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MLI-102: Management of Library and Information Centres

MLI-102: Management of Library and Information Centres

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for MLI-102 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Management of Library and Information Centres, you have come to the right place. MLI-102 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in MLIS courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: MLI-102/ AST/TMA/ Jul .2022- Jan. 2023

Course Code: MLI-102

Assignment Name: Management of Library and Information Centres

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


1.1 Explain the Change Management process and discuss the different models of change. (10)

Ans) There are some basic ideas about change, and one of them is that change has always been around and always will be. "Change begins with a goal, which is often called a vision," says Smith (1998). "The difference between the goal and the status quo is the intended change." Before making a change, it's important to do a thorough study of everyone who will be involved and everyone who will be affected by the change.


There are four main steps to managing a change process:

  1. Planning: During the planning stage, the organisation decides if change is needed, creates a change management team, and makes a plan of action.

  2. Implementation and Management: During this stage, the change plan is put into action, and the main focus is on putting in place, managing, and keeping up with the change process so that the change goes smoothly.

  3. Development of Tracking and Monitoring Instruments: At this stage, different tracking and monitoring tools are made so that the success or failure of the change can be measured and any necessary changes can be made. Also, if necessary, precautionary steps can be taken.

  4. Tracking and Monitoring: This is the last step, and it consists of "continuous tracking and monitoring until the organisation has made the change permanent."


Different models of change


Kurt Lewin's Model


Kurt Lewin had a big impact on how people think about and deal with change in organisations. Most ideas about how organisations change came from this social psychologist's ground-breaking work. Lewin created a three-stage model of change in 1947. This model shows how to start the change process, manage it, and keep it stable. This model says that there are three stages of change: unfreezing, changing, and refreezing. First, let's talk about the different assumptions that Lewin's model of change is based on (USDA).


Beer's Model


Stafford Beer says that to deal with a complicated system, one need complicated ways to deal with it. Beer's model looks a lot like the human body, and it shows what makes living, social, and cognitive systems work. These conditions for being able to live and change can be applied not only to people and their organisations, but also to information systems like computers, software, and the tools and actions of organisations. Beer thinks of the human body as having three main parts that work together: the muscles and organs, the nervous system, and the outside world.


2.1 What is work analysis? How does it help in effective management of libraries? (10)

Ans) Before looking into a specific step in a system or process, it is important to study the system or process as a whole. A study like this that looks at the whole process will always look at each step.


Work analysis can help solve problems with the layout of physical space, decide how tasks should be done, and find better ways to do things. This can save the library money or let it spend money on other services. Most ways to analyse work have something to do with time or money in some way.


In management work, it's always important to look at how things work step by step. Several standard methods for making charts have been made to help with the analysis.


A big part of working in a library is doing routine tasks over and over again. In terms of the number of hours needed to do the work, these routines make up most of the library work. By breaking down a process like ordering, buying, cataloguing, processing, filing, circulating, or shelving books into its individual steps, it becomes clear that, while some jobs are more obviously mechanical than others, most jobs are actually quite repetitive and can be measured. Work analysis helps make routines more efficient and is a useful tool not only for management but also for managing the finances of libraries and information centres.


So, the key to modern job classification is to look at how the work is done. Once we know what the job is and what level of productivity we can expect from the person doing it, we can figure out what kind of skills and training are needed to do it. It helps a library or information centre run more smoothly and provide a service for as little money as possible while still meeting the quality standards. Work analysis's different tools and methods have been used in industries for a long time. They can also be used to help solve problems in libraries and information centres.


A number of standard methods have been made to help with this analysis. Any librarian can make the workplace much more pleasant for everyone by learning and using work analysis techniques. The result could be a process or procedure that works better for everyone who works in that unit. Each of these methods is very useful and can be used in the library in different ways.


3.1 Explain the content theories of motivation with reference to organisation behaviour. (10)

Ans) Content Theories of motivation help us figure out what people do to meet their basic needs. These theories show what kinds of needs can drive people to act. These theories stress that when a need isn't met, it makes a person want to fill that need. These theories are about the kinds of rewards or goals that people try to reach in order to be happy and do well at their jobs.


Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs


Maslow thought that everyone has some basic needs. He showed this in a five-level hierarchy, where each level of need has to be met in some way before the next level becomes important. Maslow's hierarchy put people's needs into five groups, from basic needs at the bottom to social and psychological needs at the top. The five levels of needs suggested by Maslow are:

  1. Physiological Needs

  2. Safety Needs

  3. Social Needs

  4. Esteem Needs

  5. Self-Actualisation Need


ERG Theory


Clayton Alderfer made a version of Maslow's theory that was different from the original. The ERG theory of needs is the name for this idea. He said that people have three basic needs: to live, to be connected to other people, and to grow. Existence needs include physical and material needs like food, water, a safe place to live and work, and good working conditions. Related needs have to do with how a person gets along with others. The desire for self-worth and self-realization are part of the growth needs. ERG theory is different from Maslow's theory because it shows that any or all three levels can be important at the same time. If a higher-level need can't be met, the desire to meet a lower-level need grows.


McClelland's Three Needs Theory


David McClelland came up with the Three Needs Theory to explain what motivates people in organisations. These three things include:

  1. Need for Achievement -Which is the desire to go above and beyond a set of standards?

  2. Need for Power - Which is the need to be influential and have an effect on others in the organisation?

  3. Need for Affiliation -Which is the desire to get along with other people and get close to them.


High Achievers want to do something better and more effectively than other people, so they look for situations where they can take personal responsibility for finding solutions and set goals that are not too hard.


4.1 What do you understand by marketing approach? Discuss in brief the 4 Ps of marketing. (10)

Ans) A marketing approach helps an organisation make better use of its limited resources by figuring out what the user wants and needs and making a product or service to meet those needs. A business can use a marketing approach with the help of a number of analyses and tools. These include market analysis, user analysis, organisational analysis, competitive analysis, and the marketing mix.


4 Ps of marketing


To reach marketing goals, a plan must be made that includes the product, the place where it will be sold, how it will be promoted, and how much it will cost. People often refer to these as the "4 Ps of marketing."



"A product is anything that a market can buy to meet a need" (Kotler) This could include things one can hold in hands, services, people, places, groups, and even ideas. It is a unique package of both intangible and tangible things that a customer can buy. When making a product for the market, one need to think about the three levels of products:

  1. Core product

  2. Tangible product

  3. Augmented product-




Price is how much something is thought to be worth in exchange for something else. Most of the time, this value is measured in terms of money. "Valuation" or "perceived value" is how both buyers and sellers judge the economic and emotional worth of something on the market. Prices are a big part of how much money a business makes. A price must be set that lets a business make a fair amount of money and gives customers the same amount of value as they see it. The price a seller asks for something is the cost that the buyer has to pay.




Promotion is any form of communication that an organisation uses to inform, remind, or persuade customers about some part of what they have to offer on the market. In the old ways of marketing, promotion was seen as a collection of persuasion techniques used to inform, change preferences, position or reposition products, and boost sales. From a modern point of view, it means making connections with customers. There are three main tasks of promotion:

  1. Informing

  2. Persuasion

  3. Reminding




The purpose of the place part of the marketing mix is to make sure that products and services are available to target customers at the "right place" and "right time." Place is a very important factor in how happy customers are. Place should be made so that different levels of customer service can be offered at the lowest possible cost for each level of service.


5.0 Write short notes on any two of the following: (10)


(a) MIS

Ans) Information and data are becoming more and more important for planning, especially when it comes to making decisions, and for keeping things in check. The Management Information System (MIS) is in charge of gathering and sending all relevant information about operations and management applications. In recent years, the MIS function has become part of the Electronic Data Processing (EDP) department.  MIS deals with two types of information that are different from each other: transaction processing and management information.


The first one covers almost all of a business's activities, from stock to finances, budgets, engineering, production, marketing, and research and development. The amount of data to be handled is huge and comes from within. On the other hand, management information covers a lot more than just transaction processing. It also includes information from outside the business. To make good decisions about library management, one do need data and information about the different operations and environment.


(b) Market segmentation

Ans) Market segmentation is an important part of marketing because it focuses on the user, or current or potential library user, rather than the product, which is the library's collection and services. Marketing strategy is based on the idea that there are different types of markets, each with its own needs, wants, and interests. Market segmentation is the process of dividing a market into different groups of buyers who may need different products or marketing mixes. It is dividing the market into similar groups that will react differently to the 4Ps (Product, Price, Promotion, and Place) of the marketing mix. It is the process of dividing a market with many different types of products into groups with similar products. From a marketing point of view, it is important to divide buyers into groups because each group has different needs and wants. Each group or segment can be targeted by using a different marketing mix to reach potential buyers with the most customised offering possible.

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