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MED-008: Globalisation and Environment

MED-008: Globalisation and Environment

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2023-24

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Assignment Code: MED-008/TMA/2023-24

Course Code: MED-008

Assignment Name: Globalisation and Environment

Year: 2023-24

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Q1) Briefly discuss the Greenhouse effect on the earth. Explain how globalization is responsible for large scale disruption of ecosystems.

Ans) The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon that plays a crucial role in maintaining the Earth's temperature at levels suitable for life. It involves the trapping of heat from the sun in the Earth's atmosphere by certain gases, often referred to as greenhouse gases. These gases, primarily carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and water vapor (H2O), act as a thermal blanket, allowing solar radiation to enter the Earth's atmosphere but preventing much of the heat from escaping back into space.

Solar Radiation: The sun emits energy in the form of visible and ultraviolet (UV) light, which reaches the Earth.

a) Absorption: The Earth's surface absorbs this solar radiation and warms up.

b) Infrared Radiation: In response, the Earth's surface emits heat in the form of infrared radiation.

c) Greenhouse Gases: Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere absorb some of this outgoing infrared radiation.

d) Re-emission: These gases then re-radiate the heat energy in all directions, including back toward the Earth's surface.

This cycle of absorption and re-emission effectively increases the Earth's temperature. Without the greenhouse effect, the Earth would be much colder and less habitable, with an average temperature of around -18°C (0°F).

Globalization and Ecosystem Disruption:

Globalization, the increased interconnectedness of countries and regions through trade, communication, and technology, has had profound effects on ecosystems worldwide. While globalization offers economic and cultural benefits, it also leads to large-scale disruptions of ecosystems due to several key factors:

a) Habitat Destruction: As global trade and transportation networks expand, ecosystems often face habitat destruction or degradation. Urbanization, infrastructure development, and resource extraction can lead to the loss of natural habitats, affecting biodiversity and ecosystem health.

b) Invasive Species: Globalization facilitates the unintentional spread of invasive species to new regions. These species often outcompete native flora and fauna, disrupting ecosystem balance and potentially causing extinctions.

c) Pollution: The global movement of goods and services often results in increased pollution, including air and water pollution, which can harm ecosystems and threaten species' survival.

d) Climate Change: Globalization contributes to increased greenhouse gas emissions through the burning of fossil fuels for transportation and industrial processes. This, in turn, exacerbates climate change, leading to shifts in ecosystems, such as altered weather patterns, changing habitats, and shifting species distributions.

e) Overharvesting: Global trade can drive overharvesting of resources, such as overfishing, deforestation, and poaching, depleting natural resources and harming ecosystems.

f) Fragmentation: Globalization can lead to habitat fragmentation, which reduces the ability of ecosystems to support biodiversity and can isolate populations, making them vulnerable to extinction.

g) Disease Spread: The movement of people and goods across the globe has led to the spread of diseases that can affect both wildlife and domesticated animals, impacting ecosystems.

Q2i). Distinguish between: Floods and droughts.

Ans)Difference between floods and droughts:

Q2ii) Distinguish between: Sudden and Insidious disasters.

Ans)Difference between sudden and insidious disasters:

Q3) What is meant by North-South divide? Discuss the role of MNCs, TNCs and IFIs in economic globalisation.

Ans) The North-South divide, also known as the Global North-Global South divide, refers to the economic and developmental disparities between the more economically developed countries in the Northern Hemisphere (the "Global North") and the less economically developed countries in the Southern Hemisphere (the "Global South"). This divide is a significant aspect of economic globalization and encompasses a range of disparities, including income, wealth, infrastructure, education, healthcare, and access to resources.

