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MEDS-044: Monitoring and Evaluation of Projects and Programmes

MEDS-044: Monitoring and Evaluation of Projects and Programmes

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

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Assignment Code: MEDS-044/ASST/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: MEDS-044

Assignment Name: Monitoring and Evaluation of Projects and Programmes

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Answer all the questions. All questions carry 20 marks each.


1. What do you understand by the terms monitoring and evaluation in the context of urban development projects? Discuss different types of evaluations with suitable examples.

Ans) Monitoring: The Latin word for "monitor" means "to warn," and the Latin word for "evaluate" means "to value." An essential and significant component of a management information system is monitoring. Managers need information to monitor development programmes and direct their actions. The "right" information is gathered in the "right" amount, at the "right" time, and is made available to the "right" person or persons" through a management information system. Organizations typically develop an information system to meet the management's information demands.


Six different types of information are included in management information systems: information for review, information for implementation, information for utilisation, information for impact, and information for diagnostics. A monitoring system, which is a part of a management information system, has a number of distinct parts. The monitoring unit and other formal and informal sources provide information to top management. This has an impact on how programmes are carried out, improves programme design, and guarantees programme sustainability. This ultimately results in institutional growth.


A management information system component called a monitoring system is divided into several unique components. Top management receives information from the monitoring unit as well as other formal and informal sources. This affects how programmes are carried out, enhances the design of programmes, and ensures the sustainability of programmes. In the end, this leads to institutional growth. Monitoring and evaluation are based on four fundamental ideas. They relate to operational investment, such as the investment made per family, operational efficiency, such as the quantity of visits, meetings, demonstrations, and trials made per development worker, technical efficiency, such as output and value added, and extension-induced changes, such as income and income distribution.


Evaluation: The process of evaluating a project's actions in relation to its stated objectives allows for the systematic and objective assessment of their relevance, efficiency, effectiveness, and impact. Since objectives and an objective assessment of project outcomes are crucial components of an evaluation, the task of evaluating is typically given to an impartial organisation. Additionally, it is an organisational procedure for enhancing ongoing tasks and supporting management in future planning, programming, and decision-making. As a foundation for adjusting or rethinking future plans, evaluation gives knowledge on past or present activity.


As stated by Shapiro "Evaluation is the process of comparing the actual project effects to the established strategic plans. It examines the goals you established, the results you achieved, and the methods you used to achieve them. According to PSO, "Evaluation means assessing a project, programme, or policy, whether it is continuing or completed, as methodically and objectively as feasible. Making claims regarding their applicability, efficiency, efficacy, impact, and sustainability is the goal.


Types of Evaluation

Usually, the evaluation falls into one of the following categories:

  1. Evaluation by Focus: It comes in the form of summative and formative evaluations.

  2. Evaluation by Agency

  3. Evaluation by Stage

4. Longitudinal Evaluation

It is a follow-up evaluation to investigate the longevity of outcomes.

5. Ongoing Evaluation (Concurrent Evaluation

It is categorised as ongoing evaluation when the monitored data is further analysed and examined by the project management on a regular basis with the aim of determining the ad hoc relationship between project inputs or activities and outputs and the influence of external constraints on project performance. This exercise in effect and impact monitoring in long-term programmes is more appropriate. The aim behind this is to change or redefine the policies, goals, institutional setups, and resources that have an impact on the project during implementation. Since the major goal of this evaluation is to make mid-course corrections, the project personnel can also use it, which is why it is sometimes referred to as an internal evaluation. Concurrent or mid-term evaluation is another name for this type of assessment. This kind of review is typically carried out as part of lengthy initiatives.


2. What is the purpose of project appraisal? Discuss any two project appraisal techniques with their advantages and disadvantages.

