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MEDSE-046: Development Issues and Perspectives

MEDSE-046: Development Issues and Perspectives

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

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Assignment Code: MEDSE-046/TMA/2021-22

Course Code: MEDSE-046

Assignment Name: Development: Issues and Perspectives

Year: 2021-2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Marks: 100

Q1) Explain the vicious circle of poverty? What measures have to be taken to control poverty in the developing countries?

Ans) The interconnectivity of different elements that reinforce one other for developing poverty is referred to as the vicious circle of poverty. They are impoverished because there are too many of them. Because they are poor, there are far too many of them.

The causes of this vicious cycle of poverty, according to Nurkse and Kindleberger, can be divided into three categories:

Supply Side Factors

The supply side of the vicious circle shows that productivity in developing countries is so low that capital formation is impossible. "The backward nations cannot get their heads above water because their production is so low that they can spare no money for capital formation that would increase their standard of life," Samuelson writes. On the supply side, Nurkse claims that because of the low amount of national income, there is a limited capacity to save. Low real income is caused by low productivity, which is largely attributable to a scarcity of capital. The lack of capital is a result of a limited ability to save, creating a vicious spiral.

  1. Low Income

  2. Low Saving

  3. Low Investment

  4. Low Production

  5. Low Income

As a result of the preceding figure, it is apparent that the main cause of poverty is a lack of savings. As a result, investment in production channels is not conceivable. Consumption accounts for a large portion of GDP. People are unable to save. As a result, there is a scarcity of capital formation and investment. Although wealthy people have the ability to save, many prefer to spend their excess on expensive items rather than conserving. They preferred high-priced stuff and products from other countries. As a result, their demand does not expand the market's size. As a result, developing countries lack investment opportunities.

Demand Side Factors

Several factors on the demand side, according to Nurkse, produce poverty. Because of the people's poor purchasing power, which is a result of their low real income, the incentive to invest in developing countries is limited.

  • Low Income

  • Low Demand

  • Low Investment

  • Low Productivity

  • Low Income

The low level of demand in many countries is the primary cause of poverty. As a result, market sizes are still small. The market's modest size constitutes a roadblock in the path of investment attraction.

Market Imperfections

According to Meier and Baldwin, market flaws inhibit the optimal allocation and utilisation of natural resources, resulting in underdevelopment and, ultimately, poverty. The character of human resources influences the development of natural resources. Natural resources, on the other hand, are underutilised, mistreated, and unutilized due to a lack of expertise and knowledge. Market imperfections have created a vicious cycle of poverty.

Measures for Poverty

Different approaches to overcoming poverty are covered further down. Let's take a closer look at each of these points.

  • Increase in Saving : To break the supply-side vicious circle in these countries, efforts should be undertaken to raise savings, allowing for increased investment in productive channels. Marriages, social ceremonies, and other large-scale events should be avoided in order to enhance savings. Voluntary savings are difficult to come by in developing countries. As a result, government intervention is required in this case. By changing its fiscal policy, the government can encourage people to save more. The government has the authority to levy high taxes on luxury products. Furthermore, it has the potential to strengthen the function of direct taxes. As a result, by modifying the tax structure, the government can reduce consumption.

  • Increase in Investment : Apart from growing savings, investing resources in productive channels is also very useful in breaking the poverty cycle. Short-term and long-term investment policies should be synchronised. People can receive the necessary commodities at reasonable prices with a short-term investment, which will improve their expertise. Furthermore, in addition to short-term investments, investment in multipurpose projects such as iron and chemical fertilisers should be promoted. Proper monetary and banking policies should be implemented in UDCs so that small savings can be facilitated and encouraged.

  • Balanced Growth: To break the demand-side vicious circle in developing countries, the market should be expanded to provide incentives for people to invest. Prof. Nurkse pushed for the theory of balanced growth in this regard. According to the balanced growth principle, investments should be made in all areas of an economy so that demand from one sector may be met by demand from another. As a result, an increase in demand will result in a larger market and, as a result, a greater incentive to invest.

Economists such as Hirschman, Singer, and Fleming, on the other hand, do not believe that a balanced growth policy is effective. They believe that an imbalanced growth approach would be more beneficial. There is a possibility of increased demand in UDCs, as well as a requirement for more monetary income. The majority of UDCs have implemented a planned development policy. As a result of increased public sector investment, the money supply expands. The size of the market widens as monetary income rises. These countries are attempting to increase their exports in order to expand their overseas market.

  • Human Capital Formation : The biggest impediment to economic growth in developing countries is a lack of human capital. Human capital cannot be overlooked any longer. Many ideas can be given to improve personnel skill. Education, technical expertise, and vocational training, for example, should be expanded in these countries. Health-care facilities should be improved, as this will raise worker efficiency. It is necessary to improve transportation and communication.

  • Industrialisation : Poverty can be abolished through a self-sustaining manufacturing process. To create a powerful process of ancilary industries and vocations, all industries should be linked. The formation of auxiliary industries can have a powerful percolation influence on industries.

