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MES-047: Distance and Open Learning

MES-047: Distance and Open Learning

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for MES-047 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Distance and Open Learning, you have come to the right place. MES-047 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in PGDEMA courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: MES-047/TMA/2021-22

Course Code: MES-047

Assignment Name: Open and Distance Education

Year: 2021-2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Q1) Describe the approach of using media in open distance learning and the factors guiding

media selection.


Factors Guiding Media Selection

A medium has distinct qualities that determine its suitability for an ODL institution. Access to the media is one of the variables. Radio, for example, could be included because it is widely available. Another consideration is the price. The majority of us can afford to listen to the radio. Another factor is the medium's pedagogical suitability. Video, for example, has a built-in presentation quality. It is useful for giving the viewer a vicarious (learning by watching) experience by transporting him or her to an ancient site without having to leave the house. These are some of the most important aspects to consider while implementing a multi-media instructional materials strategy.

The pedagogic criterion for media selection entails evaluating a medium's strengths.

Take, for example, television, which has a history of being overused. After watching a video programme, one may debate whether the use of video was justified or whether the same information could have been presented more effectively through an audio programme or text. These are important topics to consider when deciding on a medium for a certain "content presentation." An interview-based television programme with 'talking heads,' for example, can be effectively produced as an audio programme. We should also bear in mind that TV, like radio, is not a suitable medium for putting in a lot of hard-core material and information due to its ephemeral nature (pictures and their impressions are temporary in nature). Due to its stability, such content should be covered in print-based SLM. Furthermore, when reading the printed material, the learner can go back and forth.

Because radio/audio is an aural medium that does not require reading or writing capabilities, it may be utilised effectively in a wide range of learning situations, including those involving children and adults who lack these abilities. It allows listeners to generate their own mental imagery by using engaging genres such as music, drama, conversation, quizzes, and so on.

Radio, on the other hand, may not be very excellent in illustrating abstractions or things that the learner does not know or perceive. Another disadvantage of radio is that it is a one-way medium. This disadvantage can currently be remedied by using phone-in programmes or audio conferencing, both of which allow numerous opportunity for interaction. Teachers at IGNOU use the radio counselling option on a regular basis to communicate with students. IGNOU, on the other hand, uses visual teleconferencing so that students can see their teachers, live demonstrations, experiments, and so on. They may also chat to them over the phone or email their queries by fax during the teleconferencing session. Interactive multimedia programmes, which can be made very appealing and enjoyable with different media elements such as animation, graphics, music, sound effects, and text, are another medium with significant potential for personalised learning due to its interaction and cultural features. In today's world of education, online learning is the new buzzword.

It provides learners with a level of flexibility and independence that was previously unavailable in the distant education environment. Learners are more mobile today and want learning at their own pace and location, hence ODL institutions are now available to enrolment from all over the world. As a result, they benefit most from online instruction.

When choosing media, we must consider the institution's logistics. The resources must be spent in accordance with the institution's goals and budgetary constraints. ODL institutions, like traditional institutions, may be publicly or privately sponsored. Even government-funded organisations are expected to produce their own revenue in the coming years and become self-sufficient. As a result, media selection cannot be undertaken without taking into account the resources available. However, the focus should be on selecting a medium with care and maximising its capabilities while working within the constraints set by an organisation.

Approaches to Media Use in ODL Institutions

The approach to utilising media differs from one institution to the next, as well as within a single school for different programmes. Many schools provide the same courseware to their students via multiple channels, such as mailing SLMs to students and publishing the same materials to the web for easy access at any time and from anywhere. Course materials from IGNOU are also available in print format in the e- Gyankosh repository. Similarly, webcasts are available for programmes that are broadcast or broadcasted. Gyan Darshan, IGNOU's 24-hour TV channel, is simultaneously broadcast over IGNOU's website for worldwide access.

Nonetheless, the following media strategies are commonly used in ODL institutions:

Complementary media approach: Some colleges use electronic media to offer course content that isn't covered in SLM in print. In such circumstances, the broadcast/telecast schedule should be such that SLMs (print) reach the learner well in advance of the radio broadcast/telecast, and the learner has gone through them before listening to/watching the corresponding radio broadcast/telecast. Using media in a complementary approach necessitates ensuring the availability of a broadcast/telecast or teleconferencing slot, as well as learners' simple access to media used by the system and learners.

Integrated media approach: Not only is the media complementing the print, but it is also integrating the two such that cross references are incorporated in both.