Ans) Purpose of project appraisal: The process of evaluating the justification for moving on with a project or plan is referred to as project assessment in general. Comparing alternative possibilities using economic evaluation or another decision analysis technique is frequently involved. An accurate appraisal justifies project funding. It establishes the framework for delivery and evaluation and is a crucial instrument in decision-making. Fundamental inquiries concerning the need for finance and the value a project provides are made during the appraisal process. It can inspire trust that tax dollars are being used wisely and assist in finding further funding for a project. The methodical process of determining whether a project or proposal is viable is known as project appraisal.


Project Appraisal Techniques


Payback Period

The payback period, put simply, is the amount of time needed to recoup the project's initial financial investment. The payback period is determined by dividing the initial outlay by the annual cash inflow, assuming that the cash inflows are constant. For instance, the payback period for a project with an initial cash investment of Rs 10,00,000 and a steady yearly cash inflow of Rs 2,000,00,000 is 5 years (10,00,000/2,000,00,000).


If the cash flow is not constant, for example, if a project has a cash outlay of Rs. 6,00,000 and generates cash inflows of Rs. 1,00,000, Rs. 1,50,000, Rs. 1,50,000, and Rs. 2,00,000 in the first, second, third, and fourth years, respectively, it’s payback period is four years because the total of the cash inflows over the course of four years equals the total outlay.


Decision making: The payback period criterion states that the more desirable a project is, the shorter the payback period must be. The maximum allowable payback period is typically specified by businesses using this criterion.


Evaluation of this method:

  1. Conceptually and practically, it is straightforward.

  2. It discriminates against projects that only produce significant cash flows in later years and favours those that generate significant inflows in earlier years.

  3. Since this criterion places a focus on earlier cash flows, it can be a beneficial one when the organisation is struggling with a liquidity issue.

  4. It violates the most fundamental rule of financial analysis, which states that cash flows happening at separate times in time can only be added or subtracted after appropriate compounding and discounting, by failing to take the time value of money into account.

  5. Payback period may obscure profitability because it serves as a gauge of a project's capital recovery.


Payback period is employed advantageously in apprising investments despite the drawback of not considering the time worth of money for the following reasons:

  1. When annual cash flow is consistent and the project's life is fairly long, the payback period can be roughly equated to the internal rate of return.

  2. The payback period resembles the breakeven point in certain ways.

  3. The payback period also reveals how quickly the project's underlying uncertainty will be resolved. The uncertainty surrounding the project is resolved more quickly the shorter the payback period is.


Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR)

The debt service coverage ratio is typically used to assess the viability of long-term financing projects. The formula is [net profit + interest (on long term loan) + depreciation] / [interest (on long term loan) + principal loan].


Decision Making: Financial institutions often deem a debt service coverage ratio of two to be satisfactory.


Drawback: Both the numerator and the denominator in DSCR are made up of a combination of post-tax and pre-tax statistics (profit after tax in the numerator and loan repayment instalment in the denominator are post tax figures and interest in both numerator and denominator is pre-tax figure). A ratio that is based on a combination of post-tax and pre-tax statistics is challenging to understand.


3. Differentiate between qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. Write the uses and limitations of various qualitative data collection methods.

Ans) Differences between qualitative and quantitative data collection methods as follows:

Uses and limitations of various qualitative data collection methods as follows:

Observation Method

Use: Both the formative and summative phases of evaluation might benefit from observations. For instance, during the formative phase, observations might be helpful in assessing if the project is being carried out and operated according to plan. The faculty development sessions in the fictitious project may be described using observations, which would look at how well participants understood the concepts, asked the relevant questions, and interacted appropriately. These formative observations may also offer insightful information about the presenters' pedagogical approaches and how they are presenting the subject matter.



  1. A costly and time-consuming approach.

  2. It's possible that there won't be much information available.

  3. The work of observation may be hindered by extraneous elements.


Focus Groups


Focus groups are helpful for doing evaluations since they can provide answers to the same questions as in-depth interviews. The focus group technique is used in evaluations in a variety of ways, including:

  1. Describing and recognising implementation-related issues.

  2. Determining the advantages, disadvantages, and suggestions for the project.

  3. Aiding in the interpretation of numerical results.

  4. Gathering opinions on the effects and outcomes of a project.

  5. Creating fresh concepts.


In-depth interviews and focus groups have a lot in common, but they shouldn't be used interchangeably.