Characteristics of the North-South Divide:

a) Economic Disparities: The Global North, including countries in North America, Western Europe, and parts of Asia, generally have higher income levels, better infrastructure, and greater economic stability compared to the Global South, which includes most of Africa, parts of Asia, and Latin America.

b) Technology and Industrialization: The Global North is more advanced in terms of technology and industrialization, leading to higher productivity and economic growth.

c) Access to Healthcare and Education: The Global North generally offers better access to healthcare services and quality education, resulting in higher human development indices.

d) Resource Disparities: The Global South often possesses valuable natural resources, but their exploitation and distribution are influenced by Global North corporations and governments, contributing to inequality.

e) Global Economic System: The North-South divide is perpetuated by global economic systems, trade policies, and financial institutions that can Favor the Global North's interests.

Role of MNCs, TNCs, and IFIs in Economic Globalization:

a) Multinational Corporations (MNCs): MNCs are companies that operate in multiple countries, often with headquarters in the Global North. They play a significant role in economic globalization:

b) Investment: MNCs invest in the Global South to access new markets, resources, and cheaper labour. This can stimulate economic growth but may also lead to resource exploitation and economic dependency.

c) Employment: MNCs create jobs in the Global South, contributing to employment opportunities. However, labour practices and working conditions are often scrutinized for exploitation.

d) Technology Transfer: MNCs can bring advanced technologies and know-how to the Global South, promoting industrialization and development.

e) Transnational Corporations (TNCs): TNCs are similar to MNCs but may not have a single dominant home country. They are highly influential in shaping global economic activities:

f) Supply Chains: TNCs often establish global supply chains, affecting manufacturing, trade, and employment in both the Global North and South.

g) Market Dominance: Some TNCs dominate global markets, impacting competition and access to resources in the Global South.

h) International Financial Institutions (IFIs): IFIs like the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank provide financial support and policy advice to countries. They influence economic globalization:

i) Structural Adjustment Programs: IFIs may impose structural adjustment programs on indebted Global South countries, which can lead to economic reforms and austerity measures, often with social and environmental consequences.

j) Development Finance: IFIs provide development finance for infrastructure projects and poverty reduction programs. However, their policies can also promote market-oriented reforms.

Q4i) Write short notes on Rio +5 and Rio +10.

Ans) Rio+5 and Rio+10 are significant international conferences that built upon the outcomes of the Earth Summit, also known as the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 1992. These conferences aimed to assess progress in addressing global environmental and sustainable development issues and set the agenda for the future.

Rio+5 (1997):

Background: The Rio+5 conference, formally known as the Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly for an Overall Review and Appraisal of the Implementation of Agenda 21, was held in New York in 1997, five years after the Earth Summit in Rio. It aimed to review the progress made in implementing the commitments and action plans outlined in Agenda 21, the Rio Declaration, and the Statement of Forest Principles.


Rio+5 emphasized the importance of integrating economic, social, and environmental dimensions in decision-making and policy formulation.

The conference reaffirmed the significance of the Rio Principles, including the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, which recognized the varying responsibilities of developed and developing countries in addressing environmental and development issues.

It highlighted the need for capacity building, technology transfer, and financial support to assist developing countries in their sustainable development efforts.

The conference stressed the importance of regional and international cooperation in addressing global challenges, such as climate change and biodiversity loss.

Rio+10 (2002):

Background: Rio+10, also known as the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD), was held in Johannesburg, South Africa, in 2002, a decade after the Earth Summit in Rio. It aimed to reinvigorate global commitment to sustainable development and build on the progress made since Rio.


Rio+10 reaffirmed the significance of Agenda 21 and the Rio Principles and stressed the need for the international community to work collectively toward achieving sustainable development.

The summit addressed various issues, including poverty reduction, clean water, sanitation, energy, biodiversity, and climate change.

It resulted in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, which outlined specific goals and targets for sustainable development. Notably, the summit addressed the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), emphasizing their importance for eradicating poverty and improving human well-being.

Johannesburg marked the increased involvement of civil society and non-governmental organizations in the sustainable development process.

Q4ii) Write short notes on Biodiversity Convention.