Agriculture and industry should be integrated. Agro-based companies, which are labor-intensive, should expand to generate jobs for village residents. Industrialisation has the potential to aid in the growth process and raise people's living standards.

Other Measures for Poverty Reduction

More employment opportunities : Poverty can be eradicated by expanding employment possibilities, allowing people to meet their basic necessities.

  • Minimum needs programmes: Providing the bare necessities to the impoverished can assist to alleviate poverty.

  • Social security programmes: Various social security programmes, such as worker's compensation, maternity benefits, provident funds, and so on, can combat poverty from the front.

  • Small scale industries: Encouragement and establishment of small-scale companies can help to alleviate poverty in rural regions by creating jobs.

  • Spread of education: Education can raise people's knowledge and confidence in their ability to find ways out of poverty.

  • Empowerment of poor: Because of the merciless development system, poor people have no voice. As a result, impoverished people's empowerment will help to alleviate poverty.

  • Land reforms: In India, land belongs to absentee landlords. As a result, land reform is required to provide rights to the actual soil tiller.

  • Asset creation: It is necessary to develop productive assets that will provide underprivileged individuals with a steady source of income.

  • Political will: To address the problem of poverty, political will and determination are required. Government policy should be crafted with the goal of achieving a country free of poverty.

  • Social change: Dogmas should be removed from social strata and traditional beliefs. No one should be discriminated against because of their caste. To alleviate poverty among the lower castes and women, social reforms are also required.

Q2) Discuss the role of infrastructure in development. Describe how to measure infrastructural development of a nation state.


Role of Infrastructure

Infrastructure is widely acknowledged as critical to long-term economic development. Regardless of progress on other fronts, high transaction costs resulting from insufficient and inefficient infrastructure might impede the economy from reaching its full growth potential. Physical infrastructure, such as transportation, power, and communication, enables growth through backward and forward linkages; social infrastructure, such as water supply, sanitation, sewage disposal, education, and health, which are fundamental services, have a direct impact on quality of life. Increasingly clogged roadways, power outages, long lines for phone installation, and water shortages are evident evidence of capacity and inefficiency, raising concerns about the future sustainability of economic growth.

The ability to commercialise these projects and recover expenditures through a system of user charges would determine the success of private sector participation in infrastructure development. Public-private partnerships (PPPs) have the ability to contribute more and assist India bridge the infrastructure deficit. In the previous ten years, there has been significant progress in drawing private investment into infrastructure sectors, first in telecommunications, then in ports and highways, as well as in individual projects in other industries. There is a need for effective resource alignment with the present GDP growth of 8%, which includes almost 51% contribution from services and 16% contribution from manufacturing.

To maintain this growth, India must invest in sound infrastructure, including skilled, qualified, and socially satisfied labour; visible and reliable supply chains; timely and accurate information for decision-making; and d) efficient processes and updated technology for manufacturing and service operations. It is obvious that world-class infrastructure is required to keep up with 8% economic growth. As rising air travel puts airport capacity to the test, city roadways are congested, power outages are common, and passengers are often delayed. Following the Indian economy's industrial liberalisation, demand for infrastructure services has risen dramatically.

Unfortunately, infrastructural constraints continue to be the country's primary impediment to industrial success. Infrastructure projects, by their very nature, need large initial investments, long gestation periods, and a significant level of risk. The ensuing bottlenecks are posing severe obstacles to increasing efficiency. Water supply and sanitation are crucial basic needs for improving individuals' quality of life and increasing their productive efficiency. Rapid industrialization, natural growth, and migration from rural areas have all contributed to an expansion in the urban population. Given the restrictions of land and capital, as well as the need to regulate energy consumption, pollution, and accidents, this has encouraged the development of alternate means to meet the growing need for transportation. A model of infrastructure inputs and outputs is shown below.

Infrastructural development in a country aids in the efficient and effective operation of any organisation. Cost control is essential and within a company's reach because cost is a fact and price is a potential, and pricing is determined by market forces due to heavy competition. Lowering costs is possible with better-managed operations and smart infrastructure. In India, the nature of operations management is evolving. Customer demands for better services, technology's growing dominance, the view of the individual enterprise as just one component of the total value system, the increasing interconnectedness and globalisation of business and economics, and the growing number of stakeholders to satisfy are all contributing to significant operational challenges.

The infrastructure or construction industry must deal with a number of difficulties. The first is to compare project cost projections to actual costs incurred. According to our experience, the average cost of a project increases by 30% when compared to the projected cost. If the project is large, a 30% increase represents an additional financial burden of several crores of rupees to accomplish it. Due to the geographical spread of projects and the use of temporary or mobile offices, monitoring and controlling expenses is a major challenge. In such a situation, centralised purchasing becomes problematic, resulting in the loss of bulk discounts and a higher material landing cost. As a result, checking inventories and accounting for goods utilised becomes challenging.

