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MEDS-043: Dynamics of Urban Planning and Development

MEDS-043: Dynamics of Urban Planning and Development

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

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Assignment Code: MEDS-043/ASST/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: MEDS-043

Assignment Name: Dynamics of Urban Planning and Development

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Answer all the questions. All questions carry 20 marks each.


1. What are scopes of public administration? Discuss emerging revitalization measures for public administration.

Ans) Scope of public administration as follows:

  1. The entire government is represented by public administration, which comprises all activities that have as their goal the implementation or execution of public policy.

  2. The study of public administration focuses on finding the most effective ways to implement policies.

  3. Public administration is concerned with "What" – the technical expertise in a field that enables the administrator to carry out his duties – and "How" – the method of management that ensures the success of the programmes.

  4. In order for there to be some order and efficiency as a result of the efforts of hundreds or even millions of workers, it entails managing, directing, and supervising their operations.

  5. The goods and services that are produced or offered for tender are at the heart of public administration, not the technique management.


Emerging Revitalization Measures for Public Administration

There are clear signs of dedication to the global rehabilitation of public institutions, according to Glemarec and Oliveira. The recent eagerness to embrace change runs counter to a trend that began in the 1980s, when public service reform was frequently seen as an "external imposition" and implemented as part of cost-cutting economic restructuring programmes in many countries at the behest of international financial and donor institutions.


In a large portion of today's world, revitalization is seen not as a bitter pill to be reluctantly swallowed but rather as a natural and wise response to escalating challenges, as governments acknowledge the necessity to reassess the workings of public administration and to orient public institutions towards citizen concerns. How to go from commitment to action poses the biggest barrier. Creating powerful alliances for change is necessary for this.


Despite variations between and within regions, the following reasons are typically given for starting rehabilitation efforts:

  1. Encouraging morality, openness, and responsibility.

  2. Improving the effectiveness and efficiency of government operations, particularly in the provision of public services.

  3. Ensuring that the government is responsive to the genuine interests and expectations of the people.

  4. Encouraging human growth

  5. Encouraging macroeconomic stability and economic growth.


Less frequently than the preceding ones, there have also been other justifications for reforming administrative systems, including the following:

  1. Developing emergency preparedness and community policing, as well as preventing and resolving conflict.

  2. Encouraging the automation of the public service while using information and communication technologies to enhance internal management procedures and external service delivery systems.

  3. Repositioning the government to meet the demands of democratisation and economic liberalisation.

  4. Promoting citizen involvement in local government and carrying out decentralisation initiatives.

  5. Establishing conditions favourable to the expansion and development of the private sector.

  6. Combining position reassignments, various redundancy management programmes, and salary and employment changes.


The integrity, efficacy, efficiency, and responsiveness of public institutions, as well as the relevance of the role performed by those institutions in fostering economic growth, macroeconomic stability, and human development, are among the topics on which there is consensus of opinion. The adoption of new laws and regulations, personnel and human resources management and training, organisational restructuring, and the adoption of anti-corruption measures are some of the measures and strategies that countries frequently use in achieving their revitalization objectives. However, solutions like privatisation and improving the legislature's ability to pass laws were not commonly mentioned. Several comments highlighted the difficulties with outsourcing necessary services, particularly the difficulties with responsibility and quality control.


Particular focus has been placed on developing career-oriented civil service laws, creating or strengthening institutions in charge of managing the public sector, reviewing hiring procedures to ensure they adhere to the highest standards of integrity, competence, and professionalism, ingraining the values of political neutrality and non-partisanship, and adopting measures to insulate the "citizen class" from political influence. The emphasis given by recent revitalization programmes to problems of interest to the public is further attested to by reports of experiences with "engaged government" in several nations.


The programmes have aided in the creation of one-stop service delivery centres in national public administration systems in addition to encouraging the use of participatory development planning and budgeting methodologies. These quality service projects, which go under various names such as "citizen centres," "service support to citizens," or "people first," all share the same goal of putting the government at the service of the populace in order to reduce poverty and advance development.


