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MED-002: Sustainable Development: Issues and Challenges

MED-002: Sustainable Development: Issues and Challenges

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

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Assignment Code: MED-002/ASST/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: MED-002

Assignment Name: Sustainable Development: Issues and Challenges

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Q1. Explain the major issues and challenges which confront sustainable development. Elucidate your answer with suitable examples. (10)

Ans) Accordingly, one of the main problems with sustainable development is natural resource management (NRM). For instance, global deforestation, wetlands loss, land degradation, and desertification are the fundamental obstacles to the long-term viability of good agriculture. However, as the twenty-first century approaches, we are starting to face a new sustainability dilemma in trade and business, namely the expansion of transnational corporations (TNCs), which are now in charge of global resource policies. The welfare state and Keynesian economics have transformed in response to these TNCs.

  1. Since the Earth Summit, sustainable development has been confronted with numerous controversial issues that are still up for dispute and need to be resolved, running counter to the narrow perspective of "better business & FDI." We will now describe them.

  2. The poor countries pay the price of this resource consumption in the form of pollution, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), deforestation, global warming, and the loss of fisheries, wilderness, and animal resources, even while the affluent countries consume the majority of the world's resources.


The indigenous agriculture and rural economy of emerging nations are threatened by biotechnology and Genetically Modified (GM) food, which also disturbs their village institutions and local economies.


To achieve sustainable development and the eradication of poverty, trade and sustainable development should be more closely integrated. There are significant obstacles to economic progress currently, which can be summed up as follows:


From quantity to quality: Growth's quantitative component had chosen to focus on the oversimplified inclination of cost-benefit calculations about the value of a productive process.


Human self-development is the cornerstone of long-term economic expansion: It establishes a link between personal and societal change. Additionally, it promotes symbiosis between people and nature.


From a patriarchal society and male dominance to a comprehensive equity paradigm: Unsustainable economic growth is built on racism, nature's subordination, male dominance, and the repression of women and other marginalised groups in society. These aspects are ignored when an excessive and singular focus on productivity is placed, which supports the accumulation of surplus among a small number of people.


From the TINA approach to a design strategy: TINA, which stands for "There is no alternative," The suggestive method was used in colonial industrial societies to produce visible technologies.


Sustainable economic growth solutions acknowledge that producers have a real obligation to people and the labour they hire. This is known as the "Polluter Pays" idea. Producers who harm the environment and the circumstances for a good life must also pay for the harm they cause to society.


Community-owned businesses and appropriate technology: Appropriate technology is defined as a technology that does not necessarily require huge capital investments or resource-intensive industrial systems. Also, it is dependent on necessity.


2. Discuss the disadvantages of unsustainable development in industrialization. Describe methods to overcome them. (10)

Ans) India wants to give full respect to the agreed-upon principles and ideas that have been accepted by member states in recent times. It is important for the country that the principle of common but differentiated responsibility be accepted in its entirety and it does not wish to renegotiate the Rio+20 consensus.


However, ideological support notwithstanding, the huge gap opening up in India between the amount of natural resources that the country uses and the amount that it possesses is alarming. This mounting natural capital gap was reported by the Global Footprint Network even as India is struggling to deal with the global financial crisis. India now demands the bio-capacity of ‘two Indias’ to provide for its consumption and absorb its wastes, according to a report released by Global Footprint Network and the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). India’s ecological footprint, based on the amount of productive land and sea area required to produce the resources to meet its consumption demand and absorb waste, has doubled since 1961, according to the report.


The main challenges to sustainable development which are global in character include poverty and exclusion, unemployment, climate change, conflict and humanitarian aid, building peaceful and inclusive societies, building strong institutions of governance, and supporting the rule of law.


The Open Working Group of the United Nations, while acknowledging the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, has proposed the following aims for its Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) accompanied by specific targets for some:

  1. Ending of poverty in all its forms everywhere by 2030 and eradicating extreme poverty for all everywhere, now measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day

  2. Ending hunger, achieving food security and improved nutrition, and promoting sustainable agriculture by 2030

  3. Ensuring inclusive and equitable quality education and promoting life-long learning opportunities for all by 2030

  4. Ensuring availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all by 2030

  5. Ensuring access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all by 2030

  6. Promoting sustained, inclusive and economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all

  7. Sustaining per capita economic growth in accordance with national circumstances and in particular, at least 7 percent per annum GDP growth in the least-developed countries

  8. Building resilient infrastructure and promoting inclusive and sustainable industrialisation

  9. Encouraging innovation by developing quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and trans-border infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being

  10. Making cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable by 2030

  11. Protecting, restoring and promoting sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems; sustainably managing forests, combating desertification, and halting and reversing land degradation and biodiversity loss by 2020.