Ways to Measure the Infrastructural Development

Some of the methods for measuring infrastructure development, based on World Bank principles, are presented below:

Implementation Completion Reports (ICR)

When a project is finished and closed at the end of the loan disbursement period (which can take anywhere from 1 to 10 years), the World Bank or funding agencies, as well as the borrower government or developer, document the results obtained, the problems encountered, the lessons learned, and the knowledge gained from completing the project. The report, created by World Bank operating personnel, is for informational purposes only and is submitted to the Bank's Board of Executive Directors. The knowledge gathered from this results measuring technique will be useful in the future for similar projects.

Independent Evaluation Group (IEG)

An independent institution within the World Bank or one of its funding organisations aims to provide an objective basis for evaluating the Bank's work's outcomes. The IEG evaluates the performance of about one out of every four projects (about 70 projects a year). These project performance reports assess outcomes in relation to the project's original goals, as well as the results' long-term viability and impact on institutional growth. The IEG also releases impact evaluation reports from time to time to examine the economic value of projects as well as their long-term consequences on people and the environment.

Quality Assurance Group (QAG)

The Quality Assurance Group assesses World Bank personnel or financing organisations' operations in developing nations, offering timely comments that can help improve project design and monitoring. The QAG issues an Annual Report on Portfolio Performance, which provides a strategic assessment of the size, composition, and quality of the Bank's loan portfolio and analytical research programme to the Bank's Board of Directors and Senior Management.

Results Measurement System (RMS)

The World Bank's International Development Association (the fund for the world's poorest countries) keeps track of aggregated outcomes. Its Results Measurement System (RMS) is intended to keep funders informed about the IDA's effectiveness by focusing its actions on development outcomes. The system assesses outcomes on two levels:

a) Aggregate country outcomes including

  • Growth and poverty reduction

  • Governance and investment climate

  • Infrastructure for development

  • Human development.

b) The IDA’s contribution to country outcomes, or agency effectiveness.

GIS Mapping

Multi sensor mobile mapping has become a key need in many emerging and established countries due to the pressing need for infrastructure expansion and to keep existing infrastructure in good working order. It is commonly known that transitioning from static to dynamic mapping has significantly accelerated infrastructure development. There are now a number of systems in use around the world that lack an uniform accuracy and performance requirement. The key factors that will meet the expectations of diverse parts of the infrastructure industries are automation, high accuracy, and budgets.

Q3) How to formulate Gender Development Index? Describe various gender adversaries and what measures to be taken to overcome gender adversaries.


Formulation of Gender Development Index

The GDI was created by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in 1995 to examine the impact of gender disparities on a country's overall human development. The indicators used to compute HDI and GDI are similar, however GDI is further restricted to calculate gender differences in each parameter. The three areas which are used to measure human capabilities for HDI are:

  • life expectancy to measure longevity

  • educational attainment or literacy level to represent level of knowledge

  • an appropriately adjusted real GDP per capita to ensure a decent standard of living

The above indices are adjusted for the purpose of calculating GDI to provide gender-based results that explain the amount of gender disparity in a country. The GDI is intended to assess women's accomplishments in each of the three areas listed below:

  • life expectancy at birth

  • illiteracy level

  • standard of living reflected in income level of women

Life expectancy at birth is a good predictor of a group's ability to thrive and prosper (especially women). It is directly influenced by the following factors:

  • health care in society in general

  • availability of facilities to mother and child

  • society’s cultural preferences

Males have a longer life expectancy than females, indicating that there is a visible discrepancy in society. The extent of gender disparity in a country can be categorically determined by measuring GDI using this metric. Similarly, access to education is determined by educational achievement or literacy rate. The majority of people in developing countries, where a large percentage of the population lives in poverty, are concerned about the accessibility and affordability of educational institutions. This indicator is used by GDI to correctly identify the extent of gender inequality that cannot be identified by HDI because it focuses on overall development. The people's income level determines their standard of living in considerable part.

However, using an absolute level of revenue to calculate any metric might be misleading. The population's income level can be significantly skewed, with big sections at the bottom of the pyramid with low income levels and a few at the top of the pyramid with huge income levels. To determine the extent of disparity between men and women, the GDI considers both men and women's income levels. The GDI will degrade whenever and everywhere there is a large difference. According to UNDP data, industrialised countries routinely outperform poor countries on the GDI index. India is ranked 113 out of 177 countries on the GDI scoreboard, with a GDI score of 0.6.

Methods of Calculation of GDI

The following three steps are applied for the calculation of GDI.

a) The first step is to estimate male and female development indices. As there are three indicators, we need to estimate six development indices.

  • male education development indices

  • male health development index

  • male income development index

  • female education development index

  • female health development index

  • female income development index

b) Step 2 entails merging female and male indices in each indicator/dimension in such a way that disparities in achievement are penalised. Equally dispersed index is the name given to the resulting index.

  • To calculate the value of GDI, the final phase arranges the three evenly distributed indices in an outweighed fashion.

