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MGS-002: Gender, Development Goals and Praxis

MGS-002: Gender, Development Goals and Praxis

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

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Assignment Code: MGS-002 / AST-01 / TMA / 2022-23

Course Code: MGS-002

Assignment Name: Gender, Development Goals and Praxis

Year: 2022 - 2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor




Answer the following in 200 words each. (10 marks)


Q 1. Examine the strategies to be adopted to strengthen gender equity in education.

Ans) Gender equity in education is essential for creating a society that values diversity and promotes equal opportunities for all.


Some strategies that can be adopted to strengthen gender equity in education:

  1. Eliminate Gender Stereotyping: Schools must avoid gender stereotypes in textbooks, curriculums, and classroom environments. Teachers must use gender-neutral language and create a positive learning environment that encourages diversity and inclusiveness.

  2. Encourage Girls to Participate: Girls' academic and extracurricular participation should encourage gender equity in schools. Seminars, workshops, and organisations that encourage girls' STEM and other traditionally male-dominated disciplines can do this.

  3. Train Teachers: Teachers must be trained to identify and address gender biases in their classrooms. They should be equipped with the knowledge and tools necessary to create an inclusive learning environment that fosters gender equity.

  4. Provide Access to Education: Poverty, cultural norms, and early marriage impede schooling for developing country girls. Governments and NGOs must collaborate to assist girls with scholarships, schools, and education infrastructure.

  5. Provide Support for Women in Higher Education: Gender discrimination, financial restraints, and social standards make higher education difficult for women. Financial assistance, coaching, and networking can help women overcome these obstacles and succeed in their jobs.


In conclusion, gender equity in education is crucial for building a more just and equitable society. These strategies can help create a more inclusive and supportive learning environment that promotes gender equity and empowers women and girls to succeed.

Q 2. What are Self-Help Groups? How does it help women’s economic Empowerment? Examine

Ans) Self-Help Groups are community-based groups that solve problems together. Women usually lead these groups. They aim to help members pool resources, share knowledge, and improve their economic and social situations. SHGs provide financial and other support to their members, especially poor ones. Members contribute to a pool that provides loans and other financial assistance to members for income-generating activities. Loans usually have low interest rates and are due within a certain timeframe.


SHGs Help Women’s Economic Empowerment

  1. Access to Financial Resources: SHGs provide women with access to financial resources that they may not have otherwise. Members can pool their savings and lend money to each other at lower interest rates than traditional sources of credit. This allows women to start their own businesses, invest in their farms, and improve their economic well-being.

  2. Skill Development: SHGs also provide opportunities for women to develop skills and knowledge that can help them in their businesses or other income-generating activities. These skills may include entrepreneurship, marketing, and financial management.

  3. Networking: Members of SHGs can build their social networks and learn from each other's experiences. This can help women identify new opportunities, expand their businesses, and access new markets.

  4. Collective Bargaining: As part of the group, women can negotiate better prices for their products or services. By pooling their resources, they can also access bulk discounts on raw materials or other inputs.

  5. Increased Bargaining Power: By working together, women can increase their bargaining power in their households, communities, and markets. This can lead to greater decision-making power and control over their own lives.


Q 3. What are the salient features of CEDAW?

Ans) CEDAW stands for the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women, which is a United Nations treaty adopted in 1979. It aims to promote gender equality and eliminate discrimination against women in all areas of life.


Here are some of the salient features of CEDAW:

  1. Non-Discrimination: CEDAW establishes the principle of non-discrimination against women in all aspects of life, including political, social, economic, and cultural spheres. It requires state parties to take measures to eliminate discrimination against women and ensure their equal rights and opportunities.

  2. Women's Rights as Human Rights: CEDAW recognizes that women's rights are human rights and that they are entitled to the same civil, political, economic, and social rights as men. It requires states to take measures to protect and promote women's rights and ensure their full and equal participation in all aspects of society.

  3. Gender Stereotypes: CEDAW calls for the elimination of gender stereotypes and harmful practices that discriminate against women. It recognizes that cultural and traditional practices can perpetuate discrimination against women, and it requires states to take measures to address these practices.

  4. Violence Against Women: CEDAW recognizes that violence against women is a form of discrimination and requires states to take measures to prevent and eliminate violence against women. It calls for the protection of women from all forms of violence, including domestic violence, sexual harassment, and trafficking.

  5. Equal Access to Education: CEDAW recognizes the importance of education for women's empowerment and requires states to ensure equal access to education for women and girls.


Q 4. What are Service delivery mechanisms? How is it helpful for women to reduce drudgery?

Ans) Service delivery mechanisms are the various means by which essential services such as water supply, sanitation, healthcare, education, and others are delivered to the people. The main objective of service delivery mechanisms is to provide access to essential services to all people, including women, and reduce their workload or drudgery.


Some ways in which service delivery mechanisms are helpful for women to reduce drudgery:

  1. Access to Clean Water: Access to clean water through service delivery mechanisms such as piped water supply, hand pumps, and community water sources can significantly reduce the drudgery faced by women in collecting and carrying water from distant sources.

