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MJM-030: Communication and Media Studies

MJM-030: Communication and Media Studies

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for MJM-030 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Communication and Media Studies, you have come to the right place. MJM-030 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in MAJMC courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: MJM-030/Jul22/Jan23

Course Code: MJM-030

Assignment Name: Media and Communication Theories

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Maximum Marks: 100

Weightage: 30%

Note: Answer all the questions. All questions carry equal marks = 20 each


Attempt each question in about 500 words


Q1. Take a week’s national and regional newspapers and study the front page news on them. Then compare and make an analytical report on how agenda created by the media is different for both. You may paste the clippings of important news items.

Ans) The coverage area, viewership, and depth of news coverage of national and regional newspapers vary. In this analytical analysis, we will examine and contrast the features of national and regional newspapers and offer insights into their advantages and disadvantages.


Coverage Area

Regional newspapers focus on news and events from a particular area or locale, whereas national newspapers cover news and events from the whole nation. Regional newspapers usually focus on news and events from their particular area, whereas national newspapers typically have correspondents and reporters stationed in different areas of the country who give news coverage from other locations.


Target Audience

Regional newspapers have a more focused target audience that includes readers from a particular region or locale, whereas national newspapers have a wider target audience that includes readers from all across the nation. While regional newspapers focus on local news, events, and issues that are important to their readers, national newspapers strive to give thorough coverage of national and worldwide news and events.


Scope of News Coverage

Politics, business, sports, entertainment, and foreign news are just a few of the themes that are covered by national newspapers. Each topic has its own section, and its coverage is often in-depth and analytical. Regional newspapers, on the other hand, tend to cover news with a narrower scope, concentrating more on local news, events, and topics.

Strengths of National Newspapers

National newspapers are able to have a greater impact and influence on public opinion since they have a wider audience and readership. They can offer more in-depth and analytical coverage of news and events since they have greater resources and a larger staff of reporters and correspondents.


Weaknesses of National Newspapers

Regional newspapers typically cover local news more thoroughly than national newspapers do, although their coverage may not always be suitable to readers in particular geographic areas. Additionally, they could be criticised for favouring news and events at the national level and for not giving enough attention to local problems.


Strengths of Regional Newspapers

Regional newspapers can deliver news and information that is pertinent and useful to their readers since they have a more narrowly focused target audience. Additionally, they are more knowledgeable about regional issues and events, and their reporting is sometimes more thorough and specific than that of major media.


Weaknesses of Regional Newspapers

Regional newspapers might not have as many resources or as many reporters and correspondents, which could affect their capacity to cover all local news and events in detail. They might not have the same effect and readership as major publications, which might lessen their ability to influence public opinion.

Q2. Select any five TV ads of your choice and analyse their strategies of persuasion. Mention their target audience, communication strategy and marketing strategy. In your opinion, rate their persuasive strategies on a scale of 1 to 5, 5 being the highest along with reasons.


Apple - "Shot on iPhone"

  1. Target audience: Smartphone users and amateur photographers.

  2. Communication strategy: The ad showcases beautiful and compelling images and videos taken by iPhone users, highlighting the quality and versatility of the camera. The message is that anyone can take great photos and videos with an iPhone.

  3. Marketing strategy: Apple aims to differentiate its product by emphasizing the camera's quality and features, thereby encouraging people to upgrade to newer models.


Coca-Cola - "Share a Coke"

  1. Target audience: soft drink consumers, particularly young adults.

  2. Communication strategy: The ad features people sharing bottles of Coca-Cola with their friends, family, and colleagues. The message is that Coca-Cola brings people together and creates social connections.

  3. Marketing strategy: Coca-Cola personalized their bottles by printing people's names on them, which increased consumer engagement and loyalty.


Nike - "Dream Crazier"

  1. Target audience: Athletes, particularly women.

  2. Communication strategy: The ad showcases female athletes who have broken barriers and achieved success in their respective sports, inspiring viewers to pursue their dreams and push beyond perceived limitations.

  3. Marketing strategy: Nike aims to empower women by emphasizing their potential and encouraging them to break down barriers, thereby positioning itself as a brand that supports and celebrates female athletes.


Volkswagen - "The Force"

Target audience: Car buyers, particularly parents.

Communication strategy: The ad features a young boy dressed as Darth Vader trying to use the Force to start a Volkswagen car. The message is that the car has advanced technology that is easy to use and can impress even kids.

Marketing strategy: Volkswagen aims to position itself as a brand that offers innovative and user-friendly cars that are perfect for families.


