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MEVE-001: Environmental Impact Assessment for Environmental Health

MEVE-001: Environmental Impact Assessment for Environmental Health

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for MEVE-001 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Environmental Impact Assessment for Environmental Health, you have come to the right place. MEVE-001 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in PGDEOH, MAEOH, MSCRWEE, PGDEML courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: MEVE-001/TMA-01/2022-23

Course Code: MEVE-001

Assignment Name: Environmental Impact Assessment For Environmental Health

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Maximum Marks 100


Attempt any five questions. All questions carry equal marks. 5x20=100


1. Explain the basic principles of EIA?

Ans) The basic principles of EIA are:


Proactive Planning and Decision Tool: The EIA process is a proactive way to plan for the environment and try to avoid or predict bad effects that the proposed development is likely to have on the environment. An EIA should give real information that can be used to make decisions.


Avoidance, Prediction and Prevention of Adverse Environmental Consequences: The goal of the EIA process is to avoid and stop negative environmental effects of the proposed project. If negative environmental effects can't be avoided, the process provides ways to reduce and control them.


Making effective Impact on Decision making as soon as Possible Opportunity and Thinking Proactively about Options and Alternatives: It is important to help any effort to improve the environmental performance of the proposed development at the beginning of the project planning stage, not at a later stage. Anticipating bad effects on the environment early on in the process of a project saves time and is helpful. When bad effects on the environment are expected, possible alternatives should be thought about. When thinking about alternatives, the most important thing to think about is whether the precautionary principle shows that the project is safe for the environment.


Living Process throughout the Project Cycle: During the life cycle of a project, the EIA process should include a series of dynamic actions to identify and predict the possible negative environmental effects of the proposed development, to come up with ways to avoid, foresee, prevent, and lessen environmental problems, and to manage and control environmental effects within limits or criteria that have already been set.


Making EIA Recommendations Enforceable: The recommendations from the EIA should be smart, useful, and effective. They should include information about the 5Ws (what mitigation measures would be put in place, by whom, when, where, and to what standards) and make it clear who is responsible for putting them in place. Instead of trying to fix environmental problems after they happen, the suggested steps should be easy to follow and stop problems from happening in the first place.


Flexibility Amidst Robustness and Transparency, with Public Participation and with the Ability to Adapt to Changes: The process should be open and involve the public, but it should also be flexible enough to adapt to changing conditions without putting the environment at risk.


Seeking Practical Environmental Outcomes for the Environment and Community: One goal of the EIA process is to deliver and talk about practical environmental results for the community and the environment.


Avoidance of any Late Focus: early focus on major adverse environmental consequences could save a large amount of efforts or costs that may otherwise arise from expensive or time-consuming remedial works at a later stage. Principle Nine: Efficiency in the midst of effectiveness—An effective and efficient way to do EIA studies step by step would make the EIA process more productive.


Transparent Agreement among Relevant Parties, Clear Expectations of what need to be done and what the Performance will be, and Explicit Resolution of any Conflicts: Agreements, expectations, performance requirements, and ways to solve conflicts, among other things, should be fully communicated among the right people in an open and honest way to avoid confusion and make it easier to manage EIA follow-up works.


3. Write a short note on the followings.


(a) GIS

Ans) GIS and Remote Sensing are very important for making computerised spatial datasets and figuring out how things relate to each other in space. The environmental impact assessment (EIA) can be done with Arc/Info and ERDAS IMAGINE, which are GIS and remote sensing programmes. One such project is the building of a dam on the Man River in Gujarat, India. Using current information about the charge zone and managing symbolisms through IMAGINE, a good way to run the water system can be suggested. The effect of the dam on the catchment area and charge area can be used to figure out the net benefit to the general public. GIS can also help choose the site for the recovery and foundation area.


