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MLII-103: Fundamentals of Information Communication Technologies

MLII-103: Fundamentals of Information Communication Technologies

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2023-24

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Assignment Code: MLII-103/AST/TMA/Jul. 2023-Jan. 2024

Course Code: MLII-103

Assignment Name: Fundamentals of Information Communication Technologies

Year: 2023-2024

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Q1) What is storage technology? Describe different types of storages in detail.

Ans) Storage technology refers to the methods and devices used for storing, managing, and retrieving digital data. As data volumes continue to grow exponentially, storage solutions have evolved to meet the increasing demands for capacity, performance, and reliability. Different types of storage technologies cater to diverse needs, balancing factors such as speed, accessibility, cost, and durability.

Types of Storages

a) Hard Disk Drives (HDDs): HDDs are traditional storage devices that use magnetic storage to store and retrieve data. They consist of spinning disks (platters) and read/write heads. HDDs are known for their relatively high capacity and cost-effectiveness but may have slower read/write speeds compared to other technologies.

b) Solid State Drives (SSDs): SSDs use NAND-based flash memory to store data, providing faster access times and improved durability compared to HDDs. SSDs have no moving parts, making them more resistant to physical shocks and consuming less power. They are commonly used for high-performance applications.

c) Optical Storage: Optical storage involves the use of optical discs like CDs, DVDs, and Blu-ray discs. These discs use laser technology to read and write data. While optical storage has become less prevalent for primary data storage, it is still used for archival purposes and distributing software.

d) Tape Storage: Tape storage utilizes magnetic tape for long-term data archiving and backup. It offers high-capacity storage at a lower cost per terabyte but tends to have slower access times compared to disk-based solutions. Tape is often used for data that requires infrequent access.

e) Cloud Storage: Cloud storage leverages remote servers accessed over the internet to store, manage, and retrieve data. Users can access their data from anywhere with an internet connection. Cloud storage providers offer scalable solutions, allowing users to pay for the storage they consume.

f) Network-Attached Storage (NAS): NAS is a dedicated storage device that connects to a network, providing shared storage accessible to multiple users and devices. NAS devices often include additional features such as file sharing, data backup, and media streaming.

g) Direct-Attached Storage (DAS): DAS refers to storage devices directly connected to a single computer or server. Examples include external hard drives, USB drives, and internal hard drives. DAS is suitable for individual users or small-scale storage needs.

h) Enterprise Storage Systems: Enterprise storage solutions are designed for large-scale data storage requirements in business environments. These systems include Storage Area Networks (SANs) and offer features like high availability, redundancy, and advanced management capabilities.

Q2) Discuss ISO-OSI Reference Architecture in details.

Ans) The ISO-OSI (International Organization for Standardization - Open Systems Interconnection) Reference Model is a conceptual framework that standardizes the functions of a telecommunication or computing system into seven abstraction layers. Each layer serves a specific purpose, and together they define a standardized framework for network communication. The model was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to facilitate interoperability and standardization in network communication protocols.

The Seven Layers of the ISO-OSI Reference Model:

a) Physical Layer (Layer 1):

1) Function: The physical layer deals with the physical connection between devices. It defines the hardware characteristics of the transmission medium, such as cables, connectors, and signaling.

2) Examples: Ethernet cables, USB cables, optical fibres.

b) Data Link Layer (Layer 2):

1) Function: The data link layer is responsible for creating a reliable link between two directly connected nodes. It handles error detection and correction and manages access to the physical medium.

2) Examples: Ethernet, Wi-Fi, PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol).

c) Network Layer (Layer 3):

1) Function: The network layer enables end-to-end communication between devices across different networks. It deals with logical addressing, routing, and forwarding of packets.

2) Examples: IP (Internet Protocol), ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol), OSPF (Open Shortest Path First).

d) Transport Layer (Layer 4):

1) Function: The transport layer ensures reliable end-to-end communication by handling error recovery, flow control, and segmentation of data into smaller packets.

2) Examples: TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), UDP (User Datagram Protocol).

e) Session Layer (Layer 5):

1) Function: The session layer establishes, manages, and terminates communication sessions between applications. It also provides synchronization and dialog control.

2) Examples: NetBIOS, RPC (Remote Procedure Call).

f) Presentation Layer (Layer 6):

1) Function: The presentation layer is responsible for translating data between the application layer and the lower layers. It deals with data format translation, encryption, and compression.