Ans) The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is a landmark international treaty aimed at addressing the conservation and sustainable use of the Earth's biodiversity, as well as the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources. The CBD was adopted during the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992 and came into force in 1993.

Objectives: The primary objectives of the CBD are to conserve biological diversity, promote its sustainable use, and ensure the equitable sharing of benefits derived from genetic resources. It recognizes the intrinsic value of biodiversity and its critical role in maintaining ecological balance.

Three Main Pillars: The CBD is structured around three main pillars: conservation of biodiversity, sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from genetic resources.

Parties and Signatories: The CBD has been ratified by 196 countries, making it one of the most widely accepted international agreements. These countries, known as "Parties," are committed to implementing the provisions of the convention.

Nagoya Protocol: In 2010, the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization was adopted as a supplementary agreement to the CBD. It provides a legal framework for the fair and equitable sharing of benefits from the utilization of genetic resources.

Aichi Biodiversity Targets: The CBD established a strategic plan with 20 biodiversity targets, collectively known as the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, to guide Parties' efforts in conserving and using biodiversity sustainably. These targets include goals for protected areas, sustainable resource management, and mainstreaming biodiversity considerations into relevant sectors.

Cartagena Protocol: The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety is another supplementary agreement to the CBD, addressing the safe handling, transport, and transfer of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology.

Challenges and Achievements: While progress has been made in implementing the CBD's goals, challenges remain, including habitat destruction, overexploitation of resources, and biodiversity loss. However, the CBD has played a significant role in raising awareness about the importance of biodiversity and in fostering global cooperation for its protection.

Q4iii) Write short notes on UNEP.

Ans) The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is a specialized agency of the United Nations focused on promoting environmental sustainability and addressing global environmental challenges. UNEP was established in 1972 during the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment held in Stockholm, Sweden.

Mandate: UNEP's primary mandate is to provide leadership and coordinate United Nations' environmental activities, promote international cooperation on environmental issues, and encourage sustainable development practices worldwide.

Headquarters: UNEP is headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya, with regional offices and coordinating centres around the world, enabling it to work closely with governments, organizations, and communities globally.

Environmental Conventions: UNEP plays a crucial role in supporting the development and implementation of international environmental conventions and agreements, including the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

Reports and Assessments: UNEP conducts and publishes numerous reports, assessments, and research findings on various environmental issues, such as climate change, biodiversity loss, pollution, and sustainable resource management. These reports help inform policymakers, governments, and the public about the state of the environment.

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): UNEP is actively involved in promoting and supporting the environmental aspects of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), especially SDG 13 on climate action, SDG 14 on life below water, and SDG 15 on life on land.

Global Environmental Outlook (GEO): UNEP periodically releases the Global Environmental Outlook, a flagship report that provides comprehensive assessments of the world's environmental conditions and trends, offering insights into emerging issues and potential solutions.

Capacity Building: UNEP works to strengthen the capacity of countries, particularly developing nations, to address environmental challenges, including building expertise, technical capabilities, and institutional capacities.

International Collaboration: UNEP collaborates with various UN agencies, governments, non-governmental organizations, and industry partners to drive international efforts toward a more sustainable and environmentally conscious world.

Promotion of Sustainability: UNEP promotes sustainable practices in areas like energy, transportation, agriculture, and natural resource management. It encourages the adoption of policies and practices that balance human development with the preservation of the environment.

Q5) Mention any five multilateral agreements related to transnational air pollution. Discuss the world Bank’s environmental agenda.

Ans) Five Multilateral Agreements Related to Transnational Air Pollution:

The Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP): This United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) convention addresses the issue of air pollution in Europe and its transboundary effects. It includes protocols on various air pollutants, such as sulfur, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds.

The Kyoto Protocol: Part of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol aimed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, including carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. It encouraged countries to set emission reduction targets, thus contributing to the mitigation of climate change and its transnational impacts.