Q3. Differentiate between inter-generational and intra-generational equity and justice with suitable examples. Discuss by giving examples how gender disparity can hamper environment protection and sustainable development. (10)

Ans) The main difference between intergenerational and intragenerational is that intergenerational mobility occurs from one generation to the next, while intragenerational mobility occurs throughout one’s lifespan. Intergenerational has a broader concept which includes more differences in a situation as there are several terms associated with it than the intragenerational.


Intergenerational equity refers to the use of earth’s resources between generations in a manner that the present generation does not consume it completely to its exhaustion.


Intergenerational is derived from the Latin words “inter” (between) and “generare” (to beget). It’s an adverb for something that happens between generations.


For example, intergenerational mobility refers to the transfer of social status from one generation to the next, as in the case of John, a now successful middle-class businessman who was born into a low-income household.


Intergenerational transition exists between one’s parents and their socioeconomic level.


Intragenerational is derived from the Latin words “intra” (within) and “generare” (to beget). It is an adjective that refers to an event that occurs within a generation.


For example, in intragenerational mobility, a shift in social standing happens during a person’s lifetime.


In the above example, Ben’s socioeconomic status move from destitute boyhood to well-off adulthood is intragenerational.


A telling example of neglect of inter-generational equity consideration is that of a small island state in the Pacific, Nauru, which is a close neighbour of big countries like Australia and New Zealand. Nauru had rich phosphates in its soil but could not use it due to lack of knowledge and technology. Australian soil lacked phosphates and due to that its agricultural output was poor. Australian miners signed agreements with the Nauru Government in the decade of seventies, which readily agreed to welcome trade expansion with a rich country. For around a decade the citizens of Nauru got bumper employment and that generation achieved standards of western lifestyles. Once the miners extracted all phosphates out of their soil they left, leaving behind a rich country electronically studded with home equipments but no money and employment for its citizens to move ahead or even maintain their acquired lifestyles. Citizens took to drugs and the mafia ruled.


Q4. How can sustainable use of natural resources help achieve sustainable development? (10)

Ans) Natural resources such as water, energy, and other basic materials such as minerals are scarce, and some, such as coal, petroleum, and groundwater, cannot be replenished. Strong efforts are therefore required to utilise them wisely and sustainably.




Heat for cooking, warmth, manufacturing, and electricity for transportation and mechanical activity are all services that energy provides for human life. Fossil fuels like coal and petroleum, wood and charcoal, as well as renewable energy sources including water, sun, wind, natural gas, and nuclear power, are the main sources of energy. The energy sources coal and petroleum are not renewable.


Nuclear energy, natural gas, solar power, and other non-polluting renewable energy sources are being considered as viable sources in the near future.


In addition, these gases react with atmospheric water to form acid rain in the form of nitric and sulfuric acids. European aquatic systems have been devastated by acid rain. The pH of the water drops to about 2-3 from its normal range of 7 that supports life. Fish and other aquatic species perish as a result of water becoming more acidic.




One of the most important natural resources is water. Water is essential for life on earth. There are two types of water sources: surface water and ground water. Rivers, streams, lakes, and other bodies of surface water are examples of subsurface water, which also includes wells and springs. Ice and snow fields represent additional unexplored sources of water. Oceans flow toward the land due to the hydrological cycle. Rain-bearing clouds are produced by large-scale evaporation from the oceans and travel thousands of kilometres before precipitating on land. This is where most fresh water on land comes from.


Snow and ice glaciers that melt also replenish rivers. The hydrological cycle shouldn't be disturbed in order to use water sustainably. There is proof that extensive deforestation severely alters rainfall patterns. Floods and droughts are brought on by the decrease of vegetative cover in catchment areas. The hydrological cycle has been thrown off by human activity, and both surface and ground water sources have become polluted.


Conservation of Ecosystems


All organisms on this planet are dependant on other species as well as on non-living elements of the environment including air, water, and soil in order to survive. Therefore, the survival of all other species is impacted when a species goes extinct. Therefore, it is crucial to conserve both living and non-living natural resources.