Let's say you come across something in print," please listen to the audio programme named "children with special needs" before moving on to the next section of the text. At the end of the audio programme, there is now a print reference, such as "go to section 3 on page 20 of the Unit and answer the questions based on the case studies mentioned in the audio programme." Other media could be utilised in a similar way to support SLMs in an integrated manner. As you can see, the integrated media approach would necessitate methodical planning and implementation due of the cross references involved on the part of the institution in terms of course preparation.

Supplementary media approach: By representing and reinforcing content that has already been addressed in print sources, the media play a supporting function in the educational system. The print, for example, includes the necessary information about the RTI (Right to Information) Act. Now, through a video programme, a true success storey of a person who may eventually succeed in acquiring material to aid him fight his case is given. This will be viewed as an additional method of utilising media. The curriculum does not provide extra knowledge; rather, it presents the learner with a case study to analyse. As a result, the use of media as a supplement enhances the quality of information supplied in print. Those who do not have access to media are not, however, deprived of the 'essential substance' that print supplies. The policy of IGNOU is to utilise supplemental media.

Independent media approach: This is yet another way for ODL to use media. In this instance, audio/radio broadcasts, video/television, or even interactive multimedia could become the learners' primary learning resource. Many literacy projects and non-formal education programmes (for example, radio rural forums and India's SITE experiment) use media as an independent learning source through a sequence of courses, particularly in contexts where learners are illiterate.

Because of the growing popularity of web-based learning, many programmes and courses are now available only online.

Q2) Discuss the characteristics of self-learning material (SLM).


Characteristics of SLM

  1. Learner-Based Approach: Unlike a text book, which is intended for both students and teachers, SLM is only for students. As a result, it must be designed with their prior knowledge, current demands, readiness, and other factors in mind.

  2. Self-explaining and self-contained: SLM must be written in a clear and concise manner, with relevant examples, illustrations, and case studies, so that faraway learners can grasp it and do not have to rely on external sources of information.

    Unlike a textbook, which may require the assistance of an instructor, SLM should be self-explanatory. A glossary included with a lesson could be used instead of a dictionary or encyclopaedia. We must also guarantee that the material is accurate and useful.

  3. Organization of materials: To emphasise the text's structure, it should be divided into sections with relevant headers and subheadings. It's critical to structure the content rationally, beginning with the learners' prior experiences and concluding with a recapitulation of what was taught.

  4. Self-directing and self-motivating: A teacher should be embedded in the study material to provide appropriate instructions and advice in the form of directions, recommendations, hints, and clues as needed. The content is self-directing thanks to simple explanations, plain language, sequential structure, images, learning activities, glossary, and so on. Learners should be motivated by SLM. One technique to encourage learning is to provide feedback for self-assessment exercises. The feedback mechanism operates on the basis that it not only informs learners of correct and incorrect responses, but also how they might reach correct answers and improve their learning. It allows for self-evaluation and performance assessment. As a result, positive reinforcement and feedback promote self-directed learning.

  5. Objectives are stated: SLM, unlike many textbooks, has clearly stated objectives that ensure learning is targeted and measurable.

  6. Moderate in size: IGNOU units are often neither too long nor too short but are between 5000 and 6000 words in length. However, if necessary, the amount of words may exceed or fall below this restriction.

  7. Mentions time needed for learning: SLM may be linked with credits.

    In order to receive one credit from IGNOU, you must complete 30 hours of academic work. If a course contains six credits and ten units, each unit will take around 18 hours to complete. Print, audio and video media, teleconferencing, assignments, face-to-face sessions, and other media and modalities are all used in research.

  8. Structured: A theme's units are made up of blocks. A course is usually made up of 3-5 blocks in a certain region. An academic programme is made up of courses. The sections and subsections of a unit are further divided.

  9. Interesting: SLM is intended to pique and maintain learners' interest, so it must be written in this manner.

  10. Access devices: Access devices assist learners in gaining access to the information, i.e. navigating the SLM and better understanding it. The cover page, course title, block, and unit provide an overview of the content.

    As a result, selecting the appropriate title and cover page design is critical. The content list in each block, as well as the unit structure, aid navigation. Objectives, examples, summaries, glossaries of terminology, and similar items also serve as access devices.

  11. Self-assessment: SLM includes self-assessment exercises and feedback.

    These activities force the learner to pause and reflect, write, and do, allowing them to evaluate and consolidate their knowledge before moving on to the next subject.