Public honesty is one topic that continuously arises on revitalization agendas in all parts of the world. It is a revitalization challenge that cuts beyond geographical, economic, socio-political, and cultural barriers and is a key component of today's regeneration initiatives. It is not surprising that people are becoming more interested in public integrity. The emphasis on integrity plays a crucial role in reinvigorating and reasserting traditional public administration values and ethos, particularly those that had, in a number of countries, succumbed to systematic politicisation or had been subverted by the tendencies of New Public Management towards "corporatization" and the downgrading of rules. This is in addition to its role in consolidating the gains of fiscal, macroeconomic, management, institutional, and other "technocratic" reforms.


2. Briefly narrate the urban development policy measures taken after 1986. Also discuss the current on-going programmes.

Ans) Urban development policy measures taken after 1986 are as follows:


The first National Housing Policy (NHP) was introduced in 1988. The NHP set out to end homelessness, improve living circumstances for those in substandard housing, and offer everyone a minimum level of fundamental services. According to the Policy, the government's function is to "provide for the poorest and most vulnerable sections and act as a facilitator for other income groups and the private sector by removing barriers and increasing the supply of land and services." Under the Seventh Plan, the IDSMT remained the most significant programme for the urban sector. 102 new municipalities were added to the scheme's coverage during the term of the Plan. The need for incorporating town level plans within the regional systems was emphasised in the Plan. The National Capital Region Planning Board was established in 1985 with the goal of distributing and redirecting population and economic activity to other metropolitan centres within the National Capital region in order to relieve pressure on Delhi and maintain the region's overall balance of growth. At the town/city level, community involvement was also emphasised


Urban Basic Services for Poor was the new name given to the UBS after it was integrated into the EIUS in 1990. (UBSP). Nehru Rozgar Yojana (NRY), another significant programme, was introduced in 1989 with the goal of providing urban impoverished people with work possibilities. The NRY consisted mostly of three things: upgrading housing, wage employment, and microenterprises. The National Commission on Urbanization (NCU) turned in its report during the same year. The NCU emphasised the interdependence of urbanisation and economic growth.


Another initiative known as the Prime Minister's Integrated Urban Poverty Eradication Programme (PMIUEP) was introduced during the same Plan era, in 1995. The PMIUEP was a five-year programme that was open to all class II cities with a population of 50,000 to 100,000, provided that local body elections had taken place. A draught of the National Urban Policy was created in 1992 by the Town and Country Planning Organization.


The 74th Constitutional Amendment Act was enacted in 1992, at the start of the 8th Plan period. It was a historic Act that intended to decentralise decision-making in cities and towns by establishing elected urban local bodies (ULBs) as institutions of democratic self-governance and transferring to these bodies crucial duties relating to city planning and service delivery.


The India Infrastructure Report had a significant impact on the 9th Plan, which ran from 1997 to 2002. The Plan acknowledged the uneven nature of India's urban process, with urbanisation and economic growth primarily focused on some regions of the nation and in some regions of a state. As a result, it acknowledged that the IDSMT, which was implemented as part of the Sixth Plan to address regional inequities, had mostly failed. The 9th Plan reaffirmed its commitment to reduce regional imbalances, but it was now the state governments' responsibility to secure funding for their initiatives from sources other than the Plan, particularly from financial institutions and capital markets.


The Union Budget of 2002–2003, which had proposed dramatic measures to pressure cities into carrying out significant urban changes, served as the context for the development of the 10th Plan. Through a series of market-friendly urban reforms and the promotion of PPPs in urban infrastructure and services, the 10th Plan's overarching goal was to encourage the makeover of cities' legislative, governance, and administrative structures. Making urban local governments financially sound was a top priority in order to reduce their dependence on state handouts.


Current on-Going Programmes

When the Prime Minister established the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission in December 2005, the process of urban reforms, which hesitantly got under way in the 8th Plan, achieved its apex (JNNURM). The JNNURM is essentially a reform-related incentive programme for assisting state governments and urban local bodies (ULBs) in selected 63 cities, including all cities with a population of over one million, state capitals, and a few other cities of significant religious and tourist significance, with the goal of improving urban governance, facilitating urban infrastructure, and providing essential services to the urban poor. The national government would contribute 50,000 crores of the estimated 1,26,000 crores total funding for the Mission.


As a result, it is by far the biggest project the federal government has ever undertaken in the urban area. The mission was divided into two sub missions, namely the Sub-Mission on Basic Services for the Urban Poor and the Sub-Mission on Urban Infrastructure and Governance. Urban renewal, water supply and sanitation, sewerage and solid waste management, urban transportation, slum development and rehabilitation, housing for urban poor, and civic facilities in slums are all acceptable components under both of these sub-submissions taken together.