Amazon - "Alexa Loses Her Voice"

  1. Target audience: Tech-savvy consumers.

  2. Communication strategy: The ad features different celebrities taking on the voice of Alexa after the virtual assistant loses her voice. The message is that Alexa is an essential and entertaining part of daily life that can handle a wide range of tasks and requests.

  3. Marketing strategy: Amazon aims to position Alexa as a helpful and fun digital assistant that can make people's lives easier and more enjoyable.


Q3. Hegemony or ideological and cultural domination has often been the root cause of conflict the world over. Analyse this in today’s scenario in global context. (500 words)

Ans) Hegemony, or the ideological and cultural dominance of one group over another, has historically been the main driver of warfare. The question of hegemony is still significant in the current global environment, especially in light of the shifting balance of power in the world and the increasing importance of transnational organisations and businesses. The dominance of Western nations, especially the United States, in international politics, economy, and culture is one of the most obvious manifestations of hegemony in today's globe. Particularly since the conclusion of the Cold War, the United States has long been seen as a superpower with enormous influence and control over world events. Resentment and war have resulted from the U.S.'s repeated use of military and economic force to impose its will on other countries.


Transnational firms, many of which have more resources and wealth than many governments, have also grown significantly in power and influence in today's globe. These businesses frequently promote Western cultural ideals and ways of life, which can result in a cultural homogeneity that undermines regional customs and traditions. Additionally, it is possible to interpret the growth of populism and nationalism in recent years as a reaction to the threat of perceived cultural hegemony. There are social and political conflicts around the world because many people believe that globalisation and Westernization are threatening their traditional values and ways of life.


Cultural hegemony is a complex of social relations produced by the social stratification of the individual social structures of a society, such as the social class system and the social strata of each class, rather than a monolithic intellectual praxis (politics and policies) or a unified system of values (ideology). The social structures establish and define the cohesive social order. Social cohesion results from each social and economic class having a distinct societal purpose and each class having an in-group subculture that permits social behaviours specific to and different from those of other social classes. The social classes will cognitively unite into a society with a stronger sense of national purpose, specified in the prevailing ideology of the ruling class, as a result of their assigned socio-economic aims.


According to Gramsci, cognitively seeing the social structures of the bourgeois cultural hegemony would be possible for rational men and women through cultural and historical assessments of the "natural order of things in society" imposed by the prevailing ideology. Common sense is the intellectualism that people use to explain and cope with their daily lives within their social strata within the larger social order in both the private and public spheres of life; however, the limitations of common sense prevent a person from having an intellectual perception of the exploitation of labour made possible by cultural hegemony. Most people are preoccupied with personal concerns due to the difficulties in understanding the bourgeois culture's established hierarchy of social and economic classes, and as a result, they do not inquire into the underlying causes of their individual and collective socio-economic subjugation.


It's crucial to remember that hegemony is a problem that affects more than just Western states. Conflict and friction have resulted from attempts by other nations and organisations to impose their own cultural and ideological ideals on others. For instance, concerns have been made concerning China's efforts to project its own cultural influence and authority as a result of its expanding economic and political dominance. As a result, hegemony continues to be a major problem in today's globe, with cultural and ideological dominance frequently resulting in conflict and friction. Nations and organisations must seek to create a more varied and equal world where different cultures and beliefs are acknowledged and honoured. This may be accomplished through encouraging intercultural communication, teamwork, and understanding, as well as local customs and cultural variety.


Q4. How is the theory of political economy applicable to YouTube channels? Analyse with respect to influencers and the way they manipulate public opinion. (500 words)

Ans) The goal of political economy theory is to clarify the interrelationship between politics and economics as well as the distribution of power within society. The examination of YouTube channels, particularly those managed by influencers who use their platforms to sway public opinion, may be done using this approach. The idea of political economics may be utilised to comprehend how influence and power are divided among various groups in the context of YouTube influencers. Influencers may sway public opinion on a range of subjects, including politics, social concerns, and commercial goods, and they frequently have a sizable fan base. They promote both their own ideas and those of their sponsors and advertising on their platforms.


Political economics is a method for examining media that places less emphasis on interpreting the meanings of the signs and symbols contained in texts and more on how media is created, distributed, and consumed. The term "political economy", which combines the terms "political" and "economy," makes clear that media texts are produced within specific and historically contingent systems that are not just an ideologically neutral form of exchange but are also influenced by a variety of complex interactions between nation states, international organisations, legal frameworks and institutions, cultural traditions and heritages, and other organisations (such as media corporate). PE focuses on how politics and economics are not separate things, as we frequently encounter them in educational contexts, but rather are fields that are best understood as being entangled - meaning that they are functionally inseparable - and that understanding elements of this entanglement is crucial to understanding the functioning of any society and culture.