  • The GDI, which ranges from 0 to 1, is the average of these three evenly dispersed indices. A GDI of one (GDI=1) signifies that a country has achieved its development goal and has eliminated gender differences in its population.

Various Gender Adversaries

Missing Women

'Missing women' are a reflection of every society's gender imbalances. The gender with higher performance is favoured, while the gender with lower performance is ignored. This leads to more missing women being added to the list. Discrimination against women can start from a young age. In various regions of the world, parental selection, female infanticide or abandonment, childhood sexual exploitation, genital mutilation, and a lack of proper nutrition and health care all have an impact on the number of females who survive to adulthood. These factors, combined with limited access to education, early marriage, and early childbearing, have an impact on girls' health and welfare, which can last a lifetime.

The following are some of the causes of missing women:

  • Patrilocal exogamy: Sons stay with the origin or parental family and contribute to joint income, whereas daughters leave their homes to join their husband's parents' household. Investment in sons appears to pay off in terms of education and property ownership, whereas investment in daughters is considered as a waste of money.

  • Economic Value: Despite the fact that women perform the bulk of the work, they do not have an equal proportion of revenue, earnings, or wealth. Discrimination against women in terms of incomes, employment, credit and capital accumulation mechanisms, and private social benefit systems has an impact on their children and other household members' economic well-being.

  • Patriarchal Society: A patriarchal society is one of the major causes of the diminishing gender ratio. Another cause for discrimination against daughters is the need for male successors to property.

  • Poverty: Women's circumstances deteriorate as a result of poverty. The disproportionate load of family life restricts access to education, training, and paid work. Women are driven into unorganised, informal work, which exposes them to economic, physical, and mental exploitation.

  • Declining sex ratio: The declining sex-ratio is one of the reasons that foeticide is a matter for concern. A large number of young girls are kidnapped before they are born. Punjab and Haryana in Northern India have a low sex ratio as compared to Southern Indian states. Kerala has India's highest sex ratio of 1058. The all-India sex ratio was 927 in 1991, and 933 in 2001.

Violence against Women

Despite the protections provided by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Convention on the Rights of the Child, gender discrimination and violence against women and girls exists in many parts of the world and is on the rise. Despite pledges made in the convention, the Beijing Platform for Action, and the Millennium Development Goals to abolish all forms of discrimination against women, girls continue to be exploited by persons and victims of laws that fail to sufficiently protect them.

  • Forms of Violence: Gender-based violence reflects and promotes imbalances between men and women, jeopardising victims' health, dignity, security, and autonomy. It covers a wide range of human rights violations, including child sexual abuse, rape, domestic violence, sexual assault and harassment, women's and girls' trafficking, and a number of harmful cultural practises.

  • Witchcraft: A lady living in a hamlet is sometimes accused of being a witch and the source of the village's misfortunes. She is tortured and killed on a regular basis. Such acts are the result of a lack of education and superstition.

  • Devadasi: Girls are made devadasis as children to serve in temples, and they must leave their homes and live in the temple complex. These girls are raised at the temple under the care of priests, and when they reach adulthood, the majority of them are exploited.

  • Dowry: This is one of the most common crimes committed against women. A bride is expected to bring dowry in the form of cash or kind as requested by the bridegroom's family at the time of marriage. The marriage is not finalised if the dowry is not paid, and if the dowry is not paid after the wedding, the bride is tormented or even burned to death. A multitude of flaws in the judicial system allow the perpetrators to avoid prosecution.

  • Exploitation at the workplace, in schools, and at home: Because the perpetrator is a well-known individual, this type of exploitation is rarely reported. Colleagues, bosses, teachers, or relatives are the perpetrators of crimes against women. The victim suffers in silence due to social stigma and the inability to prove a trusted person's guilt.

  • Rape: This is one of the most common types of crimes committed against women. Not all rape instances are reported to the authorities. Victims of rape are not protected by the law. Many times, the perpetrators are close relatives, friends, or well-known individuals.

  • Blackmail: Women have become increasingly vulnerable to blackmail as technology has advanced. Blackmailing has become easier thanks to the deployment of spy cameras and their transfer to CDs and DVDs.

  • Sex determination: Another downside of technology is the ability to determine one's gender. Due to sex determination, the sex ratio is worsening. According to recent research, missing women are more common in wealthy northern Indian regions than in poorer southern areas.

  • Selling of Girls: Girl children are sold for a pittance, and boy children are sold for a pittance. They are occasionally sold under the idea of marriage as well. Many of them wind themselves in prison. as bar girls or prostitutes It is illegal to sell girls as domestic help or sex workers. The family's poverty is also a factor.

  • Other forms of violence: Forcing females into prostitution and honour killings are two examples. Females are killed for their honour if they rebel against their families' or relatives' wishes and marry into other castes or religions.

Programmes for Prevention and Care

Gender-based violence is acknowledged in both the household and public domains.