  2. Sanitation: Adequate sanitation facilities, such as toilets, can help women reduce their workload by reducing the time and effort required for personal hygiene and sanitation.

  3. Health Services: Service delivery mechanisms that provide access to quality health services, including maternal and reproductive health services, can improve women's health and reduce their workload by reducing the need for travel and time spent in seeking healthcare.

  4. Education: Service delivery mechanisms that provide access to quality education, including non-formal education and vocational training, can help women acquire knowledge and skills that can improve their economic opportunities and reduce their workload.

  5. Technology: Technology-based service delivery mechanisms, such as mobile phone-based information systems, can help women access information and services, including agricultural inputs, market prices, and healthcare.




Answer any two of the questions given below in 1000 words each. Each question carries 30 marks.


Q 1. Describe the theoretical underpinnings of social justice and gender justice.

Ans) Social justice and gender justice are two closely related concepts that have their roots in different philosophical, political, and social theories. While social justice is concerned with the fair distribution of resources and opportunities among all members of society, gender justice is focused on the elimination of gender-based discrimination, inequality, and violence. Both concepts are based on the idea that every individual is entitled to dignity, respect, and equal rights, regardless of their gender, race, class, or other social identities.


The theoretical underpinnings of social justice can be traced back to ancient philosophical traditions such as Confucianism, Hinduism, and Buddhism, which emphasize the importance of social harmony, compassion, and collective responsibility. In the Western tradition, social justice has been developed by thinkers such as Aristotle, who argued that justice requires treating equals equally and unequally according to their relevant differences. Other influential thinkers in the development of social justice include John Rawls, who argued for a social contract that guarantees basic rights and opportunities for all members of society, and Amartya Sen, who emphasized the importance of individual capabilities and freedoms in the pursuit of social justice.


One of the key theories underlying social justice is distributive justice, which is concerned with the fair distribution of resources and opportunities in society. This includes access to education, healthcare, employment, housing, and other essential goods and services. The principles of distributive justice require that resources be allocated based on need, merit, and equality, rather than on arbitrary factors such as gender, race, or class. This theory emphasizes the importance of addressing systemic inequalities and power imbalances in society that create and perpetuate social injustice.


Gender justice, on the other hand, is rooted in feminist theory, which emerged in the 19th and 20th centuries in response to the social, political, and economic oppression of women. Feminist theory is a diverse and complex field that encompasses a range of perspectives and approaches, but its central tenet is the belief that women have been historically disadvantaged and marginalized, and that this must be rectified through social and political action. Feminist theorists argue that gender inequality is not a natural or inevitable feature of human societies, but rather a social construct that is perpetuated through cultural norms, power structures, and institutional practices.


One of the key concepts in feminist theory is the idea of patriarchy, which refers to the social system in which men hold primary power and privilege, and women are subordinated and excluded from political, economic, and cultural spheres. Patriarchy is seen as a pervasive and persistent form of social injustice that perpetuates gender inequality and limits the opportunities and freedoms of women. Feminist theorists have developed a range of analytical tools and frameworks to understand and challenge patriarchy, including intersectionality, which emphasizes the interlocking nature of social identities and power relations, and the concept of gender performativity, which argues that gender is not a fixed or natural category, but rather a socially constructed performance that is shaped by cultural and institutional norms.


Another important theoretical concept in gender justice is the idea of reproductive justice, which emphasizes the importance of reproductive rights, health, and autonomy for women. Reproductive justice recognizes that women's reproductive choices and experiences are shaped by a range of intersecting factors, including race, class, and disability, and that these factors can limit or expand women's reproductive freedoms and opportunities. Reproductive justice advocates for the right of women to make their own choices about their bodies, their families, and their futures, and for the provision of high-quality reproductive healthcare and services that are accessible to all women.


While social justice and gender justice are related concepts, they differ in their focus and scope. Social justice seeks to ensure that everyone has access to the resources and opportunities necessary to live a dignified and fulfilling life, regardless of their social identity. Gender justice, on the other hand, is focused specifically on addressing the unique challenges and barriers faced by women in society, with the goal of eliminating gender-based discrimination and oppression.


One of the key theoretical underpinnings of gender justice is intersectionality, which emphasizes the importance of recognizing and addressing the multiple and intersecting forms of oppression that women face, including those based on race, class, sexuality, and disability. Intersectionality recognizes that women's experiences of discrimination and inequality are not uniform or monolithic, but rather are shaped by a range of intersecting factors that can amplify or mitigate the effects of gender-based discrimination.


Another important concept in gender justice is the idea of empowerment, which emphasizes the importance of giving women the tools, skills, and resources they need to exercise agency and control over their own lives. Empowerment can take many forms, including education, access to economic resources, and political participation, and is seen as a key strategy for advancing gender justice.


In addition to these theoretical concepts, there are also a range of practical strategies and interventions that are used to promote social justice and gender justice. These include policies and programs aimed at addressing gender-based violence, promoting women's economic empowerment, and increasing women's political representation and participation.