The Gothenburg Protocol: This protocol is an element of the UNECE's LRTAP Convention and focuses on reducing emissions of air pollutants in Europe, specifically sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, and volatile organic compounds. It seeks to limit the transboundary movement of these pollutants, thereby improving air quality and environmental health.

The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer: While primarily aimed at protecting the ozone layer, the Montreal Protocol also addresses the release of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other substances that can have transnational effects on the atmosphere and climate.

The Paris Agreement: Under the UNFCCC, the Paris Agreement focuses on addressing climate change and its transnational impacts. It aims to limit global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, with efforts to limit it to 1.5 degrees. By reducing greenhouse gas emissions and promoting climate resilience, it addresses the transboundary consequences of climate change.

World Bank's Environmental Agenda:

The World Bank has recognized the crucial role of environmental sustainability and the need to address environmental challenges as part of its development agenda.

a) Environmental Safeguards: The World Bank has established environmental safeguards to ensure that its projects take environmental considerations into account. These safeguards include assessing and mitigating potential environmental impacts and promoting sustainability in project design.

b) Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation: The World Bank has made significant commitments to support climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts in developing countries. It provides funding and expertise to help countries reduce greenhouse gas emissions and build resilience to climate change impacts.

c) Natural Resource Management: The World Bank supports sustainable natural resource management by promoting responsible and efficient resource use. This includes efforts to protect forests, manage water resources, and promote sustainable agriculture.

d) Biodiversity Conservation: The World Bank works to protect and conserve biodiversity, recognizing the value of biodiversity in supporting ecosystem services, local livelihoods, and overall well-being. This includes funding conservation projects and initiatives that promote biodiversity protection.

e) Environmental and Social Impact Assessments: The World Bank requires that projects it finances undergo environmental and social impact assessments to identify potential environmental and social risks and propose measures to mitigate them.

f) Clean Energy and Renewable Technologies: The World Bank invests in clean energy and renewable technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote sustainable energy solutions in developing countries.

g) Environmental Capacity Building: The World Bank provides technical assistance and capacity building to help countries strengthen their environmental institutions, regulations, and enforcement mechanisms.

h) Partnerships: The World Bank collaborates with other international organizations, governments, and non-governmental organizations to address global environmental challenges collectively.

Q6) Discuss briefly the environmental concerns of South Asia with special reference to Nepal.

Ans) South Asia, a region of immense natural beauty and cultural diversity, faces a range of environmental concerns that have significant implications for its sustainable development. Nepal, situated in the Himalayas, shares many of these challenges, and its unique geography and biodiversity make it particularly vulnerable.

Deforestation and Forest Degradation:

Nepal: Deforestation and forest degradation are significant concerns in Nepal. The country's forests are under pressure due to activities such as timber logging, land conversion for agriculture, and the collection of firewood. This threatens biodiversity and reduces the capacity of forests to provide essential ecosystem services.

Water Scarcity and Quality:

Nepal: Despite its abundant water resources, Nepal faces challenges related to water scarcity, especially during dry seasons. The country needs to manage its water resources effectively to ensure a sustainable water supply for domestic, agricultural, and industrial purposes.

Air Pollution:

Nepal: Air pollution is a growing problem in Nepal's urban areas, particularly in the Kathmandu Valley. The burning of solid fuels, vehicular emissions, and industrial activities contribute to poor air quality, leading to health issues and reduced visibility.

Water Pollution:

Nepal: Water pollution is a concern due to inadequate wastewater treatment facilities, improper waste disposal, and contamination from agricultural runoff. Ensuring clean and safe drinking water sources is crucial.

Glacier Melting and Climate Change:

Nepal: Nepal's mountainous terrain makes it highly susceptible to the impacts of climate change, including glacier melting and the increased risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). This affects water availability, hydropower generation, and local communities.

Biodiversity Loss:

Nepal: Habitat destruction, poaching, and illegal wildlife trade threaten Nepal's rich biodiversity, including iconic species like the Bengal tiger and the one-horned rhinoceros. Conservation efforts are vital to protect these species.