  1. The moderator must keep the conversation moving and ensure that no one or two people control the conversation.

  2. Generally speaking, the focus group session shouldn't go on for more than one and a half to two hours.

  3. It is possible to present fresh viewpoints and thoughts.


Case Study Method


  1. The researcher can use different methods such as depth interviews, questionnaires, documents, study reports of individuals, and so on.

  2. It helps a lot to the researcher in the task of constructing the appropriate questionnaire.

  3. It useful in the experience, analysing ability, and skills of the researcher.

  4. It facilitates the drawing of inferences and helps in maintaining the continuity of the research process.



  1. The danger of false generalization is always there in view of the fact that no set rules are followed in the collection of the information and only a few units are studied.

  2. It consumes more time and requires a lot of expenditure. More time is needed under the case study method since one studies the natural history cycles of social units and that too minutely.

  3. The case data are often vitiated because the subject, according to reading Bain, may write what he thinks the investigator wants; and the greater the rapport, the more subjective the whole process is.

  4. The case study method is based on several assumptions which may not be very realistic at times, and as such, the use of case data is always subject to doubt.

  5. The case study method can be used only in a limited sphere, it is not possible to use it in the case of a big society. Sampling is also not possible under a case study method.


4. Proper planning of different phases involved in programme planning cycle enhances the success of urban development programme. Illustrate with suitable examples.

Ans) There are three stages to the programme planning process.:


Programme Formulation

Collection of Facts and Analysis: Urban development professionals need to understand how to include people in the development process and their socioeconomic, cultural, and psychological position.


The following information should generally be gathered.

  1. Number of recipients.

  2. Beneficiaries' levels of education

  3. Amenities for communication.

  4. Economic and social status.

  5. Availability of public or neighbourhood facilities.

  6. General state of the neighbourhood.

  7. Customs, traditions, institutions, community-based groups, etc.


Systematic observation, interviews, surveys, records already kept by the government, census reports, and the prior experiences of urban development workers are some of the methods and tools used to gather data. After gathering information, it is evaluated and interpreted to determine the issues and requirements of the populace.


Identification of Problems: The investigation of the facts reveals the significant discrepancies between "what is" and "what should be," as well as the issues that contributed to this scenario. These gaps reflect the requirements of the populace. different direct and indirect factors that contribute to the urban transportation issue. Some of the connected causes are the rising population, which causes demand to outpace supply, forcing individuals to use private vehicles. These result in greater likelihood of accidents, increased environmental pollution, longer travel times, and traffic congestion.


Determination of Objectives: The requirements and issues of the people are stated in terms of objectives and goals once they have been identified. The objectives serve as a projection of the future changes that will be made to the environment or in people's behaviour. Both long-term and short-term aims are acceptable, and they must be communicated in plain terms.


The following could be the goals of a one-year "Mitigating Urban Transport Problem" project to address the above-mentioned urban transportation system problem:

  1. To inform commuters of the advantages of taking public transportation.

  2. Through promoting commuter carpooling, to at least halve the number of automobiles on the road.


Developing the Plan of Activities: The means and techniques for achieving each of the mentioned objectives are chosen, and the action plan, or the calendar of actions, is created, in order to fulfil the goals. It covers the technical information, who is responsible for what, and the deadline by which the work must be finished. The job schedule could be seasonal, transient, annual, or long-term.


Example: Create the following activity schedule for the aforementioned goals, print it, and distribute it to everyone involved.

1) Creating urban extension literature on the advantages of public mass transit systems, such as the Metro

a) Saving commuters time.

b) Reliable and secure travel.

c) Pollution reduction in the atmosphere.

d) Decrease in accidents

e) Decreased fuel usage.

f) Decreased costs for operating vehicles.

g) A rise in the average speed of vehicles on the road, etc.