Conservation of Species: Living things can be divided into three categories: plants, animals, and microorganisms. These countless species, with their genetic diversity, are vital to human growth and greatly benefit agriculture, medicine, and industry.


Tropical rain forests have the highest genetic variety and are also the most endangered ecosystems because of human involvement. Due to the extreme conditions, arid and semi-arid locations are home to a variety of adaptive species that produce useful biochemicals like liquid wax and natural rubber.


Q5. Discuss various regional issues related to environment. Assess the initiatives taken towards environmental protection to achieve sustainable development. (10)

Ans) Country-specific techniques are essential due to the large range of environmental difficulties that differing countries face in accordance with their unique geographical, biological, and climatic characteristics. In accordance with its social and economic interests, cultural values, institutions, and political systems, each nation must thus develop its own strategies. Climate change and deforestation are just two examples of environmental issues with obvious global implications. However, in most cases, local, national, or regional levels are where environmental harm is seen. The local communities that are most directly affected by water scarcities, contamination, soil erosion, or deterioration of forests, mangroves, or coral reefs.


Desertification and Droughts


The term "desertification" refers to the degradation of the land in arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid regions as a result of many factors, such as climatic changes and human activity. The vegetation cover and soil productivity are being lost over time. The main causes of this process are human activities and climatic changes that generate droughts and floods. Grave natural effects of desertification include the worsening of water quality, silting of rivers, and the vulnerability of land to floods and salinization. Alarmingly, if neglected, the topsoil of the land, which takes ages to build up, can be washed away in a few seasons. Overcultivation, overgrazing, deforestation, and poor irrigation techniques are among human actions that contribute to desertification.


Improved early warning systems, water resource management, sustainable livestock management, aeroseeding, agroforestry ecosystems, afforestation and reforestation by new species and varieties with the ability to tolerate salinity and/or aridity, and planned human settlements are the measures taken to prevent land degradation and restore degraded land. Poverty, which compels those who depend on land for their livelihoods, is a direct contributor to the misuse of land. They overuse it as a source of food, energy, housing, and revenue.


In conclusion, the following should be included in programmes designed to fight these regional problems:

  1. enhancing the body of knowledge and creating information and monitoring systems, together with the ecosystem's economic and social components, in areas vulnerable to desertification and drought.

  2. combating land deterioration by increasing soil protection, afforestation, and reforestation efforts, among other things.

  3. creating and enhancing integrated development programmes for the eradication of poverty and the encouragement of alternative means of subsistence in desertification-prone areas.

  4. creating extensive anti-desertification programmes and incorporating them into national environment planning and development strategies.

  5. creating all-encompassing drought relief plans, including drought self-help strategies, and creating programmes to deal with environmental refugees

  6. encouraging and promoting public involvement and environmental education with a focus on managing the effects of drought and controlling desertification.


Q6. Describe various state and local development initiatives to address the inequality. Substantiate your answer with suitable examples. (10)

Ans) After independence the Indian government set to the task of rebuilding the national economy. The government, under the leadership of Nehru, adopted through a five year planning process the principles of mixed economy, promotion of the private sector and a strong intervention of the state and an industrial base in the public sector. As discussed earlier the policy of import-substitution and self imposed insulation from the global economy resulted, however, in slow growth.

 It is clearly understood that restrictive trade and exchange trade policies under centrally initiated and public sector oriented industrialisation were impediments to the fast pace of development till the 1980s. However, the radical shift in the trade policies since 1991 mark a move towards globalisation and liberalisation.


Economic Reforms: The economic reform policies of 1990s were brought in with focus on stabilisation of the economy on one hand and liberalisation on the other. These led to substantive deregulation on private participation in economic activities and withdrawal of several import and export restrictions, besides other changes. These measures were expected to bring in competition leading to better utilisation and allocations for accelerating growth.