Landslides and Soil Erosion:

Nepal: The steep topography of Nepal makes it prone to landslides and soil erosion, especially during the monsoon season. These events can have devastating consequences for communities and infrastructure.

Urbanization and Infrastructure Development:

Nepal: Rapid urbanization and infrastructure development, while necessary for economic growth, can lead to land-use changes, deforestation, and increased demand for resources, which may exacerbate environmental issues.

Agricultural Practices:

Nepal: Unsustainable agricultural practices, including the excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, can harm soil quality, water resources, and overall ecosystem health.

Q7) Define NGOs. Explain its origin and briefly discuss the different perspectives of NGOs.

Ans) Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are private, voluntary, non-profit organizations that operate independently of government control. They are typically driven by a specific mission or cause and often aim to address various social, environmental, and humanitarian issues. NGOs play a crucial role in civil society and can vary widely in their scope, size, and focus.

Origin of NGOs:

The concept of NGOs has ancient roots, with religious and philanthropic organizations often serving as early precursors. The modern concept of NGOs emerged in the 19th and 20th centuries, driven by various factors:

a) Social Movements: The rise of social movements, such as the abolition of slavery, women's suffrage, and workers' rights, led to the formation of non-governmental groups advocating for these causes.

b) Humanitarian Response: The two World Wars and subsequent conflicts highlighted the need for organizations to provide humanitarian aid and assistance to those affected by the devastation.

c) Decolonization: During the decolonization era, NGOs played roles in providing assistance to newly independent nations, supporting development, and advocating for human rights.

d) Environmental Concerns: The emergence of environmentalism and growing awareness of environmental issues led to the establishment of NGOs focused on conservation and sustainability.

NGOs are viewed from various perspectives, each emphasizing different aspects of their role and impact:

a) Service Delivery Perspective: NGOs are seen as organizations that provide vital services and assistance where governments might lack the capacity or resources. This perspective values their role in healthcare, education, disaster relief, and development programs.

b) Advocacy and Activism Perspective: Some see NGOs primarily as advocates for social and political change. They mobilize public opinion, lobby governments, and work to influence policies and practices on various issues, including human rights, environmental protection, and social justice.

c) Partnership Perspective: NGOs often collaborate with governments, international organizations, and the private sector. This perspective emphasizes the importance of NGO-government partnerships in addressing complex global challenges, including sustainable development and humanitarian crises.

d) Watchdog Perspective: NGOs serve as watchdogs holding governments and corporations accountable for their actions. They scrutinize and report on violations of human rights, corruption, environmental abuses, and other issues.

e) Social Entrepreneurship Perspective: Some NGOs adopt business principles and practices to address social or environmental issues. They seek to generate revenue through innovative approaches while pursuing their missions. This perspective highlights the entrepreneurial potential of NGOs in creating sustainable solutions.

f) Global Governance Perspective: NGOs have a role in shaping global governance by participating in international negotiations, treaties, and agreements. They contribute to the development of international law and norms, advocating for issues such as disarmament and climate change mitigation.

g) Critical Perspective: This perspective critiques NGOs for their potential to reinforce power imbalances, co-opt grassroots movements, and serve the interests of funders. It questions their accountability and transparency.

Q8i) Write short notes on Chilka Bachao Andolan and Appiko Movement.

Ans) The Chilka Bachao Andolan is an environmental movement that emerged to protect and conserve the Chilika Lake, which is located on the eastern coast of India in the state of Odisha. Chilika is the largest coastal lagoon in India and serves as a vital habitat for a diverse range of flora and fauna, including migratory birds, fish, and other wildlife. The movement aimed to address various environmental issues threatening the lake:

Siltation: The lake was experiencing siltation due to the deposition of sediments from rivers and tributaries, affecting its depth and biodiversity.

Commercial Shrimp Farming: The rapid expansion of commercial shrimp farming in the region had environmental consequences, including mangrove destruction and pollution from chemicals used in aquaculture.

