest of their constituents. This can lead to more effective policies and programs that address the needs and priorities of the community.

  2. Enhanced accountability: Capacity-building can help local self-government representatives understand their roles and responsibilities, and the importance of being accountable to the community. This can help to improve transparency and reduce corruption in local government.

  3. Better service delivery: By improving the knowledge and skills of local self-government representatives, the quality of services provided to the community can be improved. This can include better infrastructure, improved access to basic services, and more responsive and effective governance.

  4. Increased participation: Capacity-building can help to increase the participation of local self-government representatives in decision-making processes and consultations. This can lead to more inclusive and democratic governance, and a better understanding of the needs and priorities of the community.

  5. Strengthened partnerships: By improving the capacity of local self-government representatives, partnerships with other organizations and stakeholders can be strengthened. This can help to ensure that resources are used effectively, and that policies and programs are implemented in a coordinated and efficient manner.


Finally, it is important to monitor and evaluate capacity-building efforts to ensure that they are effective and contributing to the improvement of local governance. This can involve conducting regular assessments of the skills, knowledge, and abilities of local self-government representatives, and adjusting capacity-building efforts accordingly.


Principles of Capacity Building

  1. Do not rush. Capacity development is a long-term process: It is not amenable to delivery pressures, quick fixes and short-term results seeking. Engagement for CD needs to have a long-term horizon and be reliable.

  2. Respect the value systems and foster self-esteem: The imposition of alien values can undermine confidence. Capacity development requires respect. Self-esteem is at the root of capacity and empowerment.

  3. Scan locally and globally; reinvent locally: There are no blueprints. Capacity development means learning. Learning is a voluntary process that requires genuine commitment and interest. Knowledge transfer is no longer seen as the relevant modality. Knowledge needs to be acquired.

  4. Challenge mindsets and power differentials: Capacity development is not power neutral and challenging vested interest is difficult. Frank dialogue and moving from closed curtains to a collective culture of transparency is essential to promote a positive dynamic for overcoming them.

  5. Think and act in terms of sustainable capacity outcomes: Capacity is at the core of development. Any course of action needs to promote this end. Responsible leaders can inspire their institutions and societies to effectively work toward capacity development.

  6. Establish positive incentives: Distortions in public sector employment are major obstacles to CD. Ulterior motives and perverse incentives need to be aligned with the objective of capacity development. Governance systems respectful of fundamental rights are a powerful incentive.

  7. Integrate external inputs into national priorities, processes and systems: External inputs need to correspond to real demand and need to be flexible to respond effectively to national needs and possibilities. Where such systems are not strong enough, they need to be reformed and strengthened, not bypassed.

  8. Build on existing capacities rather than creating new ones: This implies the use of national expertise as prime option, resuscitation and strengthening of national institutions and protecting social and cultural capital.

  9. Stay engaged under difficult circumstances: The weaker the capacity, the greater the need. Weak capacities are not an argument for withdrawal or for driving external agendas. People should not be hostage to irresponsible

  10. Remain accountable to ultimate beneficiaries: Even where national governments are not responding to the needs of their people, external partners need to be accountable to beneficiaries and contribute to ownership by national authorities. Sensible approaches in concrete situations need to be openly discussed and negotiated with national stakeholders.


Q 4. Discuss the key features of the 74th Constitutional Amendment and its implementations in urban local bodies.

Ans) The 74th Constitutional Amendment Act, also known as the Nagar Palika Act, was enacted in 1992 to provide for the decentralization of powers and responsibilities to urban local bodies (ULBs) in India.


The key features of this amendment are as follows:

  1. Creation of Urban Local Bodies: The amendment provides for the creation of ULBs such as Nagar Panchayats, Municipal Councils, and Municipal Corporations in urban areas. These ULBs are empowered to exercise powers and perform functions related to local governance.

  2. Composition of ULBs: The ULBs are composed of elected representatives, who are directly elected by the people, and nominated members who represent specific interest groups.

  3. Powers and Functions: The ULBs are empowered to perform a wide range of functions such as water supply, sewerage and sanitation, waste management, planning and development, health and education, and regulation of land use and construction.

  4. Financial Powers: The ULBs have the power to levy taxes and fees, and to access loans and grants from the state and central governments. They also have the power to prepare their own budgets and to manage their own finances.

  5. Elected Mayors: The ULBs have an elected Mayor who serves as the chief executive officer and represents the ULB. The Mayor is elected by the members of the ULB and has executive and ceremonial powers.

  6. State Election Commission: The amendment provides for the establishment of a State Election Commission to oversee and conduct elections to the ULBs.