For example, policies such as affirmative action or quotas are often used to increase women's representation in political and economic spheres, where they are typically underrepresented. Similarly, policies that promote access to education and healthcare can help to reduce gender-based disparities in these areas and can help to empower women to take control of their own lives.


Overall, the theoretical underpinnings of social justice and gender justice are complex and multifaceted, reflecting a wide range of philosophical and social traditions. However, they share a common goal of promoting equity and fairness, and of ensuring that every individual has the opportunity to live a dignified and fulfilling life, free from discrimination and oppression. Achieving these goals will require a sustained and collective effort, involving individuals, communities, and governments at all levels, and will require ongoing reflection and adaptation as social, political, and economic conditions continue to evolve.


Q 2. Give an account of constitutional provisions for the Empowerment of women in India.

Ans) The Constitution of India is an all-encompassing constitution that lays forth the rules and guidelines for the administration of the country. It functions as the basis for the advancement of social, economic, and political rights, especially the emancipation of women. The following is a list of some of the most important constitutional provisions for the advancement of women's rights in India:


Right to Equality: Article 14

Article 14 of the Indian Constitution provides for the right to equality before the law and equal protection of the law to all persons. This provision prohibits discrimination on the grounds of gender, among other things, and ensures that women are treated equally before the law. This provision has been crucial in promoting gender equality and empowering women in India.


Prohibition of Discrimination: Article 15

Article 15 of the Constitution prohibits discrimination on the basis of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth. This provision enables the state to make special provisions for women and children, and to address the social and economic inequalities that women face. It also enables the government to promote women's education, health, and economic opportunities.


Right to Freedom: Article 19

Article 19 of the Constitution provides for the right to freedom, which includes the freedom of speech, expression, and movement. This provision has been instrumental in enabling women to exercise their right to freedom of expression and to challenge gender stereotypes and discrimination.


Right to Life and Personal Liberty: Article 21

Article 21 of the Constitution provides for the right to life and personal liberty to all persons. This provision has been crucial in promoting women's rights, including their right to bodily autonomy, freedom from violence, and access to healthcare.


Fundamental Duties: Article 51A

Article 51A of the Constitution provides for the fundamental duties of every citizen of India. One of these duties is to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women. This provision highlights the importance of respecting and promoting women's rights and dignity.


Reservations in Local Governance: 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments

The 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments provide for 33% reservation of seats for women in local governance institutions, including Panchayats and Municipalities. This provision has been instrumental in increasing women's representation in local governance, promoting their participation in decision-making, and improving their access to resources and services.


Maternity Benefit: Article 42

Article 42 of the Constitution directs the state to make provisions for just and humane working conditions and maternity relief for women. This provision has been crucial in promoting women's health and well-being and enabling them to balance their work and family responsibilities.


Protection from Domestic Violence: The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005

The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 provides for the protection and relief of women from domestic violence. This provision enables women to seek legal recourse and protection from violence, including physical, emotional, and economic abuse.


Equality in Employment: Article 16

Article 16 of the Constitution provides for equality in employment opportunities and prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender. This provision has been crucial in promoting women's participation in the workforce and enabling them to access equal opportunities and benefits.


Prohibition of Traffic in Human Beings and Forced Labour: Article 23

Article 23 of the Constitution prohibits trafficking in human beings and forced labour. This provision has been crucial in addressing the problem of trafficking of women and girls and protecting their rights and dignity.


Special Provisions for Women: Article 15(3)

Article 15(3) of the Constitution enables the state to make special provisions for women and children. This provision has enabled the government to make affirmative action policies and implement special programs to promote gender equality and women's empowerment. For example, the government has implemented programs such as Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao, Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, and Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana to address gender-based discrimination, improve women's health, and promote their education and financial inclusion.


Prohibition of Untouchability: Article 17

Article 17 of the Constitution prohibits the practice of untouchability in any form. This provision has been instrumental in addressing the problem of caste-based discrimination and promoting the rights and dignity of women from marginalized and disadvantaged communities.


Protection of Children: Article 39(f)

Article 39(f) of the Constitution directs the state to provide children with opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity. This provision has been crucial in promoting the well-being and development of girls and addressing the problem of child marriage.


Right to Education: Article 21A

Article 21A of the Constitution provides for the right to education for all children between the ages of 6 and 14 years. This provision has been crucial in promoting girls' education and enabling them to access equal opportunities and benefits.

Right to Information: Article 19(1)(a)

Article 19(1)(a) of the Constitution provides for the right to information, which has been crucial in promoting transparency and accountability in governance and enabling women to access information and resources to empower themselves.


In general, the constitutional provisions for the empowerment of women in India provide a robust legal framework for the promotion of gender equality, women's rights, and their full and equal participation in all aspects of society. This is the case because the provisions are written into the country's founding document, the Constitution of India. Because to these provisions, the government has been able to develop policies and initiatives that address gender-based violence and discrimination, as well as improve women's health, education, and employment opportunities, and increase women's financial participation. However, there is still a significant amount of work to be done in order to fully realise the promise of these provisions and make certain that women are able to exercise their rights and live with dignity and independence.

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