The major elements of policy reforms are:

  1. Private investment freed from industrial license from government

  2. Reduction in the list of industries for public sector

  3. Quantitative controls on most intermediate and capital goods abolished and those on consumer goods to be abolished in a phased manner

  4. Average tariff rates brought down with reduction in dispersion of rates

  5. Restrictions relaxed on exports of some agricultural commodities

  6. Restrictions relaxed on foreign private investment


Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs): There are many voluntary and nongovernmental organisations in India which have played a very important role in the developmental process through promoting socio-economic growth in both the rural and urban areas. Quite a few NGOs had come up due to the efforts of individuals who were inspired by the ideology of constructive programme of Mahatma Gandhi. It is reported that the founders of one fourths of the NGOs were inspired by Gandhi. Gandhi himself took the initiative in establishing the Kasturba Gandhi National Memorial Trust (KGNMT).


The programmes undertaken by the NGOs are mainly to improve the social, economic, educational, cultural and environmental status of the tribals, the poor and the oppressed classes. Besides their own programmes, they also act as a bridge between the government and the people with regard to funds and development policies.


Q7. Explain the following in about 250 words each: (5x4=20)


(a) Community-based Civil Society Initiatives on Sustainable Development.

Ans) At the grassroots level, a number of significant environmental movements have emerged. The majority of these movements are concerned with competing claims to natural resources, such as forests, water sources, etc. The violation of human and other rights as a result of eviction and environmental harm brought on by various development projects has also resulted in community movements. Such movements frequently encounter fierce opposition from vested interest groups trying to take advantage of benefits arising from development projects. For example, in 1998, Chico Mendes of Brazil was killed for organising a demonstration against the destruction of the Amazon rainforest. Author Ken Saro-Wiwa of Nigeria was imprisoned and put to death by the military regime in 1995 for his protests against the destruction of his tribe's lands by Western oil firms.


Mexican farmers Rodolfo Montiel and Teodoro Cabrera were tortured while being imprisoned for six years before being released in November 2001 for organising a campaign to stop a commercial forestry project. Aleksandr Nikitin of Russia, who fought to advance nuclear safety, was prosecuted for state treason for five years until being freed in September 2000. In spite of the political apparatus or in opposition to the large companies that operate with the government's explicit or implied assistance, the people have thus frequently adopted environmental conservation as a cause. Community organisations like NGOs have emerged as a result of these local activities.


NGOs are becoming more involved in shaping and carrying out environmental legislation and policy. NGOs have the ability to and frequently do so in the process of defending the environment. Contrary to the common belief that nongovernmental organisations (NGOs) are constantly critical of government activities, it is now commonly acknowledged that NGOs also contribute constructively in order to enhance state initiatives towards environmental protection through cooperative partnerships. States don't inherently lose out; in fact, they frequently gain from more NGO participation and access. NGOs connect local and international players and needs. Many people see the NGO's active involvement in environmental conservation as a welcome addition of civic virtue to all levels of government.

(b) Integration of Scientific and Traditional Knowledge for Sustainable Development.

Ans) In order to achieve sustainable development, it is necessary to implement well-balanced, interconnected policies that promote social fairness among all nations and communities as well as economic growth and the decrease of poverty. Governments and other stakeholders from around the world have realised that, in addition to the need to respect various cultures and traditions, fostering diversity is also a critical step toward achieving overall sustainability. As a result, it is important to merge, improve, and harness the two types of knowledge. It is also important to make more use of traditional knowledge, technology, and scientific knowledge. The collaboration of traditional and scientific knowledge is necessary to address many concerns, particularly those relating to the conservation of biodiversity and sustainable management of natural resources. In order to achieve sustainable development, it will be necessary for scientists working in formally organised institutions and those who possess traditional knowledge in formally unorganised sectors, such as communities in non-industrialized areas, to collaborate more closely.


In order to address the topic of knowledge and sustainable development, the World Conference on Science (WCS), which was organised by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in 1999 in Budapest, Hungary, also discussed this new and developing understanding. For sustainable development, the conference advised strengthening and utilising both conventional knowledge and scientific capabilities. The Declaration on Science and the Use of Scientific Knowledge, which was adopted during this conference, states:


"Scientific understanding has produced amazing technologies that have greatly benefited humanity. It also acknowledges that it will be difficult to apply this knowledge responsibly to meet human wants and goals. In order to tackle the difficulties of the future, this endeavour necessitates a large-scale collaboration between science and society.


Representatives of the international scientific and technological communities, the Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) community of traditional knowledge and practises, and individuals from business and industry have recently started a dialogue and agreed to explore the possibility of creating partnership projects with UNESCO in various parts of the world.


(c) Sustainable Agriculture Practices.

