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MMPC-002: Human Resource Management

MMPC-002: Human Resource Management

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for MMPC-002 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Human Resource Management, you have come to the right place. MMPC-002 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in MBA, MBF, MBAFM, MBAHM, MBAMM, MBAOM courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: MMPC-002/TMA/JULY/2022

Course Code: MMPC-002

Assignment Name: Human Resources Management

Year: 2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


1. How did the concept of human resource management emerge? By explaining the functions of HRM describe the various perspectives of human resource management briefly.

Ans) From the Personnel Management, HRM has developed (which was the earst-while management system to manage employees). The contributions of psychologists and management specialists like Elton Mayo, F.W. Taylor, and Robert Owen play a vital part in the history of the evolution of personnel management. The human relations movement was started by Elton Mayo in the 1920s. He assessed the connection between productivity and the workplace environment in the well-known Howthorne research. He stressed the impact of interpersonal interactions on employee productivity. In a same vein, Robert Owen is credited with coming up with and starting labour reforms. He popularised the idea of "eight hours of work each day." Owen understood the value of enhancing workplace environment and how it affects employee effectiveness and productivity. The contribution of Frederick W. Taylor is also noteworthy. Taylor created a differentiated compensation structure that is still in use at the business and rewards workers who achieve at greater levels. He emphasised scientific management using the following four guiding principles:

  1. Analyze a task by examining each of its parts.

  2. Choose workers with the right skills for the job.

  3. Give workers the tools and instruction they need to complete a task.

  4. Plan how employees will do their duties using science.


Human Resources Approach: However, the "pet milk principle," which promoted that contented employees are productive employees or that contented cows produce more milk, has been generally disproved since the early 1960s. acknowledging the fact that each employee is different and has different demands. Each employee has a distinct personality and unexpectedly individual goals. Each employee was thought to be an entirely distinct, extremely complicated individual with exceptional desires and ideals. What inspires one employee won't inspire another, and satisfaction or feeling right may also have no bearing on how productive happy employees are. The tendency toward seeing employees as resources or assets came about gradually but progressively.


The primary way that behavioural science contributes to management practise is by creating new insights rather than new methods. It has developed and broadened into a helpful way of thinking about the role of the manager, the nature of enterprises, and an individual's behaviour inside a corporate enterprise. Let's investigate these patterns more thoroughly by evaluating the development of human resource management (HRM) from personnel management from one stage to another.


Stages of Development of HRM


The Commodity Concept: The guild system marked the beginning of human management before the industrial revolution. A close-knit group called the guild was in charge of hiring, educating, rewarding, and retaining employees. The concept of labour as a tradeable commodity emerged.


The Factor of Production Concept: Employees were viewed as a factor of production on par with land, supplies, and equipment. In order to maximise efficiency, Taylor's scientific management placed a strong emphasis on proper employee selection and training.


The Paternalistic Concept: In order to improve, workers banded together based on their shared interests and established trade unions. Additionally, employers started offering employees incentives. Employers promised to treat their staff members with a fatherly and protective approach..


The Humanitarian Concept: It is predicated on the idea that as human beings, employees have certain unalienable rights, which the employer has a responsibility to uphold. Instead, both social and psychological fulfilment were crucial. human resource issues at work. This is often referred to as Douglas McGregor's Hawthorne Experiments, which sparked a lot of interest in the idea of human connections.


The Behavioural Human Resource Concept: Its goal was to analyse and comprehend how people behave in organisations. Under this theory, terms like motivation, group dynamics, organisational climate, organisational conflict, etc. gained popularity. Employees are now viewed as important organisational assets. In order to simultaneously meet organisational aims and employee aspirations, efforts were undertaken to integrate personnel with the organisation. The emphasis has switched to management techniques such two-way communication, management by objectives, the function of informal groups, quality circles, etc.


The Emerging Concept: Employers are now regarded as partners in business. They receive stock membership in the company. HRM is establishing itself as a discipline gradually and steadily.