3. Discuss the legal and regulatory reforms undertaken by the government of India in urban development sector.

Ans) The following is a description of some of the legal and regulatory reforms the government has started in the urban development sector:


Constitution (Seventy-Fourth Amendment) Act 1992

This ground-breaking piece of legislation proposes to redefine the role, power, function, and finances of urban local governments by adding a special Chapter on them to the Indian Constitution.


The key components of this Act are:

  1. In each notified urban area of the nation, local government entities to be named as Municipal Corporations, Municipal Councils, and Nagar Panchayats depending on population size, shall be formed.

  2. These must be reconstituted before the conclusion of the six-month period following the date of their dissolution if they are dissolved sooner than their five-year term.

  3. Each urban local authority must reserve at least one-third of its seats for female members.

  4. These entities, including those specified in the Twelfth Schedule, may be granted by legislation by the Legislature of a State the power and authority that may be required for them to operate as institutions of local self-government.


The following duties of urban local bodies are mentioned in the Constitution's Twelfth Schedule:

Town planning.

  1. Regulation of building construction and land use.

  2. Preparing for social and economic progress.

  3. Bridges and roads.

  4. Water supply for residential, commercial, and industrial uses.

  5. Solid waste management, conservation, public health, and sanitation.

  6. Services for fire.

  7. Urban forestry, environmental preservation, and ecological awareness.

  8. Defending the rights of society's less powerful groups.

  9. Slum upgrading and improvement.

  10. Reduction of urban poverty.

  11. Provision of urban facilities and amenities.

  12. Promotion of aesthetic, educational, and cultural elements.

  13. Cremations, cremation grounds, and electric crematoriums; burials and burial grounds.

  14. Animal cruelty prevention by cattle pounding.

  15. Birth and death registrations are included in vital statistics.

Rent Control Reform


1) State Level

The original purpose of the rent control regulations was to address transient issues arising from exceptional circumstances with temporary acts and short-term solutions. These legislation frequently included a sunset clause outlining the time frame during which they will expire. The laws' clauses were drafted with the idea that they would only be in effect for a short time. Inadequate rental housing supply, market distortions, and a detrimental impact on metropolitan finances have all resulted from the long-term continuation of these acts without altering such clauses.


The following are the main rent laws that need to be changed:

a) Rent regulation

b) Tenant and landlord responsibilities

c)  Only the grounds outlined by law permit the landlord to take back control of the property. The main reasons for subletting without the landlord's consent include non-payment of rent, misuse or non-use of the property, the landlord's need for the property for repairs or his or her own use, the tenant's lack of need for the property, and non-payment of rent.

d) The lengthy legal process, which might take ten to twenty years, prevents the landlord from regaining possession of the property right away.

e)  Most state (rent) laws provide the inheritance of tenancy rights. Thus, it is virtually impossible to obtain a house back after it has been rented out.


Benefits of Reform in Rent Laws for States, ULBs and Citizens:


1) States:

a) The State Domestic Product (SDP) will benefit from increased housing investment, and more jobs will be created as a result.

b) Rent prices will be lower and there will be fewer slums as there is an increase in the supply of rental dwellings.

c) A better housing situation will decrease the demand for government funding for housing and free up more funds to support other social goals.

d) Increased productivity from better use of the state's current housing stock will have a positive effect on the state's economy.

e) decrease in the number of lawsuits involving rent.

f) reduction of societal unrest


2) ULBs (Urban Local Bodies):

The following are a few advantages that the ULBs will receive:

a) Increased property tax income.

b) Fewer units of poor quality housing, which improves the quality of the city's housing stock.

c) Less strain on municipal budgets because there is less of a need to set aside money for the renovation of outdated homes, etc.


3) Citizens:

The following are some advantages of the reform for the average person:

a) Growth of a robust rental housing industry.

b) Improved rental housing cost and accessibility.

c) Increased tenure security.

d) Reduction of black money dealings because of illegal payments (like key money) made by tenants or landlords.

e) Increased availability of housing financing for landlords.


The Indian government released a Model Rent Legislation (MRL) in 1992 after realising the harm and social unrest caused by rent control regulations. Many states have enacted new laws and repealed existing ones since the model rent legislation was created. Karnataka, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, and West Bengal are among these states. A number of other states are now updating their laws.


