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MEV-024: Climate Change Assessment Tools

MEV-024: Climate Change Assessment Tools

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for MEV-024 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Climate Change Assessment Tools, you have come to the right place. MEV-024 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in PGCCC, MAEVS courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: MEV-024/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: MEV-024

Assignment Name: Climate Change Assessment Tools

Year: 2022 - 2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Answer any five questions. All question carries equal marks. The marks for each question are indicated against it within brackets on the right-hand side.

Please write all answers in your own words.


Q 1. Describe the methods for analysing vulnerability. (20 marks)

Ans) A person is said to be vulnerable when they have a tendency or predisposition to be negatively affected. The concept of vulnerability encompasses a wide range of ideas and components, such as the sensitivity or susceptibility to harm, as well as the inability to cope with or adapt to adverse circumstances.


The following is a list of the fundamentals of vulnerability, as well as the methods for analysing vulnerability, such as the economic method and the indicator method:


Econometric Method

The econometric method considers "household-level socioeconomic survey data" in order to determine the relative degree of vulnerability exhibited by various social groups within the society. When measuring vulnerability, the welfare loss that results from shocks should be taken into consideration. This approach considers three distinct types of vulnerability: "vulnerability as expected poverty," "vulnerability as low expected utility," and "vulnerability as uninsured exposure to risk." The vulnerability of an individual is a measure of the probability that the individual will become poor in the future as a result of the shocks. This is relevant to the expected structure of poverty. In this particular scenario, either one's income or consumption can be interpreted as a measurement of one's state of well-being.


In order to collect socio-economic data using this methodology, a cross-sectional survey is required. The vulnerability assessment method known as "vulnerability as uninsured exposure to risk" is, in essence, an after-the-fact evaluation of vulnerability. This approach is predicated on the premise that shocks lead to a reduction in welfare, which is then directly correlated to a lower level of consumption. In other words, the household needs insurance against the negative shocks, and the amount paid as insurance should actually be equal to the amount of welfare loss that was incurred as a result of the negative shocks.

Indicator Method

"The indicator-based methods make use of a set of proxy indicators in order to produce measurable outputs across a variety of spatial scales." This technique involves selecting a small number of indicators from a larger set of indicators and then aggregating the results of those indicators in order to determine the level of vulnerability. This method allows for the vulnerability to be analysed on a variety of scales, ranging from the local to the global level, passing through the national and regional levels along the way.


Nevertheless, with regard to the vulnerability assessment using the indicator method, there are two possible courses of action to choose from. It is possible to give each of the indicators the same amount of weight, or it is possible to give each of the indicators a different amount of weight. The method can be easily understood by those in charge of making decisions. In terms of its potential applications, this technique has the potential to monitor trends while also facilitating the implementation of adaptation responses. Indicators such as the Livelihood Vulnerability Index, the Household Adaptive Capacity Index, the Well-being Index, and the Index of Social Vulnerability to Climate Change for Africa are some examples of this method.


An operational representation of a characteristic or quality of a system that is able to provide information regarding the susceptibility, coping capacity, and resilience of an element that is at risk to an impact of an event that is linked with a hazard of natural origin is what is meant by the term "vulnerability indicator." Indicators of vulnerability, in addition to assisting in vulnerability assessments, provide valuable information to policymakers, allowing them to more effectively pursue solutions that are both realistic and effective in the area of climate change adaptation. For instance, the stability of one's livelihood and the diversification of one's livelihood both form an important part of the assessment of social vulnerability.


In addition, the indicators of vulnerability offer a snapshot of the drivers' adaptive capacity, which is essentially the defining characteristic of a resilient system. The location, phenomenon of interest, problem, the level of adaptive capacity of the system, and other factors all play a role in the choice of indicators, as well as their applicability, when conducting a vulnerability assessment. When conducting a risk analysis, it is absolutely necessary to decide on an indicator that is not only suitable but also astute.


Q 3. Define remote sensing. Explain its components. (20 marks)

Ans) The term "remote sensing" refers to the process of gathering information about an object from a distance using a mechanical device known as a "remote sensor." This information is gathered by observing how the object interacts with different wavelengths of electromagnetic energy across the electromagnetic spectrum. The lithosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of Earth can all be monitored or measured with the help of a technique called remote sensing.


Because of this development, we are now able to receive and record information about an object even when we do not have any direct physical contact with that object. In its most basic form, remote sensing involves the use of photographic cameras to record information from wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum that are either visible or near infrared. The science and technology known as remote sensing allows for the identification, measurement, and analysis of the characteristics of a particular object, area, or phenomenon without having to come into physical contact with that object, area, or phenomenon. This allows for more informed decisions to be made. Mapping land use, predicting the weather, conducting research on the environment, analysing natural hazards, and exploring for resources are all examples of applications for remote sensing.