Functions of HRM

  1. Establishing and maintaining an appropriate organisation for leadership and cooperation, as well as setting general and specialised management policies for organisational interactions.

  2. the processing of grievances, contract administration, contract negotiation, and collective bargaining.

  3. Finding, obtaining, and keeping the organization's required types and numbers of employees.

  4. promoting the self-development of workers at all levels by giving them chances to grow personally and to get the necessary knowledge and experience

  5. By offering rewards, employers may help employees become and stay motivated.

  6. reviewing and inspecting the organization's human resource management.

  7. Conducting studies to better understand employee behaviour and improve personnel management is known as industrial relations research.


The following areas make up human resource management, according to the Indian Institute of Personnel Management (IIPM):


The Labour or Personnel Aspect: It addresses issues such as personnel planning, hiring, selecting, placing, inducting, transferring, promotion, demotion, and termination, as well as training and development, layoffs and retrenchments, wage and salary administration (remuneration), incentives, and productivity, among other things.


The Welfare Aspect: The working environment and amenities, such as canteens, daycare centres, restrooms, lunchrooms, housing, transportation, education, medical assistance, health and safety, laundry facilities, recreation and cultural facilities, etc., are all included in this component.


The Industrial Relations Aspect: This relates to how the business treats its employees. It covers union-management relations, collaborative consultation, negotiation, handling of grievances, disciplinary actions, and resolving of labour disputes, among other things.


2. How do job analysis and job design address the problems of the HR planning process? Is Outsourcing an effective method of recruitment and selection? Briefly explain your views.

Ans) In order to assist all following and associated HR actions, such as recruitment, training, development, performance management, and succession planning, a job analysis provides an objective view of the work, not the person performing the job. Regarding these procedures, job analysis fulfils two essential purposes. Job analysis contributes to good HR management by ensuring that decisions made regarding HR processes are fair, accurate, and good decisions (e.g., choosing the best candidate for the position, making appropriate decisions about training, performance management, development, etc.). It also contributes to good HR management by ensuring that decisions made regarding employees and the courts are defendable (resulting in saving of costs, time and reputation). Modern human resource management places a premium on job design. In order for enterprises to successfully compete in the global market place, it is crucial to design employment in a way that reduces stress, increases motivation, and improves employee happiness and performance.


We are all familiar with the term "BPO," or business process outsourcing, which refers to outsourcing. Utilizing a different party or third party to carry out numerous or particular business activities or functions is known as outsourcing. A similar notion is also emerging for HR functions as well, where a range of specific HR functions are assigned to an outside party who is skilled in handling HR functions.


Which function should be outsourced, to whom it can be outsourced, for how long it can be outsourced, and how the relationship with the outsourced company can be managed to get the functions done efficiently are challenges that an organisation faces with when choosing to outsource. The literature addresses the conflicting feelings and thoughts relating to HR outsourcing. Many people have backed this, but the promised cost-savings have only sometimes been realised (Cooke et al., 2005). Although many businesses still choose to outsource their various company operations, the number of decisions to do so has increased, albeit maybe cautiously (CIPD, 2011).


The potential advantages and drawbacks of outsourcing HR are discussed by CIPD (2011). Determining which function can be outsourced is a difficulty that comes with the reward of "lower cost." If the manager is not fully informed on the specific HR functions, outsourcing costs will be unnecessarily increased. The advantage of "improved efficiency and speed of response" comes at the expense of losing organisational tacit knowledge. A company that outsources gains access to a sophisticated e-HR system at the expense of losing control over the HR process and decision-making. Along with these advantages, a business utilises a third party's HR expertise and knowledge but must distance itself from day-to-day HR decision-making. Only the organization's strategic HR decision-making is still in place.


Vendors are hired to perform several administrative HR tasks. HR functions include employee support (counselling), retirement planning, benefits administration, payroll services, and outplacement services have seen a sharp increase in the outsourcing of administrative HR tasks.