4. What are various types of vulnerability due to disasters? Describe environmental concerns of disasters.

Ans) Types of vulnerability due to disasters are as follows:


Physical Vulnerability: The physical vulnerability of an area depends on its geographic proximity to the source and origin of the disasters.

Example: if an area lies near the coast lines, fault lines, unstable hills etc. it makes the area more vulnerable to disasters as compared to an area that is far away from the origin of the disaster.


Social Vulnerability: It refers to the inability of people, organizations and societies to withstand adverse impacts to hazards due to characteristics inherent in social interactions, institutions and systems of cultural values.

 Example: When flooding occurs some citizens, such as children, elderly and differently able, may be unable to protect themselves or evacuate if necessary.


Economic Vulnerability: The level of vulnerability is highly dependent upon the economic status of individuals, communities and nations. The poor are usually more vulnerable to disasters because they lack the resources to build sturdy structures and put other engineering measures in place to protect themselves from being negatively impacted by disasters.

Example: Poorer families may live in squatter settlements because they cannot afford to live in safer (more expensive) areas.


Environmental Vulnerability: Natural resource depletion and resource degradation are key aspects of environmental vulnerability.

Example: Wetlands are sensitive to increasing salinity from sea water, and pollution from storm water runoff containing agricultural chemicals, eroded soils, etc.


Environmental concerns

Global Warming and Extreme Climate: Other minor local environmental concerns will seem inconsequential in comparison to global warming because of its potential to drastically alter the planet's landscape. Sea levels are increasing, and glaciers are melting due to global warming. In addition to floods, India experiences severe water shortages. The western state of Rajasthan experienced drought earlier this year. The entire water system is being disrupted as a result of the Himalayan glaciers' continuous retreat; further warming will bring about even more catastrophic conditions. El Nino and La Nina effects have increasingly had severe effects all over the world.


The Himalayan glaciers are statistically confirmed to be decreasing, and they will essentially stop producing the water levels we are experiencing currently in the next fifty to sixty years. The amount of water accessible downstream and in agricultural economies like the underdeveloped Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Bihar plains will be substantially reduced as a result. As one may realise, that would lead to a great deal of societal unrest. Extreme weather is a result of the region's shifting environmental balance and diversified geographical landscape, which frequently manifests as catastrophic occurrences. Periodically, many fatalities are attributed to heat or cold waves, mainly in the northern and coastal states of the nation.


Agro forestry: For the provision of a living and environmental security, sustainable management of the natural resources, including land, water, and vegetation, is crucial. Developmental activities and ever-increasing demographic pressures are placing enormous strain on the use of these resources, which is contributing to a variety of ecological disasters like droughts, floods, cyclones, landslides, mine spoils, siltation of reservoirs, deterioration of water bodies, loss of biodiversity, etc. India has recently experienced both large- and small-scale hazards, including landslides in the Himalayan range, forest fires, and desertification, as well as cyclones along the east coast and in Gujarat, earthquakes in Uttarkashi, Latur, Jabalpur, and Chamoli, and frequent floods in the Indo-Gangetic and Brahmaputra plains. These natural disasters have had a significant impact on human life as well as the economy.


Urban Risks: India is rapidly and dramatically urbanising. By examining trends from the last two decades, it is estimated that India's cities' populations will double in the next two decades. Urbanization is predicted to increase from 25.7 percent in 1991 to more than 50 percent by 2025. According to the Ninth Five Year Plan, India will have a population of 1178.89 million people by 2011 with a 32 percent urban population share. The growing "metropolitanization" is a defining aspect of the urbanisation process.


Nature of Risks: Floods and fire are the two calamities most regularly hit metropolitan areas, although landslides, earthquakes, cyclones, and droughts also occur. Floods are the most destructive of them due to their frequent and broad effects. Although more localised, fires frequently occur in urban settings and cause significant losses in both life and property. According to studies, the number of people killed, and property destroyed by floods has risen over the previous few decades. Unplanned urban expansion along riverbanks and in other nearby low-lying areas is the main cause of this. Maharashtra's floods in 2005 are evidence of this. Sewage systems overflowed as a result of heavy flooding, contaminating water lines. Leptospirosis was declared an outbreak in Mumbai and the surrounding areas on August 11.. Only with the aid of disaster-aware urban design and development in flood-prone areas can these kinds of calamities be avoided.

