If you are looking for MES-033 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Computer Technology, you have come to the right place. MES-033 solution on this page applies to 2023 session students studying in MAEDU courses of IGNOU.
MES-033 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: MES-033/TMA/2023
Course Code: MES-033
Assignment Name: Computer Technology
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
Answer the following questions in about 500 words each:
a) Define ‘Artificial Intelligence’? Discuss expert systems that use the principles of artificial intelligence.
Ans) AI is the study of making computers smart, which is a quite simple way to put it. This definition of AI focuses on how it affects behaviour and how it can be used to teach computers to act intelligently. AI can also be seen from the point of view of a psychologist as the study of making computer models of how people think. Another way to think about AI is as the study of making machines that act like people. This definition is called the "robotic approach" and is about the hardware side of AI.
Expert Systems in Education
AI is at the heart of Expert Systems, which are basically computer programmes that use AI ideas. They are made up of two main parts:
The knowledge base.
The inference engine
An algorithm doesn't make a computer programme an "expert system." It needs knowledge. Expert systems have factual and heuristic knowledge. Factual knowledge is shared, usually found in books and journals, and generally accepted by experts in the field. Facts concerning solid, liquid, and gaseous matter are examples. Heuristic knowledge is personal and experiential. Knowledge underpins "excellent guessing." Expert systems can only solve tasks in their sphere of knowledge.
Interfaces allow user-system interaction. The same interface asks the user for the information needed to make a decision. This interface hides two subsystems. The knowledge base contains all domain-specific knowledge used by human experts to solve that category of problems. The inference engine, the second subsystem, leverages the knowledge base and reasoning to solve the problem. The knowledge base and inference engine are similar to memory and the reasoning abilities of the human experts the system emulates.
Knowledge Representation: Expert systems have formal knowledge bases, unlike humans. Knowledge representation formalises and organises knowledge. Knowledge representation aids inference and conclusion. Different methods represent knowledge. Frames, First-order logic, Semantic networks, and Rule-based systems express knowledge.
Production rule is a common depiction. Formal definitions of the regulations are restricted. Rule parts are IF (condition) and THEN (activity). IF lists logical conditions. If the IF section is satisfied, the production rule is relevant to the line of reasoning being formed, and the THEN part can be ended or its problem solved. Rule-based expert systems represent knowledge in rules. Unit representation is another type (also known as frame, schema or list structure). This representation assumes knowledge is passive. A unit is a list of entity characteristics and values. First-order logic uses mathematical structures to interpret unambiguous formal language.
Construction of Expert Systems: Expert System design for auto repair, disease detection, and learning system management is one of the most exciting fields of computer science.
Designers of expert systems need:
Domain Expert: Experts in problem-solving for the expert system. A physics professor could create a physics learning expert system.
Knowledge Engineer: Knowledge engineers build expert systems. The knowledge engineer declares the expert's knowledge for the expert system. Knowledge engineers are computer specialists.
User: People who ask for help through the system.
Expert systems require close communication between the three. Expert system shells build several expert systems. The user interface, knowledge base format, and inference engine are usually in the shell. Knowledge engineers utilise the shell to develop task-specific expert systems. Coding expert knowledge into declarative form is the hardest part of constructing expert systems. Thus, application-specific shells are useful.
Considerations for Designing Expert Systems: Expert system design requires time, money, and energy. Before designing an expert system for a specific purpose, carefully evaluate its usefulness and practicality.
Before commencing the project, realistically estimate the cost of designing the expert system and its benefits.
Expert systems should only be built if human competence or expert knowledge is rare.
If traditional algorithmic methods fail, we should design an expert system.
Well-structured problems don't require much common sense or experiential knowledge.
b) Explain the term, 'animation'. Describe its use in education with examples.
Ans) Animation is the process of creating the illusion of movement by rapidly cycling through a sequence of still photographs of two-dimensional artwork or model poses. These photographs are typically displayed in quick succession. What allows for the creation of animation is a phenomena known as "persistence of vision," in which the human eye and brain have a tendency to continue to perceive a picture for a significant amount of time after it has been gone. It is a succession of still photographs that have been minimally adjusted and then displayed quickly in order to make the changes appear seamless and create the illusion of continuous motion. This gives the impression that the image is moving continuously. To begin the process of creating animation, it is necessary to first disassemble the entire procedure into its component pieces and then arrange those parts in the correct order. There is a large selection of different animations available for selection.