Tourism Development: Unregulated tourism development and the construction of hotels and resorts around the lake were causing ecological damage and disrupting the natural balance.

The Chilika Bachao Andolan involved local communities, environmentalists, and civil society organizations in efforts to raise awareness, advocate for sustainable management practices, and engage with authorities to protect the lake. Their efforts led to significant changes in policies and management practices, including the relocation of shrimp farms and the establishment of the Chilika Development Authority to oversee the lake's conservation and sustainable development.

Appiko Movement:

The Appiko Movement, also known as the "Chipko of the South," is an environmental conservation movement that originated in the Uttara Kannada district of the southern Indian state of Karnataka during the early 1980s. The movement was inspired by the Chipko Movement in the northern state of Uttarakhand, which involved hugging trees to protect them from being felled. The Appiko Movement aimed to address issues related to deforestation and unsustainable logging in the Western Ghats, a region known for its rich biodiversity.

a) Community Participation: Local communities, including tribal and non-tribal people, actively participated in the movement. They realized the importance of preserving their forests for their livelihoods and the environment.

b) Non-Violent Protests: Similar to the Chipko Movement, activists engaged in non-violent protests, including hugging trees and forming human chains around trees earmarked for logging.

c) Environmental Awareness: The movement helped raise awareness about the ecological significance of the Western Ghats and the need for sustainable forest management practices.

d) Policy Impact: The Appiko Movement played a role in influencing forest policies in Karnataka, leading to increased community involvement in forest management and the protection of sensitive forest areas.

Q8ii) Write short notes on Seed suicides in India.

Ans) Seed Suicides in India is a term that refers to a distressing phenomenon wherein farmers face extreme economic hardship, indebtedness, and even suicide due to the challenges associated with the use of commercial, genetically modified (GM) seeds. This issue has been particularly prevalent among cotton farmers in certain regions of India.

The problem of seed suicides gained prominence in the late 1990s and early 2000s, particularly in the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, one of the primary cotton-producing regions in India.

It is closely related to the introduction of genetically modified cotton varieties, specifically Bt cotton, which contains genes that produce a protein toxic to certain insect pests.


a) High Seed Costs: But cotton seeds are more expensive than traditional cotton seeds, and farmers often have to buy new seeds every planting season, contributing to their financial burden.

b) Pesticide Costs: Despite the advantages of Bt cotton, farmers still need to invest in pesticides to control certain pests, adding to their overall input costs.

c) Crop Failure: Bt cotton is not resistant to all pests and environmental stresses. Crop failures can occur if the crop faces drought, infestation by secondary pests, or other environmental challenges.

d) Debt Trap: High input costs and the uncertainty of crop returns can lead to farmers taking on loans to finance their agricultural activities. In cases of crop failure or low yields, the debt burden can become overwhelming.

e) Market Fluctuations: Cotton prices can be subject to market fluctuations, affecting the profitability of cotton farming.


The economic and emotional distress faced by farmers dealing with seed suicides has led to a tragic number of farmer suicides in affected regions. This issue has raised concerns about the sustainability of GM seed technologies, the role of agricultural biotechnology corporations, and the need for support mechanisms for vulnerable farmers.

Government and NGO Interventions:

The Indian government and various non-governmental organizations have initiated programs to address the challenges faced by cotton farmers. These include financial support, crop insurance, and educational initiatives. Additionally, there have been calls for fair pricing, transparency in seed pricing, and stricter regulation of seed companies to protect the interests of farmers.

Q8iii) Write short notes on Indicators of sustainability of food security.

Ans) Indicators of sustainability for food security are essential tools for assessing and monitoring the long-term well-being of communities, ecosystems, and the global food system. These indicators help gauge whether food production, distribution, and consumption are in harmony with social, economic, and environmental factors.

Food Availability:

a) The indicator measures whether there is an adequate quantity of food to meet the nutritional needs of the population. It considers the production and imports of staple foods.

b) Evaluates the variety of available foods, as diverse diets are essential for overall health and nutrition.