By producing material that is in line with the interests of their sponsors and marketers, influencers can affect public opinion. Despite being presented as neutral or objective, this information is frequently prejudiced and intended to support a specific idea or point of view. Influencers may also propagate false information or fake news via their platforms, which may have a big influence on political debate and public opinion. Moreover, in order to win the confidence and allegiance of their followers, influencers frequently employ persuasive communication techniques. For instance, they could make use of emotive appeals like dread or nostalgia to make their audience feel compelled to listen or connected. They may also bolster their authority and credibility by using social evidence, such as recommendations from other influencers or famous people.


In conclusion, the study of YouTube channels and influencers may greatly benefit from the study of political economics. We may better grasp how public opinion is generated and how it can be controlled by comprehending the power dynamics and communication techniques employed by influencers. As a result, it's crucial that we evaluate and exercise discernment while consuming material on social media platforms and that we be aware of the goals and interests of those who create it.


Q5. Get the latest media and entertainment report of a credible market research agency and chart the audience segmentation and revenues earned by different media. Draw an analysis to indicate the shift of preference from one media to another.


PwC Entertainment and Media Outlook

An annual study, the PwC Entertainment and Media Outlook, offers analysis of the worldwide media and entertainment market, including revenue projections, consumer trends, and technology advancements. The most recent study, for the years 2020–2024, covers the years 2019–2024.


Some of the key findings from the report include:

  1. Over the projected period, global entertainment and media sales are anticipated to increase at a compound annual rate of 4.4 percent, reaching $2.6 trillion in 2024.

  2. Revenues are anticipated to increase at a compound annual rate of 11.6 percent throughout the projected period, making digital media the industry with the highest growth. By 2024, it is anticipated that 62 percent of all entertainment and media income would come from the digital sector.

  3. The growth of smartphones and other mobile devices, the emergence of streaming services, and the expansion of high-speed internet are all contributing to the move from analogue to digital media consumption.

  4. As consumers have spent more time at home and turned to online entertainment alternatives, the COVID-19 epidemic has expedited the move to digital media consumption.

  5. In the research, various new developments in the media and entertainment sector are highlighted, including the emergence of eSports, the growing relevance of personalisation, and the expanding application of artificial intelligence and machine learning.


Nielsen Global Media

The Nielsen Global Media report offers information on audience demographics and segmentation as well as media consumption trends across various platforms and devices. The report includes a variety of media formats, including print, internet, radio, and television.


Some of the key findings from the report include:

  1. With an average of 3.5 hours watched each day, traditional TV is still the most popular form of media consumption worldwide. However, with the typical individual spending 2.5 hours each day on digital platforms, digital media consumption is expanding quickly.

  2. The increased use of social media, mobile devices, and video streaming services is fuelling an increase in the consumption of digital media. According to the study, with an average daily usage of 3.1 hours on mobile devices, individuals now access digital media primarily through these devices.

  3. Given that different age groups and geographical areas have varying media consumption patterns, the paper emphasises the need of knowing audience segmentation and demographics. Younger audiences, for instance, are more inclined to utilise digital media, but older audiences are more likely to use conventional media like TV and radio.



A market research firm called eMarketer offers perceptions on media and digital marketing trends. Their analyses include audience segmentation and revenue estimates and cover a wide range of subjects, such as social media, digital advertising, and e-commerce.

Some of the key findings from eMarketer's latest reports include:

  1. Global digital ad expenditure is anticipated to reach $389 billion in 2021 as digital advertising continues to expand quickly. Mobile advertising, which is predicted to represent 67 percent of all digital ad expenditure in 2021, is the primary focus of the bulk of this investment.

  2. The use of social media is still increasing, especially among younger people. According to the most recent eMarketer data, social media is used by 91% of US internet users ages 18 to 24, but just 38% of those 65 and older.

  3. The COVID-19 epidemic has hastened the transition to e-commerce, with $4.9 trillion in worldwide e-commerce sales predicted by 2021. The appeal of internet purchasing, especially among younger consumers, is what's fuelling this increase.

  4. Streaming services have become more popular, especially in the video and music categories, as a result of the proliferation of mobile devices and the expansion of high-speed internet access. According to eMarketer, there will be 1.1 billion subscription video-on-demand (SVOD) viewers globally in 2021, up from 939 million in 2020..

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