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MES-031: ET -An Overview

MES-031: ET -An Overview

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2023

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Assignment Code: MES-031/TMA/2023

Course Code: MES-031

Assignment Name: ET: An Overview

Year: 2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Answer the following questions in about 500 words each:


a) Explain the concept of Educational Technology. Describe how Educational Technology has evolved through different phases.

Ans) Technology uses methods and principles to attain a purpose. Technology creates more productive designs and tools. Education is the process of learning and teaching. Educational technology uses educational principles to improve learning. "Educational technology is the development, use, and evaluation of systems, techniques, and tools that help people learn." (National Council for Educational Technology for the United Kingdom)


Educational technology improves instruction. Educational technology nowadays combines technology with newly found psychological concepts of learning, teaching, modifying behaviour, etc. Educational technology is the development, implementation, and assessment of systemic knowledge about learning and instruction to improve teaching and training. Educational technology contains learning goals, media, other features, criteria for choosing media and resources, managing resources, and assessing them.


Evolution of Educational Technology

The way people learn has changed from learning in groups to learning on their own. At the same time, technology has also changed to support the different ways people learn. In this section, we'll talk about how educational technology has changed over time. The technologies that have changed over time have gone through four stages, which are:


Audio Visual Phase

"Allow pictures be a source of fun for youngsters and let them get to know them before they reach school," A. Commenius said of his first "visualised book" with 150 photos. Rousseau and Pestolozzzi's "object technique" based learning on intrinsic curiosity. Object learning is sensory. Despite concrete aid, the audio-video sector didn't take off until the 20th century. This phase engages learners' senses with movies, radio, and slide films, especially for abstract subjects. Extra gadgets. Multisensory gadgets Watching educational TV combines both sight and sound. This improves understanding, interpretation, and appreciation. These videos require psychology knowledge. These instruments always spread information. Information transport requires proper messaging.


Cybernetic Phase

Educational technology altered during World War II. Norbert Weiner coined "cybernetics" for automatic control systems. 1948. Weiner defined cybernetics as the study of how humans and machines communicate. Consider browsing online. Suddenly, a notice says a "Virus" has infected your computer. You removed the computer virus by following the anti-virus software's instructions. Cybernetics involves feedback. Feedback occurs when one event produces a second occurrence, which affects the initial event. It also studies how individuals control things.  Most industrial procedures developed after World War I employed feedback to correct mistakes. In a refrigerator, the thermostat tells the cooling system whether a specified temperature has been achieved and what to do.  This information helped people remedy mistakes in business and education (like steering the boat along the charted path and avoiding any deviations). The programmed learning instruction movement emphasised that students should be informed of their progress at every level (or deviation).


Psycho-Sociological Phase

Long-standing phrase. Throndike's 1913 paper on learning laws started it. His notion inspired Pressey's 1926 teaching machine. This machine gives students instant feedback by automatically scoring. Thus, began systematic learning. In 1953, B. F. Skinner's operant conditioning theory proved that people's behaviour could be influenced, opening a new chapter in programmed learning materials.


Teaching Machines: Technology may replace the teacher, but learning requires both. Teaching machines show this schooling change. Teaching machines foster originality. Sidney L. Pressey designed a rote-learning machine in 1924. Computerized instruction enables pupils to get immediate feedback, set their own pace, and respond actively. saying, "Teaching machines are unique because students answer and learn if they were right. Recording improves materials ". Difficulty varied.


A closed-loop teaching machine teaches. System:

  1. learners a piece of information.

  2. seek learner response.

  3. evaluate, reinforce, and take charge of the next show.


Information and Communication Technology Phase

ICT has transformed how individuals learn. We use multimedia, email, the Internet, intranets, and websites to teach. Students can acquire educational resources by mail or phone. Internet and intranet bandwidth has increased, allowing professors to teach inside and outside the organisation.  Software and hardware improve throughout this time. Audio-video research centres, educational media research centres, and education and educational technology departments create educational software. Future education will incorporate mobile technology. TV, radio, interactive radio, teleconferencing, computer conferencing, and mobile technology supply educational inputs in open and distance learning systems.


b) Explain the importance of video programmes in the teaching-learning process. Describe, with an example, how you can utilize a video programme effectively in transacting curricular experiences.

Ans) Video programs have become an integral part of the teaching-learning process due to their numerous benefits. The importance of video programs in the teaching-learning process can be explained as follows:

  1. Enhancing Engagement: Videos can enhance student engagement as they provide a dynamic and interactive way of presenting information. The visual and auditory stimulation provided by videos can help students to better understand complex concepts and ideas.

  2. Facilitating Understanding: Videos can help to simplify complex concepts and make them easier to understand. Videos can provide a real-life example or scenario to help students relate to the topic and enhance their understanding.