Food Access:

a) Assesses whether food is economically accessible to all members of society. It includes income levels, food prices, and the affordability of a balanced diet.

b) Examines the physical access to food markets, as proximity to markets can impact food availability and affordability, especially in rural areas.

Food Utilization:

a) Nutritional Quality: Focuses on the quality of food, considering nutrient content, dietary diversity, and the adequacy of vitamins and minerals in diets.

b) Health Outcomes: Measures the health and nutritional status of individuals and communities, including indicators like stunting, wasting, and undernutrition.


a) Price Stability: Assessing the fluctuations in food prices, which can affect food access and affordability.

b) Food Supply Stability: Evaluating the resilience of food production and distribution systems to withstand shocks, such as climate events or economic crises.


a) Environmental Impact: Analyzes the ecological footprint of food production, including factors like water use, land use, and greenhouse gas emissions.

b) Biodiversity: Examines the effects of agricultural practices on biodiversity and ecosystem health.


a) Economic Resilience: Considers the ability of households and communities to withstand economic shocks that might affect their food security.

b) Crisis Response: Assesses the ability of governments and organizations to respond to food crises, such as natural disasters or conflict-induced food shortages.

Cultural and Social Factors:

a) Food Traditions: Evaluates the preservation of traditional food systems, as these often play a crucial role in cultural identity and food security.

b) Social Inclusion: Measures whether marginalized groups have equitable access to food resources and opportunities.

Q8iv) Write short notes on Environmentally Sound Technologies.

Ans) Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs) are technologies, processes, and practices that are designed to address environmental challenges and promote sustainable development. They are characterized by their ability to minimize adverse environmental impacts while efficiently utilizing resources. ESTs play a crucial role in achieving sustainability goals by reducing pollution, conserving resources, and promoting ecological balance.

Resource Efficiency: ESTs prioritize the efficient use of resources, including energy, water, and raw materials.

They seek to minimize waste and optimize resource utilization.

Pollution Prevention: One of the primary objectives of ESTs is to prevent or reduce pollution at its source. This can involve technologies that capture and treat emissions or practices that generate less waste.

Renewable Energy: Technologies related to renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind, and hydropower, are considered ESTs due to their ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and reliance on fossil fuels.

Clean Production: ESTs encourage clean and sustainable production processes that minimize environmental impacts. These can include innovations in manufacturing, agriculture, and construction.

Waste Management: Sustainable waste management technologies aim to reduce the environmental burden of waste by promoting recycling, reuse, and the reduction of landfill disposal.

Water Conservation: ESTs for water management focus on technologies and practices that conserve water resources, reduce contamination, and enhance water quality.

Biodiversity Conservation: Technologies and practices that protect and restore ecosystems and biodiversity are integral to ESTs, as they contribute to the long-term health of the planet.

Green Transportation: Environmentally sound transportation technologies include electric vehicles, fuel-efficient engines, and sustainable urban planning to reduce pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.

Sustainable Agriculture: ESTs in agriculture emphasize organic farming methods, precision agriculture, and responsible land management to enhance soil health and minimize the use of chemical inputs.

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment: Effective ESTs often involve advanced monitoring and assessment technologies that help organizations and governments track environmental changes and assess the effectiveness of mitigation measures.

International Cooperation: Many ESTs are the result of international collaboration and knowledge sharing. Developing countries often benefit from technology transfer and capacity-building programs related to ESTs.

Regulation and Policy: Governments play a crucial role in promoting the adoption of ESTs through regulations, incentives, and policy frameworks that encourage businesses and individuals to embrace these technologies.

Q8v) Write short notes on Environmental Ethics.

Ans) Environmental Ethics is a branch of ethics that examines the moral principles and values that should guide human interactions with the natural world. It seeks to address fundamental questions about humanity's relationship with the environment and how we should behave concerning nature and non-human entities.