Such inhumane acts of violence should be avoided at all costs. To enable women, their families, and their communities to reach their full potential, discrimination against women in employment, access to capital, and technology must be eliminated, with a focus on developing economic opportunities for women in private enterprise, agriculture, and all other sectors of formal employment. Skills in education and training are critical for establishing economic prosperity.

Traditional discriminatory practises such as sati, devadasi, and genital mutilation should be abolished, and the law should be strictly enforced. Legislative measures for the protection and promotion of women's rights should be developed. It is necessary to raise awareness of the laws, rights, and obligations that apply to family life. Psychological and financial assistance must be provided to victims of violence.

The UNFPA has implemented a number of methods to combat gender-based violence.

  1. Ensure that victims of sexual violence have access to emergency contraception.

  2. In collaboration with other UN partners and NGOs, strengthening advocacy on gender-based violence in all country programmes.

  3. Working with Parliamentarians and Women's National Networks to advocate for women.

  4. Incorporating gender-based violence prevention messaging into information, education, and communication efforts.

  5. More study on gender-based violence is being carried out.

Q4) Distinguish between sustainable agriculture and inclusive agriculture. Describe two important agricultural reforms undertaken in India for agricultural development.


Sustainable Agriculture

Sustainable agriculture is a method of farming that can be passed down through the generations. This long-term agricultural strategy combines efficient output with prudent preservation of the planet's resources. A sustainable agriculture is one that improves environmental quality and the resource base on which agriculture relies over time, while also meeting basic human food and fibre needs, being economically viable, and improving the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole. It's crucial to understand the numerous qualities of sustainable agriculture after reading these two definitions.

A farm that prioritises short-term profit over environmental quality would not be sustainable in the long run, according to the definitions of sustainable agriculture. On the other hand, pursuing environmental quality without assuring the viability of short-term rewards is unsustainable.

  • Provide a safe, high-quality, and economical supply of food and fibre to meet human needs;

  • Ensure that everyone has access to good, healthy, and inexpensive food, as well as a safe and secure supply of food;

  • Produce high-quality food while protecting open space, a diverse wildlife population, and other forms of biodiversity.

  • Using natural biological cycles and controls, protect the natural resource base and avoid degradation of air, soil, and water quality.

Inclusive Agriculture

Inclusive agriculture refers to the development of agriculture in areas where farmers have been systematically excluded from agricultural incentives, subsidies, and other similar benefits.

Inclusionary agriculture would primarily focus on:

  • Agriculture promotion in dry terrain, hilly and sub-mountainous areas, and deserts.

  • Small, marginal, and landless agricultural labourers who do a great job but don't get anything in return.

  • Women's roles as cultivators, entrepreneurs, extension agents, and farm labourers in agriculture.

  • Incentives for all types of agriculture, including both food and cash crops, animals, fruits and vegetables, and horticulture.

  • Farmers in disadvantaged conditions and localities have access to finance from organised organisations as well as marketing facilities.

The Government of India (2007) has also stated that in order for growth to be inclusive, the agricultural strategy must focus on the 85 percent of farmers who are marginal, increasingly female, and who find it difficult to access inputs, credits, and extension services, as well as to market their output.

Agricultural Reforms

Land Reforms

Land ownership and use patterns were changed during British colonisation to make it easier for the British to buy land at low costs for mines, plantations, and other purposes. This system was not introduced to India by the British, but it was popularised by them. The British promoted the 'zamindari' system (where landlords collect tax from peasants) at the expense of the 'jajmani' system (where everyone shares the land) with the introduction of the land tax under the Permanent Settlement Act 1793.

At the time of independence, land ownership and control were concentrated in the hands of a few landlords whose primary goal was to extract the maximum rent from their tenants. The tenant farmer had little economic incentive to expand farmland for increased productivity under this arrangement (since they wouldn't make any money). At the same time, because the landowner would lose money, the landlord was unconcerned about improving the farmers' economic situation. Agricultural productivity dropped as a result, and the renters' condition worsened.

Land ownership was seen as extremely important in the years following India's independence. India was highly impoverished, and development on two fronts was required to try to eradicate poverty: high productivity and equitable distribution. The land reforms enacted and executed during the mid-fifties are the most significant event in India's agricultural history.

The following are the goals of land reform:

  • Reordering agrarian relations to achieve social equity.

  • Curtailing exploitation and enlargement of land base of the rural poor; and

  • Increase agricultural productivity.

Major issues covered in land reforms are

  • Abolition of intermediaries

  • Settlement and regulation of tenancy

  • Regulation of size of holdings.

The following is a historical overview of India's land reforms:

There were three forms of proprietary land tenures in the country at the time of independence. The word "land tenure" refers to the terms and conditions under which a piece of property is held and used.

Abolition of Intermediaries

  • The Zamindari or Landlord Tenure: The land was held by a person who was liable for the payment of land income under this system. Landlords did not farm the land they owned and instead rented it out to cultivators. In this structure, there arose an intermediary between the actual state and the tiller, who was only interested in the land to the degree of extracting extortionate rent.