  3. Encouraging Active Learning: Videos can encourage active learning by providing opportunities for students to reflect, analyse, and apply their knowledge. This can be achieved through activities such as class discussions, debates, and group projects.

  4. Promoting Retention: Videos can promote retention of information as they provide a multi-sensory learning experience. Research shows that students are more likely to retain information presented through video than through traditional methods such as reading.

  5. Providing Flexibility: Videos can provide flexibility in the teaching-learning process as they can be accessed at any time and from anywhere with an internet connection. This can be particularly helpful for students who are unable to attend class in person due to distance or other commitments.


To utilize a video program effectively in transacting curricular experiences, teachers can follow these steps:

  1. Select an Appropriate Video: The first step is to select an appropriate video that aligns with the learning objectives and curriculum. The video should be relevant, engaging, and age appropriate.

  2. Preview the Video: The teacher should preview the video beforehand to ensure that it is appropriate and to identify any potential challenges or discussion points.

  3. Introduce the Video: The teacher should introduce the video to the students and explain the learning objectives and how the video relates to the curriculum.

  4. Watch the Video: The teacher should watch the video together with the students, pausing at appropriate points to discuss and clarify any concepts or ideas.

  5. Post-video Activities: After watching the video, the teacher can facilitate activities such as class discussions, debates, or group projects to encourage active learning and application of knowledge.


As an illustration, a teacher in a social studies class might implement curricular experiences through the use of a video programme that focuses on the civil rights struggle. It would be a good idea for the instructor to begin by discussing the learning goals and elaborating on how the video ties to the overall lesson plan. After then, the instructor could play the video, pausing it at pertinent places to have a discussion and elaborate on various topics and ideas. Following the viewing of the movie, the instructor may choose to organise a class discussion on the civil rights struggle, during which they may encourage students to share their opinions and points of view. After watching the film, the instructor might give the class a follow-up assignment in which they work in groups to conduct research and give a presentation on a particular civil rights figure or event, applying what they've learned from the video.


c) Suppose you are a teacher of Educational Technology and want to evaluate the effectiveness of educational technologies being used in your institution. Describe the steps that you will follow while evaluating educational technologies. Support your answer with an example.

Ans) As a teacher of Educational Technology, it is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of the educational technologies that are being used in an institution in order to ensure that the resources being used are impactful and adding to the learning of the students. This evaluation is necessary in order to ensure that the educational technologies that are being used in an institution are effective.


The following are some of the steps that can be done while doing an evaluation of educational technologies:

  1. Define the Learning Objectives: It is important to start by defining the learning objectives and identifying how the educational technology being evaluated can support those objectives. This ensures that the evaluation is focused and targeted towards specific learning outcomes.

  2. Collect Data: The next step is to collect data to evaluate the effectiveness of the educational technology. This can be done through a variety of methods, such as surveys, focus groups, observation, and performance data.

  3. Analyse the Data: After collecting the data, it is important to analyse it to identify patterns and trends. This helps to identify strengths and weaknesses of the educational technology and how it can be improved.

  4. Interpret the Data: The next step is to interpret the data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of the educational technology. This helps to identify areas where the technology is working well and where improvements can be made.

  5. Report Findings: Finally, the findings of the evaluation should be reported to relevant stakeholders, such as teachers, administrators, and students. This helps to inform decision-making and improve the use of educational technology in the institution.


Consider, for example, the scenario of an educator working in the field of educational technology who has been tasked with evaluating the efficacy of a learning management system (LMS) that is already in place at their school.

The following is a list of some of the possible actions that the instructor could take:

  1. Define the Learning Objectives: The teacher could start by defining the learning objectives for the LMS, such as improving student engagement, providing access to resources, and enhancing collaboration.

  2. Collect Data: The teacher could collect data through surveys of students and teachers, observation of LMS use, and analysis of student performance data.

  3. Analyse the Data: After collecting the data, the teacher could analyse it to identify patterns and trends. This could involve looking at how often the LMS is being used, which features are being utilized, and how student performance has changed since the introduction of the LMS.

  4. Interpret the Data: Based on the data analysis, the teacher could interpret the findings and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of the LMS. For example, the teacher might find that the LMS is being used frequently, but only for certain features, such as accessing resources, and that there is room for improvement in terms of enhancing collaboration and student engagement.

  5. Report Findings: Finally, the teacher could report the findings to relevant stakeholders, such as teachers, administrators, and students. This could involve presenting the findings in a report or in a meeting, and making recommendations for how the LMS could be improved to better meet the learning objectives. For example, the teacher might recommend incorporating more interactive features into the LMS, such as discussion forums or multimedia resources, to enhance collaboration and engagement.

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