Components of Remote Sensing


1. Energy Source

a) Passive System: Sun, irradiance from earth’s materials.

b) Active System: Irradiance from artificially generated energy sources such as radar.


2. Platforms

Platforms are generally thought of as the vehicles that carry remote sensing sensors. There are three primary types of remote sensing platforms: ground-level platforms (such as towers and cranes), aerial platforms (such as helicopters, aircraft flying at low and high altitudes, and aircraft flying at extremely high altitudes), and spaceborne platforms (space shuttles, polar-orbiting satellites, and geostationary satellites). These are various kinds of vehicles that can transport the sensor, such as a truck, an aeroplane, a space shuttle, a satellite, and so on.


3. Sensors

It is a device that receives electromagnetic radiations and converts it into a signal that can be recorded and displayed as either numerical data or an image. It also has the ability to display the signal as either a numerical value or an image. Device to detect electro-magnetic radiation e.g., camera, scanner, etc.


4. Detectors and Processing

Handling signal data e.g., photographic, digital, etc.


5. Institutionalization

These are the organisations that are responsible for the execution of all stages of remote sensing technology. Some examples of these organisations include international and national organisations, research centres, universities, and others.


Classification of Remote Sensing

Passive and active remote sensing are the two categories that can be used to classify the practise of remote sensing in relation to the various kinds of energy resources.


1. Passive Remote Sensing

It makes use of sensors that detect the reflected or emitted electro-magnetic radiation from natural sources.


2. Active Remote Sensing

It does this by utilising sensors that detect reflected responses from objects that are irradiated from artificially generated energy sources such as radar. Specifically, it does this by utilising sensors that detect reflected responses.


With respect to wavelength regions, remote sensing is classified into three categories 

1)Visible and Reflective Infrared Remote Sensing.

2) Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing.

3) Microwave Remote Sensing.


Satellite Remote Sensing

Many satellites orbiting the planet and collecting data are constantly monitoring the Earth. They are engaged in "remote sensing," which is the act of obtaining information about something without coming into direct contact with it. The satellite images, as well as the actual predictions, are obtained through Earth remote sensing.


The satellites do not collect information; they simply orbit the Earth and provide platforms from which the sensors can observe large areas of the surface. Airplanes also serve as platforms for remote sensing, and some sensors operate from the ground. Many countries, including India, launch remote sensing satellites, which are usually outfitted with sensors that serve a specific purpose.


Over the last four decades, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has launched over 65 satellites for various scientific and technological applications such as mobile communications, Direct-to-Home services, meteorological observations, telemedicine, tele-education, disaster warning, radio networking, search and rescue operations, remote sensing, and space scientific studies.


ISRO has established two major space systems: the Indian National Satellite System (INSAT) series for communication, television broadcasting, and meteorological services, which are geostationary satellites, and the Indian Remote Sensing Satellites (IRS) system for resource monitoring and management, which are Earth observation satellites. ISRO has launched a number of experimental satellites, most of which are small in comparison to INSAT or IRS.

Q 4. Explain the application of geoinformatics in climate change studies. (20 marks)

Ans) The application of geoinformatics in climate change studies are:


1. Mapping of GHGs Distribution

The concentration of GHGs in the atmosphere is important for climate change research. GHG levels vary with time and location. As a result, there is a need to investigate and develop spatial databases to estimate and monitor GHGs in the earth's atmosphere. Remote sensing data can be used to obtain spatial, seasonal, and inter-annual GHG variability. These observations are currently available from sensors on international space missions such as EOS-Terra MOPITT and ENVISAT-SCIAMACHY.


2. Mapping of Evapotranspiration (ET) for Drought and Rainfall Prediction

ET is a key process in the climate system by exchanging mass and energy between land and atmosphere. Evaporation and transpiration lose about 65% of rainwater to the atmosphere. ET has multiple parts. Real-time and climatic information of these components at different spatiotemporal scales are essential for deciphering rainfall distribution pattern, agricultural drought assessment, water accounting, etc., which are needed for planning and managing agricultural water resources from a climate change perspective.


ET0 is the maximum atmospheric evaporative demand from a well-watered surface, regardless of crop type. ET0 must be accurately estimated at spatiotemporal scales to quantify crop water needs under standard crop-growing conditions with non-limiting water resources. This helps allocate water. Multiyear average and multi-temporal ET0 can help farmers with crop-water adequacy, crop stress, and agricultural drought.