  • Ryotwari System: The cultivator was responsible for paying land tax to the government under this arrangement, and there was no middleman between him and the government. The ryot had complete control over the sale, transfer, and lease of land, and he could not be removed as long as he paid the land revenue. However, under the ryotwari system, land revenue was settled on a temporary basis and on a regular basis, every 20, 30, or 40 years.

  • The Mahalwari or The Joint Village Tenure: Under this arrangement, the village communities shared ownership of the village lands, and it was their joint responsibility to pay the land income. As a result, the overall income collecting system was predicated on exploitation. Whatever surplus the cultivator produced over the minimum subsistence level was taken by the British government. They were compelled to live a miserable life of slavery and misery. The practise of tenant cultivation became widespread under the aforementioned arrangements. These renters were also taken advantage of in a variety of ways. Land reforms in India's post-independence period were primarily implemented to eliminate the exploitation of the actual tillers of the soil and pass on land ownership to them.

Settlement and Regulation of Tenancy

  • Measures of Tenancy Reforms: The legislation abolishing intermediaries was intended to provide land to the tiller, but it did not solve the tenancy problem. The following measures have been made to reduce the negative effects of tenancy cultivation and to protect the interests of tenants:

  • Regulation of rents: During the pre-independence period, rents were either set by custom or determined by market forces like as demand and supply. With the supply of land fixed and demand for land rising in tandem with population growth, rents have been steadily rising. As a result, it was critical that rents be regulated through legislation. The typical rent rate was one-half or more of the product. By any metric of social justice, these rents were disproportionate when compared to returns on investment in other sectors of the economy.

As a result, the First and Second Five-Year Plans advised that rents not exceed one-quarter or one-fifth of gross production. Various states have enacted appropriate legislation to regulate rents, although the rents set in each state differed significantly. One-sixth of gross produce was set as the maximum rent in Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Rajasthan. Maximum rents in Assam, Karnataka, Manipur, and Tripura ranged from one-fourth to one-fifth of gross produce. In Punjab, one-third of the gross produce was considered fair rent, while in Tamil Nadu, it was between 33.3 and 40%. In Andhra Pradesh, rent was set at one-fourth of gross produce for irrigated land and one-fifth in other circumstances.

  • Security of Tenure: The goal of security of tenure was to give tenants with some incentives to make lasting improvements to the land they cultivate. As a result, many states have established legislation ensuring tenants' security of tenure as long as they continue to pay their rent.

  • Right of Ownership of Tenants: The establishment of the right of ownership of tenants is a key aspect of the land reform. The second proposal thought it would be highly beneficial to put tenants in non-resumable areas in direct contact with the government. Previously, the tenants' right to purchase was voluntary, but this did not prove to be effective. As a result, the third plan proposed removing the voluntary clause and requiring peasants to purchase land.

Various states have passed legislation to this end. In West Bengal, for example, complete ownership rights were conferred on renters and sub-tenants, bringing them into direct contact with the state. The right to purchase was voluntary in Punjab. Gujarat, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Orissa, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, and the Union Territories have all passed legislation. There were no provisions for an optional right of purchase in Assam, Jammu and Kashmir, or Tamil Nadu. While the state can assist in the transfer of ownership rights from landlords to tenants, there is no financial cost to the state.

Regulation of Size of Holdings

Consolidation of Holdings

The Land Reform Policy includes the consolidation of fragmented agricultural land holdings. As a result, successive Five Year Plans have emphasised the consolidation of scattered land holdings in order to plan village growth and boost agricultural output. As a result, many states have passed legislation and begun the process of consolidating land holdings. The states of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, and Punjab have done exceptionally well. Consolidation of land ownership is still going on in roughly 9000-10,000 villages in Uttar Pradesh. Work was continued in other states for a few years, but then stalled.

Consolidation of holdings was also urged in order to bring together the various small and scattered holdings of poor cultivators into larger tracts that could be managed more efficiently. Through economies of scale, cooperative farming on these would enhance productivity and employment. Large, cost-effective units of consolidated land, it was argued, would alleviate the problem of low yields, raise productivity through economies of scale, and create jobs.

Other important reforms include:

  • Distribution of ceiling surplus land

  • Distribution of Government wasteland and Bhoodan land

  • Prevention of alienation and restoration of alienated tribal land

  • Central Sector Scheme for Computerization of Land Records

  • Centrally Sponsored Scheme for Strengthening of Revenue Administration and Updating of Land Records.

Green Revolution

The Green Revolution is an excellent example of a well-thought-out development programme that highlights all of the important aspects of the development process. The Green Revolution is commonly described as the introduction of hybrid wheat and rice varieties, however hybrid adoption alone is insufficient to explain the Green Revolution's amazing successes. A comprehensive and well-coordinated programme comprising many changes in the way society organised food production enabled success.