Educational Animation Examples
Science and Biology: Students may find it easier to learn difficult scientific topics with the assistance of animations. Some examples of such concepts are the human anatomy, the replication of DNA, and chemical reactions. Students can gain a better understanding of the functioning of the heart through the use of visual aids like animations, which can demonstrate processes like the heart pumping blood through the circulatory system.
History and Social Studies: Animations have the power to resurrect historical occurrences by depicting pivotal moments and eras from the past. Students would acquire a more in-depth grasp of the occurrences that took place if, for instance, they viewed an animation representing the signing of the Declaration of Independence or the Battle of Gettysburg. This would allow the students to better understand what took place.
Mathematics: To non-mathematicians, complex mathematical concepts such as geometry and algebra can be communicated effectively through the use of animated presentations, which can be a useful tool. If students watch an animation that explains, for instance, how the Pythagorean theorem works, they will have a better understanding of how to compute the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle. This is because students learn best by seeing things demonstrated visually.
Language Learning: Animations have the potential to be an efficient method for the teaching of foreign languages since they provide visual aids that clarify grammatical concepts, vocabulary, and pronunciation. For the purpose of illustrating, for instance, the correct pronunciation of a certain word or the suitable manner for conjugating a verb in a range of tenses, an animation may be utilised.
Environmental Science: Environmental processes and phenomena, such as climate change and the water cycle, can be demonstrated through the use of animations as a teaching tool. Students can gain a better understanding of the impact that human activity has on the natural world by using visual aids like animations to learn about the topic. For instance, students can watch an animation that demonstrates how carbon emissions contribute to global warming.
c) Do you think use of computers would enhance 'autonomy' of learners? Present your arguments with examples of any two software you have used.
Ans) The use of computers in education has the potential to enhance the autonomy of learners, as they can access information and resources at their own pace and customize their learning experience to their individual needs. Here are some arguments on how the use of computers can enhance learner autonomy, using examples of Duolingo and Khan Academy.
Users of the language-learning software known as Duolingo are able to acquire new linguistic skills by participating in a variety of interactive activities, including reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Learners gain more control over their own learning experience because to Duolingo's many features. In the first place, it gives students the freedom to learn at their own rate and move through the subject at whatever speed they deem appropriate for them. Learners who are more experienced can, as a result, bypass the less difficult activities and proceed directly to the content that is more difficult, whereas learners who are having difficulty can spend more time reviewing the fundamentals. The second benefit of using Duolingo is that it delivers quick feedback on each activity, which enables students to see when they have made errors and to self-correct them. This feedback is frequently accompanied by explanations and examples, which enables students to comprehend the guidelines of the language with a greater degree of clarity. Thirdly, learners have the ability to tailor their learning experience on Duolingo by selecting the abilities that they wish to place the most emphasis on. Learners who wish to enhance their reading abilities, for instance, can concentrate on activities that include reading comprehension, whereas learners who want to develop their speaking skills can concentrate on activities that entail speaking practise.
Khan Academy is an educational platform that offers video tutorials, practice exercises, and quizzes on a wide range of subjects, including math, science, history, and economics. Khan Academy enhances the autonomy of learners in several ways. Firstly, it provides learners with access to high-quality educational resources that they can use to learn at their own pace. This means that learners who are struggling with a particular concept can watch videos and read articles until they understand the material, without having to worry about falling behind their classmates. Secondly, Khan Academy provides learners with immediate feedback on their work, allowing them to identify their mistakes and correct them on their own. This feedback is often accompanied by detailed explanations and examples, which helps learners understand the material better. Thirdly, Khan Academy allows learners to customize their learning experience by choosing which topics they want to study. E.g.: learners interested in biology can focus on biology exercises and quizzes, while learners who are interested in economics can focus on economics exercises and quizzes.
As a conclusion, the use of computers in education has the potential to increase the learner's autonomy by enabling them to access information and resources at their own speed and personalise their learning experience according to their own specific requirements. Software programmes such as Duolingo and Khan Academy are two examples of programmes that enhance learner autonomy by providing learners with access to high-quality educational resources, immediate feedback, and the ability to customise their learning experience. Learners can also choose how they want to learn with these programmes.
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