  7. Decentralized Planning: The amendment provides for decentralized planning and gives the ULBs the power to prepare their own development plans and to implement them.

  8. Reservation of Seats: The amendment provides for reservation of seats for women and other marginalized groups in the ULBs, to ensure their representation and participation in local governance.


Implementation in Urban Local Bodies

The implementation of the 74th Amendment in urban local bodies has been a mixed experience, with some successes and challenges.


Some of the major successes include:

  1. Increased Participation: The amendment has led to an increase in the participation of people in local governance, as they are able to elect their representatives and participate in the decision-making process.

  2. Improved Service Delivery: The ULBs have been able to improve the delivery of basic services such as water supply, sewerage and sanitation, and waste management, as they have been empowered to perform these functions.

  3. Decentralized Planning: The amendment has enabled the ULBs to prepare their own development plans, leading to a more participatory and inclusive approach to planning and development.


However, there have also been several challenges in the implementation of the 74th Amendment, including:

  1. Lack of Resources: Many ULBs face a shortage of resources, both financial and human, which has hindered their ability to effectively perform their functions and deliver services.

  2. Political Interference: The ULBs have often been subject to political interference, which has hampered their ability to function independently and effectively.

  3. Inadequate Implementation: The implementation of the amendment has been inadequate in many states, with the ULBs not being given the necessary powers and resources to effectively perform their functions.

  4. Lack of Awareness: There is a lack of awareness among the people about the powers and functions of the ULBs, leading to a lack of participation and accountability.

  5. Limited Representation: Despite the provision for reservation of seats for women and other marginalized groups, their representation in the ULBs remains limited, and they continue to face challenges in participating in local governance.


Q 5. Why has Public Private Partnership Model become so important? Enumerate the types of Public Private Partnership Models available.

Ans) The Public Private Partnership (PPP) model has become increasingly important in recent years due to the increasing demands on public services and infrastructure, as well as limited government resources. The PPP model provides a way for the government to leverage private sector expertise, resources, and capital to improve the delivery of public services and infrastructure.


One of the key advantages of the PPP model is that it allows the government to transfer the risk of delivering and financing public services and infrastructure to the private sector. This means that the private sector is responsible for financing, designing, building, operating and maintaining the assets, while the government retains the ownership and control over the assets. This reduces the burden on government finances and allows the government to focus on its core responsibilities.


Another advantage of the PPP model is that it brings private sector efficiency and innovation to the delivery of public services and infrastructure. The private sector is motivated by profit, and therefore has a strong incentive to optimize the delivery of services and infrastructure in a cost-effective and efficient manner. This can lead to improved quality and performance of public services and infrastructure, which can ultimately benefit the public.


In addition, the PPP model can also help to attract foreign investment, particularly in developing countries where there may be limited domestic investment capital available. This can help to stimulate economic growth and create employment opportunities, which can have a positive impact on local communities.


Finally, the PPP model provides a mechanism for the government to monitor and regulate the performance of the private sector, to ensure that the public services and infrastructure are delivered in an effective and efficient manner. The government can specify performance targets and quality standards and use contractual arrangements to enforce these requirements.


Types of Public Private Partnership Models

  1. Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) Model: In this model, the private sector is responsible for financing, designing, building and operating the infrastructure or service, and then transferring ownership and control back to the public sector at the end of the concession period. This model is commonly used for large-scale infrastructure projects such as roads, bridges and airports.

  2. Build-Own-Operate (BOO) Model: In this model, the private sector is responsible for financing, designing, building, and operating the infrastructure or service, and retains ownership and control over the assets for the entire concession period. This model is commonly used for power generation and water treatment projects.

  3. Design-Build-Operate (DBO) Model: In this model, the private sector is responsible for financing, designing, building and operating the infrastructure or service, but the public sector retains ownership and control over the assets. This model is commonly used for transportation projects such as light rail systems.

  4. Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Model: In this model, the private sector is responsible for operating and maintaining existing public infrastructure or services, while the public sector retains ownership and control over the assets. This model is commonly used for public facilities such as schools, hospitals, and prisons.

  5. Management Contract Model: In this model, the private sector is responsible for managing the operations and maintenance of public infrastructure or services, but does not take on the financial risk of the project. The public sector retains ownership and control over the assets.

  6. Concession Model: In this model, the private sector is responsible for financing, designing, building and operating the infrastructure or service, and the public sector pays the private sector a fee or concession charge for the use of the assets. The public sector retains ownership and control over the assets.


Each PPP model has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of model will depend on a number of factors, including the nature of the infrastructure or service, the level of risk the private sector is willing to take on, the length of the concession period, and the level of government control over the assets.

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