3. Explain the importance of job analysis, job design, socialization and mobility in Human resource planning citing relevant examples

Ans) Importance of job analysis: The secret to productivity, according to scientific management, is a precise grasp of the tasks that make up a work. It is essential to know exactly what has to be done, as well as what skills and resources are required to complete the task, if you want to standardise and automate worker motions. Job analysis, which was used to discover the most effective manner to carry out particular tasks, was for a long time regarded as the foundation of the scientific clipboards and stopwatches.


However, job analysis also experienced a drop in prominence after World War II as scientific management did. Job analysis was primarily utilised to determine pay scales in light of the recent focus on human relations as the key to productivity. However, due to worries about two issues—unfair discrimination and similar worth—workers and employers started to show increased interest in this field in more recent times.


Unfair discrimination in employment can happen in two different contexts: the criteria for hiring and the methods for evaluating an applicant's ability to achieve those criteria. The topic of what tasks, when combined, genuinely make up a work is addressed by job analysis. Without this knowledge, hiring criteria can seem random, or worse, they might be intended to keep particular people or groups out of the workforce.


A recent increase in interest in employment analysis can also be attributed to the problem of comparable worth. Equal compensation for workers performing work that is comparable in terms of the knowledge necessary or the degree of responsibility is referred to as having comparable worth. The main problem with the controversy around comparable worth is that women who work in positions that are comparable to those held by males often make roughly 65 percent of what a man would make. A thorough work analysis is required to ascertain whether job responsibilities are comparable so that pay can also be compared. Comparable work is a topic that many individuals find to be of great interest.


Importance of job design: Programs that rotate employees around positions helped people feel less bored. Even while boredom at work has persisted over the past few years, focus has switched to other difficult workplace difficulties that employees now face. For instance, employment have suddenly become much more demanding due to organisational downsizing and rapidly advancing technology, and people must now adjust differently to unforeseen changes. For instance, computer-integrated manufacturing and flexible, customised production are replacing assembly line processes in the manufacturing industry. Workers using this new manufacturing method must deal with an ever-growing product line and cutting-edge technologies.


This places a special emphasis on the role that job design plays in modern human resource management. In order for enterprises to successfully compete in the global market place, it is crucial to design employment in a way that reduces stress, increases motivation, and improves employee happiness and performance.


Importance of Socialization: Attempts should be made to integrate the new employee into the informal organisation in order to lessen any worry that they could feel. Socialization, or the guided acclimatisation of new workers to the business, the job, and the work group, is the initial T&D effort intended for employees. The socialisation formats vary according on the company. However, some fundamental goals include putting a focus on the following areas: the employment environment (job, department, and company), corporate culture, team membership, employee growth, dealing with change, and socialisation.


The HRM department might host an orientation to familiarise newly hired employees with the workplace culture of the company. The coordination function that HRM performs during new hire orientation makes sure that all the necessary elements are in place. Additionally, HRM participates in the programme as a participant. When a new employee accepts a job offer, HRM should inform them of the reporting time. However, HRM needs to be ready to take care of some of these people's more common demands before the employee officially starts.


Importance of Mobility: As organisational requirements vary, such as when organisational structures change, organisational product demands change, new working methods are introduced, etc., mobility becomes a necessity. In an organisational setting, "promotion" and "transfer" are the two basic types of mobility. Demotion can occasionally fall under mobility. There are some uses for mobility that the organisation may really benefit from.

  1. To increase corporate effectiveness.

  2. To increase staff productivity.

  3. To adapt to modifications in operation.

  4. To maintain discipline


4. Why training, mentoring, compensation and reward management of an organization ensures effective human resource development? Explain with the help of recent trends in the corporate world.

Ans) Because technology is advancing quickly and consistently, training is crucial. Systems and methods quickly become old as a result of technical, managerial, and behavioural advances in technology. Organizations that do not create systems to use and keep up with the evolving technology quickly become stale. However, the efficacy of the organisation can be increased by developing individual members.


One of the methods for developing human resources that is expanding the quickest is mentoring. Mentoring is the "process of providing people with the resources, chances, and information they need to grow and become more effective." Long-term extraordinary achievements, self-resurrection, and self-evolution are the outcomes of mentorship. Even though mentoring has a wide range of viewpoints and goals, they all lead to better employee performance.