2) Examples: JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group), SSL/TLS (Secure Sockets Layer/Transport Layer Security).

g) Application Layer (Layer 7):

1) Function: The application layer provides network services directly to end-users. It enables communication between software applications and handles tasks such as email, file transfer, and remote login.

2) Examples: HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol), FTP (File Transfer Protocol).

Key Points:

a) The layers are numbered from 1 to 7, with Layer 1 being the lowest (closest to the physical hardware) and Layer 7 being the highest (closest to the user or application).

b) Each layer communicates with the adjacent layers using well-defined protocols and interfaces.

c) The model promotes modularity, making it easier to design, implement, and troubleshoot network protocols and communication.

d) The ISO-OSI Reference Model serves as a foundational framework for the development and understanding of networking protocols, fostering compatibility and interoperability among diverse network technologies

Q3) Explain factors responsible for pricing of e-books and e-journals.

Ans) The pricing of e-books and e-journals is influenced by various factors, reflecting the dynamics of the digital publishing industry. Several key factors contribute to the determination of prices for electronic books (e-books) and electronic journals (e-journals):

a) Content and Quality: The nature and quality of the content play a crucial role in pricing. High-quality, specialized, or premium content may command higher prices. Academic rigor, peer-reviewed status, and exclusive content contribute to perceived value.

b) Demand and Popularity: The level of demand for a particular e-book or e-journal can impact pricing. Popular titles or journals may have higher prices due to increased demand. Dynamic pricing strategies may be employed, adjusting prices based on demand fluctuations.

c) Access Models: Different access models influence pricing. Subscription-based models, pay-per-view, or perpetual access models can affect the pricing structure. Subscription models may involve tiered pricing based on the type of access (individual, institutional, corporate).

d) Licensing Agreements: Licensing terms and agreements between publishers and libraries or institutions can influence pricing. Publishers may offer different pricing structures based on the terms of use and access duration.

e) Author Reputation: Works by renowned authors or contributors may have higher pricing due to the reputation and expertise associated with their names.

f) Publication Costs: The costs associated with digital publishing, including editing, formatting, and distribution, can influence pricing decisions. Digital publishing may have lower distribution costs, but initial investments in technology and production can impact pricing.

g) Platform and Technology: The platform or technology used for delivering e-books and e-journals can affect pricing. Proprietary platforms or advanced features may be associated with higher prices.

h) Bundle Offers and Packages: Publishers often provide bundled packages or subscription services, offering multiple titles or journals at discounted rates. This can influence overall pricing strategies.

i) Market Competition: The competitive landscape of the digital publishing market influences pricing. Competition among publishers and platforms may lead to competitive pricing strategies.

j) Accessibility and Usage Rights: Restrictions on accessibility and usage rights, such as the number of simultaneous users or download restrictions, can impact pricing.

k) Institutional Budgets: The budgets of libraries, educational institutions, and corporations can influence their willingness to pay for electronic resources, affecting pricing decisions.

l) Global Market Dynamics: Pricing may vary based on regional considerations and the economic conditions of different markets globally.

Q4) Define networking. Explain different characteristics of a Library and Information Networks.

Ans) Networking:

Networking refers to the practice of connecting computers and other devices to share resources, exchange information, and communicate with each other. In the context of Library and Information Science, networking involves the creation of systems that enable the sharing and exchange of information among libraries, institutions, and individuals. Library and Information Networks play a crucial role in facilitating collaborative efforts, resource sharing, and improved access to information.

Characteristics of Library and Information Networks

a) Interconnected Libraries: Library networks interconnect multiple libraries, enabling them to share resources, information, and services.

b) Resource Sharing: Networks facilitate the sharing of resources such as books, journals, and multimedia materials among libraries, optimizing the use of available collections.

c) Information Retrieval: Networks enhance information retrieval capabilities by providing access to catalogues, databases, and digital repositories across different libraries.

d) Communication: Libraries within a network can communicate with each other efficiently, leading to collaborative projects, joint acquisitions, and coordinated collection development.

e) Online Catalogues: Library networks implement online catalogues that allow users to search and locate materials from various connected libraries through a centralized database.

f) Automation: Automation of library processes, including cataloguing, circulation, and acquisitions, is a characteristic feature of library networks, streamlining workflows.