Geospatial technology includes remote sensing, and GIS is a key part of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process. This is because changes in the shape and size of the proposed aggravation can have a big effect on natural assets. With the help of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS), EIA has improved its ability to do large-scale surveying, development, research, and even guide writing. Getting the most up-to-date and accurate geospatial information and understanding is one of the biggest challenges. With a focus on using geospatial data in particular, the value of the data asset is much higher than what is usually available with textual and numerical data. In the case of India, a few of the most important ways that geospatial tools can be used to help with EIA are shown.


Some of the uses are keeping an eye on natural resources (air, water, land, etc.), ground-level ozone, soil erosion, ocean level rise due to a dangerous change in the atmosphere, change-identification studies, and showing environmentally sensitive areas using computerised image analysis and Geographic Information Systems. This study looks at how likely it is that a proposed spatial-choice emotionally supportive network could be used to lead EIA. This network should make it possible to move, evaluate, keep, and report field and diagnostic data that has been stored in different ways.


(b) Ecological Impact.

Ans) Ecological impact is what happens to organisms and their environment because of what people do and what happens naturally. Changes like these can be good or bad for the ecosystem. Invasive species are a good example of something that has an effect on the environment. Even though people put these organisms into the ecosystem to solve a problem or because they got there by accident, they can be dangerous to the environment because there are no predators to keep them in check. This can have a big effect on the ecosystem by letting the invader keep growing in number and pushing out native species.


4. Explain in detail about the strategic environmental assessment?

Ans) Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is a method for helping people make decisions. Its goal is to make sure that environmental and possibly other aspects of sustainability are taken into account well when policies, plans, and programmes are made. In this situation, according to Fischer (2007), SEA can be seen as: a structured, rigorous, participatory, open, and transparent environmental impact assessment (EIA)-based process, especially for plans and programmes, prepared by public planning authorities and sometimes private bodies; a participatory, open, and transparent, possibly non-EIA-based process, applied in a more flexible way to policies, prepared by public planning authorities and sometimes private bodies.


Effective SEA works within a structured and tiered decision framework, with the goal of supporting more effective and efficient decision-making for sustainable development and better governance. This is done by giving policy, plan, and programme (PPP) making a substantive focus on the questions, issues, and options that need to be thought about.


SEA is an evidence-based tool that aims to add scientific rigour to PPPs by using the right methods and techniques for assessing them. Ahmed and Sanchez Triana (2008) came up with a way to make public policies and put them into action that is more like a continuous process than a one-time intervention.


SEA helps to warn decision-makers early on about ways of developing that aren't good for the environment. In the end, this saves time and money because bad options are thrown out when only a small number of resources have been spent on them. SEA makes it easier for planners to get input from the right people and analyse it when making policies, plans, and programmes. In the end, this makes making decisions easier and takes less time. SEA helps to keep the environment healthy. A good use of SEA reduces the need for expensive fixes to environmental problems caused by putting into action strategic decisions that are bad for the environment. So, SEA helps current and future generations in economic, social, and environmental ways.


SEA is in favour of putting environmental and social factors on the same level as economic factors. Also, using SEA makes it possible for different administrative levels and sectors to work together to reach their goals. SEA is a proactive tool that goes after the causes of environmental problems instead of just dealing with the effects. It encourages policies, plans, and programmes to take environmental and long-term development goals into account from the start. SEA helps evaluate all of the options and alternatives in light of these overall goals and helps come up with plans for putting the best strategic options into action that are good for the environment.


6. Explain the following


(a) Triple-bottom line approach

Ans) John Elkington came up with the TBL idea in 1994, and it started to be used in 1997. Triple bottom line, also called TB or 3BL, is an economic framework with three parts: social, environmental (or ecological), and financial. Integration of social, environmental (ecological), and economic dimensions into LCA shows the benefits of modelling a product's inputs and outputs for figuring out its long-term effects. ecological) and financial. In general, and from a broader perspective, the TBL framework is used to measure the performance of a business in order to make it more valuable. In traditional business accounting, "bottom line" meant either "profit" or "loss" on a statement of income and expenses. Since the 1960s, people who care about the environment and "social justice" have been pushing for full cost accounting.