3. Forests

Forests are an essential part of the earth system that keeps Earth’s atmosphere functioning smoothly. Forests play a key role in the global ecological, environmental, and recreational functions. Forests play an especially key role in maintaining natural processes. In the process of photosynthesis, trees and shrubs absorb carbon dioxide (CO2), store carbon and release oxygen and water vapour. By doing this, trees help reduce the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere, including some of the CO2 caused by burning fossil fuels. Forests, being the biggest reservoirs of carbon, can help to keep the carbon cycle and other natural processes working and help reduce climate change. But forests can also be one of the biggest sources of CO2 emissions.


4. Glaciers

Cryosphere includes snow, glaciers, ice sheets, sea ice, icebergs, lake ice, river ice, permafrost, etc. The cryosphere influences surface energy and moisture fluxes, clouds, precipitation, hydrology, atmospheric and oceanic circulation, and generates important feedbacks. The cryosphere's feedback processes affect global climate and climate model responses to global changes. When temperatures rise and ice melts, glaciers and ice caps release more water into the ocean, which warms and expands.


Global warming melts glaciers. Totten Glacier, the largest glacier in East Antarctica, has shrunk by a quarter of a metre a year since 2009, according to NASA. Glacial melting causes sea-level rise, which causes global flooding.


5. Assessment of Land Surface Temperature

Land surface temperature (LST) affects environmental issues such as urban heat islands, soil moisture, and vegetation, which exchange water and energy between land and atmosphere. LST refers to soil surface temperature for bare soil and canopy surface temperature for densely vegetated ground. For sparsely vegetated land, LST is determined by canopy, vegetation, and soil surface temperatures. LST is determined by the Earth's effective radiating temperature, which controls heat and water exchange. LST distribution is a good indicator of ecosystem health. LST is estimated using remote sensing data in forestry, vegetation, climate change hydrology, urban heat island, drought assessment, and climate to evaluate heat-related risks.


6. Human Health

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projects that climate change will harm human health, disproportionately affecting poor populations. Systematic evaluation and well-designed epidemiological studies are needed to quantify such health impacts. Geo-informatics is a useful tool for health, a geographic issue. It collects, updates, and manages health data for disease vulnerability, health patterning, and clinical management. GIS track’s locations. It links data bases and maps dynamically, so data updates are automatically reflected on maps. Remote sensing data helps identify and track disease-related environmental changes. Satellites can monitor vegetation, land use, surface waters, soil moisture and quality, built-up areas, and climate change.


7. Coastal Areas

Due to rapid industrialization and urbanisation, coastal zones are most vulnerable to land use changes. Coastal shorelines are constantly changing due to geomorphic processes like erosion and sedimentation, storms, flooding, and sea level changes, and anthropogenic activities. Population pressure, manufacturing, trade, transport, habitat loss, severe coastal erosion, sedimentation in ports and harbours, municipal and industrial pollution, etc. are deteriorating water quality and are a major concern for coastal zone managers. Coasts are ecological and economic vitality. They support fisheries, ports, tourism, and other industries. Also, they regulate atmospheric composition, cycle nutrients and water, and remove waste.


Q 5. Explain the different stages of life cycle assessment study. (20 marks)

Ans) The impacts on the environment that are associated with the life cycle of a product, process, or service are measured using a technique called life cycle assessment, which is also sometimes referred to as life cycle analysis. The extraction of materials from the environment, the production of the product, the use phase, and what happens to the product after it is no longer used are all aspects of a product's life cycle that have the potential to have an effect on the environment in a variety of different ways.


The various stages that make up a product's life cycle are collectively referred to as the life cycle. Utilizing LCA, you are able to evaluate the environmental impacts of your good or service from the very first life cycle stage all the way through to the very last life cycle stage, as well as any life cycle stage in between.


The Life Cycle Assessment, also known as LCA, is a method that can be used to evaluate a product's (or service's) potential impact on the environment as well as other potential impacts, including the following:


  1. Putting together an inventory of relevant inputs and outputs.

  2. Determining the potential environmental impacts associated with those inputs and outputs.

  3. Then interpreting the results of the inventory and impact phases in relation to the goals of the study are the three phases that make up this phase.


Stages in Life Cycle Assessment

An assessment of a product's environmental impact over its entire life cycle can be carried out using a methodology known as the life cycle assessment (LCA). The most important applications are these:

  1. Analysis of the contribution of the life cycle stages to the overall environmental load, usually with the aim to prioritize improvements on products or processes.