g) Electronic Resources: Library networks provide access to electronic resources, including e-books, e-journals, and databases, expanding the range of materials available to users.

h) Information Exchange: Networks facilitate the exchange of information on best practices, new acquisitions, and professional developments among libraries and information professionals.

i) Cooperative Collection Development: Libraries collaborate on collection development, ensuring a diverse and comprehensive range of materials is available to users within the network.

j) Standardization: Library networks often adhere to standard cataloguing and metadata practices, promoting consistency and interoperability among participating libraries.

k) User Services: Library networks enhance user services by offering a broader range of materials and services, improving overall user satisfaction.

l) Remote Access: Users can remotely access the resources of participating libraries, promoting inclusivity, and extending library services beyond physical boundaries.

m) Consortium Arrangements: Libraries form consortia within networks to negotiate better deals on electronic resources, reducing costs and improving access to a wider range of materials.

n) Security and Privacy: Library networks implement measures to ensure the security and privacy of user data and transactions, adhering to ethical standards.

o) Professional Development: Library networks support professional development through training programs, workshops, and knowledge-sharing initiatives among library professionals.

Q5) Write short notes on any two of the following:

Q5a)Signal and Noise

Ans) Signal:

In the context of communication and information theory, a signal is a variable or a physical quantity that carries information. It can be a sound wave, an electrical voltage, or any other form of transmission that conveys a message from a sender to a receiver. The signal is the meaningful content intended for communication. For instance, in audio communication, the sound waves produced by a speaker constitute the signal carrying the spoken words or music.


a) Intentional: Signals are intentional and carry meaningful information.

b) Purpose: Signals serve the purpose of conveying a message or data.

c) Transmission Medium: Signals travel through a medium (air, wires, optical fibres, etc.).


Noise, on the other hand, refers to any unwanted or random interference that distorts or disrupts the original signal during transmission. It is the undesirable part of the communication process that can introduce errors or reduce the clarity of the intended message. Noise can manifest in various forms, such as electrical interference, background sounds, or distortions in a visual signal. In communication systems, minimizing noise is crucial to ensuring the accurate and reliable transmission of information.


a) Unintentional: Noise is unintentional and often arises from external sources.

b) Distortion: Noise can distort or interfere with the original signal.

c) Randomness: Noise is typically random and unpredictable.


a) Telecommunications: In telephone conversations, a clear signal is essential for effective communication, and efforts are made to minimize background noise.

b) Data Transmission: In computer networks and digital communication, minimizing noise is critical for the accurate transmission of data.

c) Broadcasting: Television and radio broadcasting strive to deliver high-quality signals to ensure a clear and enjoyable viewing or listening experience for the audience.

Q5b)Voice/Speech Input

Ans) Introduction:

Voice or speech input is a technology that allows users to interact with computers and devices by using spoken words instead of traditional keyboard input. It is a part of the broader field of natural language processing (NLP) and is designed to enhance accessibility, convenience, and hands-free operation in various applications.

Working Mechanism:

The technology behind voice input involves the use of speech recognition algorithms that analyse and interpret spoken words. These algorithms convert the analogue signal of spoken words into digital data, which is then processed to identify the words and their meanings. The advancements in machine learning and artificial intelligence have significantly improved the accuracy and responsiveness of voice input systems.


a) Virtual Assistants: Voice input is commonly used in virtual assistants like Siri, Google Assistant, and Alexa, allowing users to perform tasks, ask questions, and control devices using voice commands.

b) Dictation Software: In word processing and content creation, speech input is employed in dictation software that converts spoken words into text, aiding individuals who prefer or require hands-free writing.

c) Navigation Systems: Voice input is integrated into navigation systems, enabling users to give voice commands for directions, points of interest, and other location-based services.

d) Smart Home Devices: Many smart home devices respond to voice input, allowing users to control lights, thermostats, and appliances using spoken commands.

e) Accessibility Features: Voice input serves as a crucial accessibility feature for individuals with physical disabilities or conditions that limit their ability to use traditional input methods.

f) Interactive Systems: Voice input is increasingly used in interactive systems, such as customer service chatbots and automated phone systems, providing a more natural and user-friendly interaction.

g) Language Translation: Speech input is employed in language translation applications, allowing users to speak a phrase in one language and receive an instant translation in another.

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