2) Utilizing the information mentioned above, run 6-7 awareness campaigns per month targeting public spaces like Sundays, schools, and offices on the advantages of using public transportation.

3)  Persuade at least 20% of users of personal automobiles to switch to pooled vehicles through one-on-one and group interactions.


Programme Execution

Carrying out the Activities: After the action plan has been created, the specific activity must be started together with arrangements for supplying the required inputs, instructional materials, extension literature, etc. The plan of activities is to be carried out using extension approaches to encourage people and groups to think, act, and participate in productive ways. To ensure the program's success, participation from the public is necessary at every stage.


Continuous Checking: Follow up on the tasks you complete on a regular basis. As a starting point for evaluating the results, keep adequate records of each activity.


Programme Evaluation

Evaluation of Results: It is done to assess the program's level of achievement of the stated objectives. This is mostly done to assess how the programme has changed people's circumstances or behaviours. In order to identify the strong and weak aspects of the program-planning process and make the required adjustments in the following programmes, evaluation is done not only of the physical accomplishments but also of the methods and techniques used and of the other phases.


Reconsideration: The program's strengths and weaknesses will be identified through a thorough and ongoing evaluation. Based on these observations, the programme is re-examined, and the required modifications and changes should be done to make it more sound and relevant.


Always keep in mind that programme planning is not the final result of urban development efforts, but rather a tool for teaching people to recognise their own problems and take prompt, wise decisions. It is evident from the aforementioned phases that the planning to mitigate the urban transportation problem consists of a logical chain of related steps.

5. What do you mean by measurement? Discuss different levels of measurement along with their application in the analysis of project data.

Ans) Measurement is the quantification of attributes of an object or event, which can be used to compare with other objects or events. In other words, measurement is a process of determining how large or small a physical quantity is as compared to a basic reference quantity of the same kind. The scope and application of measurement are dependent on the context and discipline. In natural sciences and engineering, measurements do not apply to nominal properties of objects or events, which is consistent with the guidelines of the International vocabulary of metrology published by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures. However, in other fields such as statistics as well as the social and behavioural sciences, measurements can have multiple levels, which would include nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio scales.


Levels of Measurement with their Application in the Analysis of Project Data


Nominal or Categorical Scale: The simplest, most basic, and weakest type of measurement is when we can replace real objects with symbols or numbers. In other words, we only describe or categorise things, people, or even features using these symbols or numbers. At the most basic level, a scientist needs to come up with a classification system that will allow all of the recorded occurrences to fit into it.


For ease of identification, we assign each category of event or item a name, a number, or a symbol. Then, a nominal or classificatory scale is made up of these symbols or numbers. The scale's categories must be mutually exclusive, exhaustive, and unordered. Typically, the categories that make up a nominal scale are referred to as characteristics. As a result, there are only two kinds of sex for mammals: male and female. The STD dialling code 033 designates all telephone subscribers in the Calcutta telephone zone; blue, brown, black, etc. are classifications of human eye colours. A population can also be categorised by their jobs or their rural urban background.


Ordinal Scale: The ordinal scale gives the researcher the ability to group people, things, or survey responses according to a certain trait that they share. For instance, there are occasions when objects in one class on a nominal scale are not just distinct from those in another class on the same scale, but also have some sort of relationship to one another. The members of one class typically possess more of a certain quality or characteristic than members of other classes. Such a connection is frequently indicated with the symbol carat (>), which stands for "more than." All relationships between classes, including "preferred to," "more than," "greater than" "higher than" etc., are expressed with the symbol >.


Interval Scale: We have accomplished a more powerful measurement, stronger than ordinality, when a scale possesses all the characteristics of an ordinal and ordered metric scale and when we have additional knowledge about how great the gaps (intervals) between any two stimuli are. A measurement has been made in this kind of equipment using an interval scale.

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