  2. Comparison between products for internal use.


An LCA study consists of four stages:


Stage 1: The purpose of the goal and scope section is to determine how much of the product life cycle will be devoted to assessment and what function assessment will ultimately serve. In this step, the criteria that will be used to compare systems as well as the specific times will be described.


Stage 2: In this stage of the process, inventory analysis provides a description of the flows of material and energy within the product system, focusing on the product's interaction with the environment, the raw materials it consumes, and the emissions it sends into the atmosphere. Later on, we will describe the all-important processes as well as the subsidiary energy and material flows.


Stage 3: The impact assessment makes use of the details gleaned from the inventory analysis. In this step, the results of all of the impact categories' indicators are broken down in detail, and the importance of each impact category is determined by first normalising the results and then, eventually, also weighting them.


Stage 4: In order to interpret a life cycle, one must first perform a critical review, then determine the sensitivity of the data, and finally present the findings.


Q 6. Write short notes on the following: (20 marks)


Q 6. a. Climate change adaptation

Ans) According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, adaptation refers to "the modifications in ecological, social, and economic systems in response to real or predictable climatic stimuli and its effects." It takes into account the advantages brought about by both the existing climate variability and the anticipated climate change. Both the product and the process of adaptation can exist simultaneously. In addition to this, he argued that adaptation should be treated as a process and that it should include the following steps: learning about the risk, evaluating the response options, improving adaptation, gathering resources, putting adaptation into action, and revising the option based on new information.


Adapting to climate change is likely to result in a significant reduction in a variety of negative impacts as well as an increase in the number of beneficial results. Despite the fact that climate change adaptation has been discussed over the course of the past few years through adaptive and organisational responses, very little attention has been paid to the adaptation of communities and the incorporation of adaptation strategies into policy perspectives. At the community level, there is an urgent need for awareness about the impacts of climate change and its potential adaptation approaches; however, the international intervention is important for the commitments and negotiations among the governments.


The process of adaptation takes place on a variety of levels that are interconnected. Policies that are shaped by national and international circumstances set goals to be achieved at the local and regional level. However, both individuals and organisations are unable to function effectively when confined. The manner in which information is interpreted and how that information is then rephrased into decisions and behaviours is influenced by a person's social background, individual characteristics, and experiences. It is concerned with the interactions of individual and group behaviours acting from the bottom-up and the top-down in response to changing circumstances. Specifically, it looks at how individuals and groups react to new situations.


Q 6. b. Disaster risk reduction

Ans) A methodical strategy for identifying, evaluating, and cutting down on the dangers posed by potential disasters is known as disaster risk reduction (DRR), which is also sometimes referred to as disaster risk management (DRM). In addition to addressing the environmental and other risks that can lead to disasters, this initiative seeks to lessen the socioeconomic precariousness that can accompany them.


The intricate interactions that take place between humans and the natural ecosystem always end in catastrophe. It has been vigorously argued that there is no such thing as an absolute natural disaster. The potential for a disaster to occur exists whenever a human population or community is impacted in some way by a natural hazard, such as an earthquake or flood, and is both exposed to the hazard and susceptible to its effects.

Therefore, the risk is a component of exposure to the hazard, the vulnerability of people, and the degree to which society has engaged in activities to mitigate the effects of disasters.


In addition, the capacity of individuals to defend themselves and adjust their behaviour in response to a threat is an essential component that must be understood. A methodical strategy for identifying, evaluating, and cutting down on the dangers posed by potential disasters is known as disaster risk reduction (DRR), which is also sometimes referred to as disaster risk management (DRM). In addition to addressing the environmental and other risks that can lead to disasters, this initiative seeks to lessen the socioeconomic precariousness that can accompany them.


This can be expressed in a simple equation, where R = risk, H = hazard, V = vulnerability, and C = capacity:

R= H x V


The equation that was just presented can also be written as R = f (H, V, C), which indicates that risk is a function of hazard, vulnerability, mitigation, and capacity. This can also be done with the equation that was just presented. This is a general approach to depicting risk, but it does not present a realistic relationship.


There is also controversy surrounding the inclusion of mitigation in the equation, which states that risk is calculated as the product of hazard times vulnerability minus mitigation, then divided by capacity. It is undeniable that disasters have a social component, and regardless of what their causes and effects are, they will invariably be rooted in societal progressions that render certain people or particular groups of people vulnerable to the effects of the disaster.


Disasters have both a geographical and a temporal component, which makes a particular region vulnerable to them. Alterations in various aspects of society may, over the course of time, make certain regions or groups of people more or less vulnerable to disasters. Social interpretations of disaster have evolved into increasingly nuanced concepts over the course of time and are now more widely accepted.

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