If we look at an industry that makes money, but their asbestos mine kills thousands of people with asbestosis and their copper mine pollutes a river, and the government ends up spending tax money on health care and cleaning up the river, we won't be able to do a full societal cost-benefit analysis.


This situation gives us a reason to add two more "bottom lines"—concerns about society and the environment (ecology)—to TBL. In 2007, the United Nations ratified the TBL standard for accounting in urban and community areas. This gave the public and private sectors a clear way to account for all costs. People, the planet, and making money are the three parts of TBL. It is a coordinated effort to take into account economic, environmental, and social factors when evaluating and making decisions in the business world. TBL is a tool used in life cycle assessment (LCA) to measure the good and bad effects of industrial or business activities on the economy, social equity, and the environment.


Economic Line

The economic line of the TBL framework is about how business practises in the industrial sector affect growth, efficiency, and making the best use of resources. The economic dimension is a part of sustainable development. It is in agreement with the transition from a resource-based economy to one that relies on natural resources and protects ecosystem capital from running out, as well as the economic value provided by the organisation to the surrounding system in a way that helps it thrive and improves its ability to support future generations.


The Social line

The Social line of TBL is about making sure that business practises are fair and good for labour, human capital, and society as a whole. The most important thing is that these practises add value to society and "give back" to the community by taking into account fairness, empowerment, social cohesion, and cultural identity. These practises help make sure that everyone gets the same wages and coverage for health care. The business's social performance is mostly about how society and the business interact with each other. It looks at things like community involvement, employee relations, and fair wages.

(b) Role of LCA


  1. Helping people make decisions and pointing out ways to improve efficiency along the value chain.

  2. Understanding the systems that are used to make products and provide services to end users.

  3. Optimizing industrial systems by finding "hot spots," or operations in a market chain that have the most room for improvement.

  4. Making sure that changes made to improve one part of an industrial system don't "shift the burden" to another part of the chain or cause a new problem.

  5. Telling people who make decisions about the trade-offs that decision will have in terms of the balance of effects across the environmental impact categories. For example, using a certain technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions may cause more water to be used.

  6. Using the functional unit to compare two systems that offer the same service or product. Differences of less than about 10 percent are usually within the error range of good LCAs. Differences that really matter must be much bigger. LCAs can only be used to compare products and services that do the same thing.


7. Give a brief account on EIA laws and guidelines.

Ans) The phrase "environmental impact assessment" comes from Section 102(2) of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 in the United States. NEPA was created in December 1969, and on January 1, 1970, President Nixon signed it into law. People sometimes call NEPA the "Magna Carta" of environmental laws. NEPA was the first major law in the US to protect the environment. The National Environmental Act (NEPA) of the United States defines EIA as a "systematic interdisciplinary approach that will ensure the integrated use of the natural and social sciences and the environmental design arts in planning and decision making that may affect man's environment."


The goals of this act are to: declare a national policy that will help people live in harmony with their environment in a way that is both productive and enjoyable; support efforts to prevent or stop damage to the environment and biosphere and improve people's health and well-being; learn more about the ecological systems and natural resources that are important to the nation; and set up a Council on Environmental Quality. EIA was first used in India around 1978 or 1979, but it wasn't required until 1994.


After an EIA study, which was ordered by the Planning Commission of the Government of India and done by the NCEPC under the Department of Science and Technology (DST), the environmental clearance process began in 1978. After the Department of Environment (DE) was created in 1980, the job of Environmental Clearance was moved from DST to DE. In 1994, some projects had to get an Environmental Clearance and an EIA. Under the Environmental (Protection)Act of 1986, the Union Ministry of Environment and Forests (MEF) of the Government of India issued a notification on Environmental Impact Assessment of Development projects on January 27, 1994. This notification has been changed a few times, and there are different guidelines for EIA.


The main steps are as follows:

  1. Preliminary activities

  2. Impact identification

  3. Baseline study

  4. Impact evaluation

  5. Assessment

  6. Documentation

  7. Decision-making

  8. Post audits

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