5. Discuss various sources of revenues of urban local bodies and panchayati raj institutions. What measures do you suggests for the improvement of revenue sources of urban local bodies?


Sources of Revenue of Urban Local Bodies:


Tax Revenue: A few taxes are levied by urban municipal governments in their jurisdictions, including octroi, property taxes, profession taxes, entertainment taxes, advertisement taxes, animal taxes, market taxes, water taxes, pilgrim taxes, and tolls on new bridges, among others. Today, the majority of states have eliminated the octroi tax, which was a significant source of funding for metropolitan local governments. Additionally, a portion of the state government's taxes on motor vehicle, power, and stamp duties are distributed to urban municipal governments.


Non-Tax Revenue: It is made up of fees, receipts, fines, or earnings from the lucrative operations of urban municipal authorities. Different forms and processing costs are used to collect the fees. In addition, parking lots, public markets, exhibition grounds, and other locations charge fees.


  1. Grant-in-Aid: The urban local body receives funding in aid from the state government. Depending on the suggestions made by the relevant state financial commission, it differs from state to state.

  2. Loans & Bonds: The Urban Local entities are permitted to get loans from the state governments under the corresponding Municipal Acts. The interest and loan principal must be repaid within the allotted time frame. Additionally, to increase their revenue base, several towns and municipal organisations are issuing bonds today.


Sources of Revenues of Panchayati Raj Institutions:

Revenue from the Central Government: According to the recommendations of the Central Finance Commission, each state receives funding from the federal government. On the standards established by the Central Finance Commission, this is based. The National Planning Commission also provides grants to the PRIs of the states.


Revenue from the State Government: The state government's two primary sources of funding for the PRIs are:

  1. Allocation in accordance with the State Finance Commission's advice.

  2. Grant from the State Planning Commission for a particular project.


Internal resources of Revenue: Different strategies are used by PRIs in various states to mobilise internal resources. The crucial resources are

  1. Taxable earnings and charges.

  2. Non-taxable income includes earnings from livestock, sales of goods and services, borrowings, and earnings from common property resources.


Measures for the improvement of revenue sources of urban local bodies:


Municipal Asset Management: Municipal Corporations typically have few ways to generate income, and many of those ways are either underutilised or undeveloped. For instance, not every property has a property tax assessment. Assets are undervalued, and many trades are not assessed for trade tax, licence fees, and encroaching on municipal properties, among other things. At the same time, they lack adequate procedures for managing expenses and connecting budgets and accounting systems. Together, these two factors make the Corporation less creditworthy since they restrict both its ability to provide services effectively and its ability to raise money from the capital market, pooled funds, and unique programmes like JNNURM, among other sources. ULBs typically own a sizable amount of real estate as fixed assets.


However, very few local organisations have taken advantage of these properties' economic potential to produce non-tax income. The majority of ULBs do not maintain accurate asset inventories or consistently update them. As a city grows, towns on the outskirts are frequently included into its municipal boundaries. Municipal ownership then takes over panchayat land. By deducting 30% of the cost of the land and stores' development, the Guntur Municipal Corporation brought all the subleased municipal shops into the fold. The aquarium and wedding venues were leased by the Vishakhapatnam Municipal Corporation for set daily charges.


User Fees and Charges: Focusing on this area will help to better mobilise resources and link the collection of taxes with the provision of services. User fees encourage efficiency by giving public service providers information on demand and ensuring that what the public sector provides is appreciated (at the margin) by the general public. They benefit from coupling the mobilised income to the prices of the services being rendered. If the ULBs' loans are repaid with project revenues, institutional financing of projects is conceivable. The users pay/beneficiaries pay principle may be used to create user fees.


The latter is appropriate for the exclusionary principle to be applied. The customers can be identified, and it is possible to quantify the number of services utilised. If customers don't pay for the services they use, the service may be cut off.


Using Land as Resource: The value of the land near an infrastructure investment rises as a result of the building of infrastructure. Unused land that is owned by municipal or state governments has a market value and could be used to achieve development goals outlined in a city development plan (CDP). In fast-growing cities like Bangalore, Mumbai, and Pune, the conversion of land values into the resources required to pay for infrastructure is a significant alternative to using debt finance.

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