Ans) Two different environmental issues are connected to agriculture:


The high potential areas: These are the rain-fed regions, such as South Asia (regions of the Green Revolution), where high yielding cultivars, significant amounts of fertiliser, pesticides, and herbicides are employed. In these regions, high input agriculture has increased food production during the past few decades. The overuse of chemical fertilisers, insecticides, and herbicides as well as the pumping out of groundwater has significant negative ecological, economic, and sociopolitical effects. For instance, new hybrid wheat and rice varieties, fertilisers, and irrigation helped Punjab usher in an agricultural revolution. As a result of the procedure, the water tables fell as a result of the increasing demand for water needed for paddy cultivation, causing the farmers to pump out additional ground water. The equilibrium of nutrients was upset by the overuse of fertilisers. Other water sources, such as streams and rivers, were contaminated by the run off water from the farms, which contained pesticides and other agrochemicals. In other places, like Uttar Pradesh, high salt build up frequently caused good farming land to be abandoned.


Less favoured areas: The land is becoming degraded and deforested in rural regions, particularly in Africa, due to erosive and unsustainable farming practises. The poor fertility quality of the soil has been made even worse by the difficult availability to fertilisers, agrochemicals, and irrigation systems. Precision farming, integrated pest control, high yielding cultivars, and enhanced water management techniques are sustainable farming methods based on agricultural technology.

(d) Innovative Practices in Sustainable Development of Water and Energy Resources.

Ans) Rainwater Harvesting: In India, a number of organisations are developing rainwater harvesting techniques. The activity of the ASTRA organisation in peninsular India is the most noteworthy. Since water is the most important resource in peninsular India, a region with an average annual rainfall of roughly 700 mm, which is home to about 1000 households, was selected (10 villages). Ponds are used to collect rainwater, and a basic sand filter system is used to clean it. After being cleansed, the water is redirected to aquifers made of permeable rock underground. When needed, the stored water can be pumped out and used for agriculture.


Indigenous Systems of Tapping Water: Tribal farmers in India's hills employ traditional techniques to collect water from springs and streams for drip irrigation. Such a technique has been commonly used in Meghalaya for about 200 years. The process employs bamboo pipes. The system is so well-designed that the amount of spring water that enters the bamboo pipes per minute is reduced to 20–80 drops per minute at the plant site after travelling several hundred metres. Typically, betel leaf or black pepper crops grown in areca nut orchards or mixed orchards are irrigated using this technology. Farmers who have united as a cooperative take care of the bamboo supports and pipes. Water is distributed by directing it from one field to another at predetermined intervals.


Alternative Sources of Energy Alternative energy sources are being researched as a means of reducing air pollution. In order to do this, various renewable natural resources including solar, hydro, and wind energy are being utilised more frequently. Solar energy is directly converted into electrical energy by photovoltaic cells, which may then be used to power everything from calculators to cars to home appliances. In a thermal-solar system, sunlight is reflected from solar panels onto water-storing collectors. Thus, the water is heated to create steam, which powers the turbines that generate energy. As a result of its high hydrogen concentration and low carbon content in vehicle emissions, compressed natural gas (CNG) is also utilised.

Q8. Explain the following in about 250 words each: (5x4=20)


(a) Cooperatives and Sustainable Development

Ans) The main component of community-based economic growth is cooperatives. Communities pursuing sustainable development initiatives must comprehend how their economic activities (agricultural and industry) support local quality of life while preserving the ecological foundation and satisfying basic necessities (food, health, education, transportation, etc.). Numerous local economies have fallen apart as a result of the depletion of natural resources. In order to create and develop fresh approaches to living sustainably, numerous local groups have joined forces as collective communities and are being organised as cooperatives. They take on initiatives that employ a participative methodology and seek to revitalise and restore cultural institutions and practises.


Cooperation in Ancient India: Since the beginning of time, India has engaged in cooperative activities. Kula, Grama, Sreni, and Jati were the four main types of cooperatives used in ancient India.


Cooperative Movement in India: India implemented a policy of planned economic development after gaining independence in 1947, giving its population individual liberty, equality, and a living wage.


Structure of Cooperative Institutions: All state and federal cooperative institutions are associated with the National Cooperative Union of India (NCUI), which serves as the cooperative movement's governing body.