The Green Revolution resulted in significant increases in land returns, which increased farmer incomes. Furthermore, with more money to spend and new demands for agricultural supplies, milling, and marketing services, farm families drove an overall increase in demand for products and services. This boosted the non-farm sector in rural areas, which flourished and created significant additional income and jobs on its own. Before the mid-1960s, the percentage of India's rural population living in poverty ranged between 50 and 65 percent, but subsequently progressively dropped to around one-third of the rural population by 1993. According to research, agricultural expansion and lower food prices are responsible for a large part of the steady drop in poverty. In Asia, per capita consumption of vegetable oils, fruits, vegetables, and livestock products has increased dramatically.

Major Factors behind the Success of Green Revolution

Mechanization of Farming

Intensive agriculture necessitates the employment of a variety of machinery that saves time and effort for the farmer. During the production, transportation, and processing of agricultural goods, farm mechanisation refers to the employment of various types of machines and other agricultural implements. Farm mechanisation was used by farmers in the countries for rapid agricultural growth, resulting in higher productivity. This has aided in increasing crops intensity, agricultural variety, better utilisation of available irrigation systems, timely sowing and harvesting, and input transportation to the fields. Farmers have been able to achieve better prices for their produce as a result of being able to conveniently visit the nearest market outlets.

Adoption of High Yielding varieties

The popularity of HYVs grew quickly. By 1970, HYVs had taken over around 20% of the wheat and 30% of the rice areas in developing countries, and by 1990, the share had risen to almost 70% for both crops. Rice and wheat yields nearly doubled. Farmers increased the acreage of rice and wheat they grew at the expense of other crops due to higher yields and profitability. They also raised more crops on their farm each year thanks to faster-growing cultivars and irrigation. Between 1970 and 1995, these developments more than doubled cereal production in Asia, while the population expanded by 60%.

Instead of severe famine, per capita grain and calorie availability grew by approximately 30%, and wheat and rice became more affordable. The Green Revolution's Contributions to the Indian Economy High-yield types required more water, fertiliser, insecticides, fungicides, and other chemicals in their crop regions. The local manufacturing industry grew as a result of this. Such industrial development resulted in the creation of new jobs and increased the country's GDP. The increased irrigation demand necessitated the construction of new dams to capture monsoon water. The stored water was used to generate hydropower. As a result, industrial expansion accelerated, jobs were created, and village residents' quality of life improved.

India repaid the World Bank and its affiliates for all debts it had taken out for the Green Revolution. In the view of loan agencies, this increased India's creditworthiness. Some wealthy countries, particularly Canada, which had a labour crisis, were so impressed by the outcomes of India's Green Revolution that they begged the Indian government to send them farmers trained in the Green Revolution's methods. Many farmers from northern Indian states of Punjab and Haryana were consequently moved to Canada, where they settled (thus the large number of Punjabi-speaking citizens in Canada today). These individuals sent a portion of their earnings to relatives in India.

Prior to the introduction of the Green Revolution, Indian agriculture was mostly reliant on subsistence farming, which did not provide enough food to meet the country's needs. This has previously resulted in recurrent food shortages and famines, which were alleviated by massive imports from other countries. The Green Revolution was an attempt to lift the country out of this situation by increasing food production and making it self-sufficient.

Q5) What is social development and what are various indicators of social development? Discuss social dynamics of development.

Ans) Individuals and communities' ability to take charge of their own development is referred to as social development. As individuals come together to form a society, the concept of human resource development becomes increasingly important. The process of coordinating human energy and activities at higher levels to accomplish better results can be characterised as social development. The development process broadens the perspectives and possibilities for maximising human potential.


  • Demographic Indicators: Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR), Total fertility Rate (TFR) and Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)

  • Health Indicators: Percentage of Institutional Delivery and Percentage of Undernourished

  • Children

  • Basic Amenities Indicators: Percentage of Households Living in Pucca House, Percentage of Households with Access to Safe Drinking Water, Percentage of Households with Toilet Facility and Percentage of Households with Electricity

  • Educational Attainment Indicators: Literacy Rate, Pupil-Teacher Ratio and School Attendance Rate

  • Economic Deprivation Indicators: Unemployment Rate and Gini Ratio for Per Capita Consumption Expenditure

  • Social Deprivation Related Indicators: Ratio between Literacy of the Scheduled Caste Population and Average Literacy of the Population, Ratio between Literacy of the Scheduled Tribe Population and Average Literacy of the Population, Ratio between Monthly Per Capita Consumption Expenditure of Muslims to the Total Population, Ratio between Literacy of Female Population and Average Literacy of Total Population, Ratio between Female Unemployment Rates to Total Unemployment Rates and Child Sex Ratio.

Social Dynamic of Development

The following are the numerous social dynamics of development:

In its broadest sense, we define social development as a societal upward movement from lower to higher levels of energy, efficiency, quality, productivity, complexity, comprehension, creativity, choice, mastery, enjoyment, and accomplishment. Individuals and civilizations evolve as a result of increased freedom of choice and capacity to fulfil those choices through their own resources and initiative. Growth and development are often associated, although they are distinct phenomena governed by different rules. Growth entails the growth and multiplication of existing types and forms of activity in a horizontal or quantitative manner. The term "development" refers to the vertical or qualitative improvement of an organization's level.