Environmental ethics is rooted in moral philosophy and ethical principles. It explores ethical frameworks for understanding human responsibilities towards the environment.

This field acknowledges that the environment has intrinsic value beyond its utility to humans and should be respected and protected in its own right.

Main Ethical Approaches:

a) Anthropocentrism: This perspective places human interests and well-being at the center. It argues that environmental ethics should primarily focus on how nature serves human needs and values.

b) Biocentrism: Biocentric ethics extends moral consideration to all living entities. It emphasizes the intrinsic value of all life forms and their right to exist, regardless of their utility to humans.

c) Ecocentrism: Ecocentric ethics goes further by considering entire ecosystems as morally significant entities. It argues that the health and integrity of ecosystems should be protected, not just individual species.

Principles and Considerations:

a) Stewardship: Environmental ethics often emphasizes the idea of stewardship, where humans have a responsibility to care for and protect the environment for current and future generations.

b) Intrinsic Value: Recognizing the intrinsic value of the environment means acknowledging that it has worth beyond its instrumental use to humans.

c) Non-Human Rights: This perspective raises questions about the rights of non-human entities, such as animals and ecosystems, and whether they should have legal protections.

d) Sustainability: Ethical environmental behaviour involves living sustainably, ensuring that current activities do not compromise the well-being of future generations.

Challenges and Debates:

Environmental ethics faces debates on issues like animal rights, the use of natural resources, the moral standing of species, and balancing human needs with environmental conservation.

It also grapples with cultural variations in ethical perspectives, as different societies may have varying relationships with the environment.


Environmental ethics has practical applications in environmental policy, law, conservation efforts, and sustainable development. It guides decision-making on issues like climate change, wildlife protection, and ecosystem conservation.

Q8vi) Write short notes on Role of judiciary in curbing air pollution.

Ans) The judiciary plays a significant role in curbing air pollution in many countries, including India, where air pollution is a pressing concern. The judicial system's involvement in environmental protection and addressing air pollution is crucial in several ways:

Legal Framework and Enforcement:

The judiciary interprets and enforces existing environmental laws and regulations, ensuring that industries and individuals comply with air quality standards, emissions limits, and other environmental requirements.

Courts have the authority to issue orders and directives to compel polluting entities to adhere to pollution control measures and reduce emissions.

Public Interest Litigation (PIL):

Courts often entertain public interest litigation related to environmental issues, including air pollution. These PILs allow concerned citizens and environmental organizations to seek judicial intervention in cases of environmental degradation.

PILs have been instrumental in highlighting and addressing air pollution issues in various regions.

Holding Authorities Accountable:

The judiciary can hold government agencies and authorities accountable for their responsibilities related to air quality management. This includes ensuring the effective implementation of air quality action plans, monitoring, and timely response to air quality emergencies. Courts can issue directives to expedite the implementation of pollution control measures, such as the introduction of cleaner technologies and transportation systems.

Interpretation of Environmental Laws:

The judiciary clarifies and interprets environmental laws to ensure their effective enforcement. Court rulings can provide legal precedents that guide regulatory agencies, businesses, and individuals in complying with pollution control regulations.

Compensation and Remediation:

In cases of significant environmental damage and public health concerns arising from air pollution, the judiciary can award compensation to affected individuals and communities. Courts can also order remediation measures, such as afforestation, establishment of green belts, or installation of pollution control devices, as part of their judgments.

Creating Awareness:

Judicial pronouncements on air pollution issues often garner significant media attention and public awareness. They can catalyse discussions and encourage the adoption of cleaner practices and technologies.

Encouraging Innovation and Compliance:

The judiciary's role in imposing penalties and fines for non-compliance can incentivize industries to invest in cleaner technologies and practices to avoid legal consequences.

Monitoring Progress:

The judiciary often monitors the progress of air quality improvement and holds periodic reviews to assess whether measures are effectively reducing pollution levels.

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