  12. Interactive: The SLM is interactive thanks to dialogues, questions, replies, and feedback.

    It is frequently insufficient to simply read the unit. The learner must reflect and act in order to gain knowledge. As a result, we must actively involve students with activities and exercises that require them to apply and test concepts. Allowing for large margins while reading is an indirect technique to encourage note-taking. Better understanding is aided by reading followed by writing. Interspersed throughout the text are questions that invite learners to pause and reflect. Questions should be designed to prompt learners to recollect prior knowledge while also requiring them to apply it to solve difficulties. Questions and challenges that require learners to 'do', i.e. practise skills, can also be included. This unit, for example, is an SLM that teaches how to write SLM.

  13. Personal touch: In SLM literature, the use of first and second person -I, we, you- gives learners a personal touch.

Q3) Describe the various generations of distance education. To which generation does IGNOU belong? Why?

Ans) When we look at the evolution of remote education throughout the years, we can see that it has happened at the same time as communication technologies. As a result, communication technology has played a significant role in the development of distance learning. The University of South Queensland's Prof James Taylor divided the growth of distant education into five generations.

The following are the names of the five generations:

The First Generation: Correspondence Model

In the progression of distance education, the correspondence model is considered the first generation. Typed or photocopied contents or subject matter are bound into books or booklets as a teaching-learning medium. This content is mailed to the learner. Print materials are still employed in practically all online learning institutes and universities today.

This paradigm is said to have a number of benefits and drawbacks. The advantages of the correspondence model are that the student can take the printed materials with him/her wherever he/she goes and study whenever it is convenient for him/her. Another benefit is that the study materials have been fine-tuned and can be simply altered. The downside is that there is no face-to-face interaction between the teachers and the students. There is practically little opportunity for them to interact. There is limited flexibility in terms of study time, location, or space.

The Second Generation: Multimedia Model

The Multimedia Model is thought to be the second generation of distance learning. Printed content, audio cassettes, video cassettes, computer assisted learning, and interactive video are all examples of teaching-learning medium in this concept. There is a lot of flexibility in this paradigm, not only in terms of time, place, and pace, but also in terms of how the 1 student learns. Some students learn quickly by reading, listening, or doing both, while others learn quickly by listening and seeing. Learners can learn in a variety of ways thanks to the various media. The material of various media is well-organized according to learning pedagogic concepts. In terms of interactivity, some media, such as print, audiotape, and videotape, may not give it. However, computer-based learning, such as multimedia programmes with interaction, can provide a certain level of interactivity with course content. By asking questions during the video programme, the interactive movies give a level of involvement.

The Third Generation: Telelearning Model

The telelearning model is the third generation of distance education. This concept solely relies on communication technology to deliver education. In this model, no print material is employed. Audio-teleconferencing, videoconferencing, and radio and television broadcasts are among the media employed. In all circumstances, there is no time, place, or tempo flexibility. The remote education university or institute sets the time. The student cannot interrupt the learning process at any moment while the content is being provided, therefore the location is also set to a considerable extent, and the pace cannot be altered. Because audio teleconferencing and videoconferencing are live or synchronous, the content quality may not always be excellent. Because most of it is filmed beforehand and edited later, the content quality may be excellent when it is shown. This paradigm is shown by the Central Radio and Television University.

The Fourth Generation: Flexible Learning Model

The flexible learning paradigm is the fourth generation of distance learning. From the name alone, it's clear that it offers a variety of teaching and learning possibilities. This model is being used by many distant learning universities and institutes. The most common method of content delivery is through a computer, which can distribute content via interactive multimedia, web-based resources, and computer-mediated conversation.

This methodology allows for a great deal of flexibility in terms of timing, location, and pace. Because all of the resources used are computer-based, the learner has complete control over his or her study time and can pause or resume the learning process whenever he or she wishes. The information organisation is excellent, and interactivity is guaranteed. The multimedia enhances the learning process by providing a high level of involvement with the content. Interaction with the teacher is possible via email, as well as with the peer group via discussion forums, blogs, and other means. Many universities are attempting to implement various media in order to provide flexible distant learning to their students.

The Fifth Generation: Intelligent Flexible Learning Model

Many different communication technologies are used in the fourth-generation flexible learning model of distance education. This application has paved the way for the fifth generation, in which these technologies are applied in a variety of novel ways. The goal is to provide the students more flexibility. Interactive multimedia (IMM) online; Internet-based access to World Wide Web (WWW) resources; Computer-mediated communication with automated response systems; and Campus portal access to institutional processes and resources are the delivery technologies in the fifth generation or intelligent flexible learning model. This model is said to be less expensive, more efficient, and more adaptable than previous versions. Because this approach is still in its early stages, it can only be found at a few remote education institutes or universities around the world. IGNOU is a fourth-generation model since it allows students to learn from anywhere and at any time.

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