The subconscious desires and will of society to advance drive social development. Security of borders, law and order, self-sufficiency in food and shelter, organisation for peace and prosperity, expression of excess energy in amusement, relaxation and enjoyment, knowledge, and creative creativity are all priorities for the social will. Only in domains where the collective will is sufficiently strong and seeking expression can society evolve. The most effective development strategies focus on finding regions where the social will has matured and providing better ways for the awakened social energy to express itself. Only projects that are in line with this irrational desire will get traction and spread. The collective's growth is unconsciously guided. It begins with physical sensation and progresses to conscious understanding of the process.

Conscious growth based on a conceptual understanding of the social process speeds up development while reducing errors and imbalances. The sphere of organised relationships and exchanges between persons is known as society. Because only a small amount of human activity is structured for societal use, only a small percentage of development potential (in terms of technology, knowledge, information, skills, and systems) is realised. Every society has a vast reservoir of potential human energy that is absorbed and maintained in place by its organised foundations—cultural values, physical security, social beliefs, and political systems. Those energy are unleashed and expressed in action during times of transition, crises, and opportunity. Policies, methods, and programmes that harness this unused energy and channel it into productive endeavours may galvanise an entire country to action and speedy progress.

The basic unit of social structure is the act. The fabric or web of social organisation is made up of humans weaving together more complicated and productive activities to construct systems, organisations, institutions, and cultural values. The development process is defined by the gradual growth of social organisations and institutions that harness and steer society's energies toward higher levels of achievement. To achieve its goals, society organises all of the knowledge, human energies, and material resources at its disposal. The process of forming organisations occurs at several levels at the same time: the organisation of social peace and physical security; the organisation of physical activities and infrastructure; the organisation of productive processes through the application of skills and technology in agriculture, industry, and services; the organisation of social processes we refer to as systems, laws, institutions, and administrative agencies; and the organisation of data as useful informatics.

Each of these organisational levels allows for unrestricted growth. Each of these layers of organisation is reliant on the others and interacts with them. Elevating the organisation to one of these levels maximises the use of resources and possibilities while also speeding its development. To break old patterns of social behaviour and build new ones, development necessitates a massive investment of energy. When surplus social energy accrue beyond the amount required for current functioning, development occurs. The discharge of social energy might occur in response to the emergence of a fresh opportunity or in the face of a serious threat. Explosive energy for societal growth are released when different cultures encounter and merge.

Growth - a quantitative increase of society at the current degree of organisation — may occur from the manifestation of surplus energy through existing forms of activity. Development occurs when surplus energy is channelled into more sophisticated and effective forms of organised activity, resulting in a qualitative improvement in society's capacities. Fresh initiatives that lead to this qualitative improvement frequently start in society's disorganised activities, which are not confined or hindered by the status quo's inertia. The flow of social energies is controlled by dominant social attitudes, which determine the rate and scope of development. Development plans will fail to provide outcomes if attitudes are not receptive.

In this instance, the focus should be on techniques that influence people's minds, such as public education, demonstration, and the promotion of successful pioneers. In locations where society becomes aware of opportunities and difficulties and has the will to respond to them, development moves quickly. The process is sped up by raising awareness. Pioneering individuals who become aware of new opportunities and undertake new behaviours and actions to take advantage of them drive social growth. Pioneers are the fulcrum, or spearhead, for communal advancement; they give conscious expression to the group's subconscious desires and readiness. When pioneering individual actions are repeated by others, multiplied, and actively supported by society, development occurs. The new activity is then actively organised by society, which establishes supportive laws, systems, and organisations. It then connects the new activity with other sectors of activity and incorporates it into its educational system at the following step.

When the practise is passed down through the family as values, it has become fully integrated as part of the culture. Development is a method rather than a programme. Development is a collective effort of a society. Government policies, legislation, and special programmes can stimulate, direct, or help it, but it cannot be compelled or carried out on behalf of the public by administrative or external organisations. People's initiative should be released, not replaced, by development strategies. The human intellect is the creator of all resources. When humans perceive a valuable or more productive use for something, it becomes a resource. Because human ingenuity and resourcefulness have no intrinsic boundaries, every resource's potential productivity is limitless.

Human people are the most valuable resource and the most important determinant of development. It's a process in which people become more conscious of their own creative potentials and take steps to realise them. The response of society to circumstances is determined by human consciousness, aspiration, and attitudes. Only when humanity understands its ability to influence outcomes does development occur. The formation of social institutions is part of a larger evolutionary setting in which humanity's consciousness evolves along a continuum from physical to vital to mental. This evolution can be seen as a gradual shift in emphasis from material to technological and information resources; from the social importance of land to the importance of money and knowledge; from elite hereditary rights to fundamental rights for all human beings; and from physical forms of authority to laws and shared values. As civilization progresses down this axis, growth becomes more conscious and rapid.

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