Function of Cooperatives: Based on their functions, the cooperatives can be roughly classified into two types:

  1. Cooperatives for lending to farmers.

  2. Credit cooperatives that are not agricultural.


Role of Cooperatives in Sustainable Development: As we've seen, cooperative societies are institutions that link the lowest echelons of society with the highest levels of authority. As a result, the cooperatives are crucial to the process of sustainable development.


(b) Sustained Livelihood

Ans) Sustainable living is a way to safeguard and manage "the natural and physical environment" better. The Department for International Development (DFID) pledges to support "sustainable livelihoods" in the 1997 White Paper on International Development. A sustainable livelihood is defined as "the capacities, assets (including both material and social resources), and activities necessary for a means of subsistence" in the White Paper. A livelihood is sustainable if it can withstand stresses and shocks, recover from them, and retain or improve its capabilities and assets both today and in the future without compromising the capital asset of the natural resource.


Transnational business relocates activities from a high-cost production location to a low-cost production area and introduces production systems with no connections to the local communities' resource usage practises and ways of life. These communities are cut off from their own resources and property. International agreements limit parties' options for pursuing claims and gaining access to resources. The framework now in use divides the capital assets a person uses to support his or her lifestyle into five categories:

Natural: The natural resource stocks that provide resource flows that support lives (e.g. land, water, wildlife, biodiversity, environmental resources).

  1. Social: The social resources that people use to pursue their livelihoods, such as networks, group membership, trust-based relationships, and access to larger institutions of society.

  2. Human: The capacity to seek various modes of subsistence depends on one's abilities, knowledge, ability to labour, and physical and mental health.

  3. Physical: the essential facilities (such as transportation, housing, energy, and communications) as well as the tools and resources for production that allow people to work.

  4. Financial: The financial resources that people have access to (such as savings, credit, regular remittances, or pensions), which give them a variety of livelihood possibilities.


(c) Initiatives of the South Asian Countries towards the betterment of the environment.

Ans) Indigenous people, the underprivileged, and the minority have spearheaded mass protests against many environmental injustices in developing nations. They have organised rallies over the past 20 years against the placement of hazardous companies or the exploitation of underprivileged areas as landfills for toxic waste. These organisations were given a platform at the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit in 1992, where it was decided that grassroots engagement was necessary for both environmental conservation and economic development.


Millions of people engaged in the Chipko Andolan in India, which sought to stop the logging of trees in the Himalayas, and the Narmada Bachao Aandolan, which opposed the building of dams on the Narmada River. Both initiatives aimed to protest the environmental injustices of vested interests. Over the years, people have taken part in a number of protests involving environmental protection and have sought legal assistance to get justice for people, such as the Bhopal disaster victims. The process of obtaining justice has been greatly accelerated through public interest litigations (PIL). On the basis of a PIL, the Supreme Court of India ordered the closure of various polluting tanneries and industrial facilities along the Ganga.


India's state has had a larger role since gaining independence. Authoritarian forces that manage resources and developmental processes have grown more powerful. In practise, less people participate voluntarily, and people are far more reliant on the government. This has significantly hindered the development process. To lessen reliance on the government, it is necessary to rediscover and put into practise the meaning of voluntarism and public engagement. To follow the road of sustainable development, people should be able to govern their own settings.

(d) Sustainable and non-sustainable activities

Ans) The idea of sustainable development encompasses not only the environment but also our society and economy. The idea of sustainability is concerned with how human growth affects the environment. The inappropriate use of natural resources and improper waste management are the main causes of today's environmental concerns. Environmental protection, steady economic growth, and social equality are all aspects of sustainability. The goal of sustainable development is to raise everyone's standard of living. Additionally, it offers various goods to various people. The concept has been understood and used to fit the demands of everyone from sensitive environmentalists to liberal marketers. It is comparable to the ideas of justice and democracy, which are never in dispute but are interpreted to suit ideologically opposed factions. However, the undisputed definition of sustainable activities, which is the baseline agreement, can be summed up as follows:

  1. Use the items repeatedly.

  2. Utilize dependable energy sources consistently.

  3. Utilize the morally upright and constructive side of people.

  4. wish for slower but more durable growth.


Activities are unsustainable when they:

  1. Wastefully overusing natural resources.

  2. Renewal takes longer than consumption.

  3. Species extinction due to excessive living forms.

  4. Cause the ecosystem to gradually deteriorate.

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