Individual coaching is a part of the procedure. It indicates that the management does not simultaneously coach or train a sizable group of employees. Instead, he chooses one or a few members of his staff and trains them to assume greater positions and responsibilities in the future. Such one-on-one interaction facilitates the growth of a long-lasting working connection between the manager and the employee. It is a procedure for enhancing a worker's skills and abilities through coaching, leading, and counselling. Additionally, it is beneficial to pinpoint an employee's strengths and limitations and offer advice on how to develop strengths and overcome flaws. By preparing them for more senior roles in the workplace, mentoring also helps junior employees develop in their careers. They are prepared and trained by the process to take on greater duties in the future.


Choosing the appropriate rates of financial compensation is one of human resource management's trickiest tasks. It is not just complicated but also important to the organisation and the workers. The success of an organisation depends on judgments about employee compensation. Effective management of employee remuneration is essential from a cost standpoint alone due to the total operational costs. Assessing compensation's effect on a variety of employee attitudes and behaviours, and ultimately the success of the organisation and its units, is another reason to examine compensation from the perspective of the organisation. Key outcomes like job satisfaction, employee attractiveness, employee retention, performance, skill acquisition, cooperation, and flexibility may be directly influenced by compensation.


Numerous angles and disciplines have been used to study reward systems and their function in organisations. Particularly, sociology, psychology, and economics have added to the body of knowledge on reward systems. The design of reward systems and the organisational context in which they are used have a significant impact on the impact that they have on organisations. Therefore, it is essential to concentrate on both the organisational and pay system characteristics if one is to comprehend pay systems in organisations. New business lines frequently necessitate a different strategy, and as a result, a different compensation system. Simply said, the outdated compensation structure in the new company is frequently inadequate and even dangerous.


Training, mentoring, compensation and reward management of an organization ensures effective human resource development because it boosts confidence in the employees and keeps them motivated to do good work. Through training and mentoring employees receives guidance and support from a respected member of the campus community. It provides them with professional development opportunities. Increased institutional knowledge and understanding of how the campus works, and how things get done. It also helps in building a network of colleagues and expanding knowledge of different areas of the organization. The basic objectives of any organization in ensuring compensation and reward management are that it aims to develop the skills and personality of employees by which they can earn better and more attractive compensation. It aims to pay fair and justified remuneration on the basis of their efforts, skills, and competencies. To obtainable and efficient employees and retain high-performing employees and it also aims to improve the quality of services as rendered by employees


5. What is career development? Explain the process of career development citing examples.

Ans) An individual's career is viewed as a collection of the occupations they have held throughout their lives. A person's career may also be viewed as a composite of the evolving values, attitudes, and motivation that occur as they become older. One can change over time and adapt in ways that will help him maximise and expand the opportunities for his own job development, it is tacitly assumed. Career development is important since it will help a person discover, pick, and pursue a career objective that will make them happy. Through career development, a person assesses their own abilities and interests, thinks about alternative employment opportunities, establishes career objectives, and plans helpful developmental activities.


Process Of Career Development


Career Development Programme

This involves three activities: Internal Career Assessment: Each person must make their own judgement in this matter because a person's work is a very significant aspect of life. However, the HR manager may help an employee make a decision by giving the employee as much information as possible about the kind of jobs that would suit them best, taking into account their other interests, skills, and performance at their current jobs. Some large organisations offer official assessment centres or workshops where small groups of employees are subjected to psychological testing, simulation exercises, and depth interviews in exchange for providing such assistance. Such programmes aim to assist individuals in doing their own planning rather than selecting future promotees.


Career Opportunities: Knowing that employees have distinct career needs, it is necessary to precisely map out career paths inside the organisation and to inform the workforce. The method of job analysis may assist in identifying several avenues of development to numerous positions in various fields, which can aid in establishing career trajectories.


Employee's Needs and Opportunities: The issue of alignment remains after individuals have evaluated their needs and are aware of organisational career options. Employers use specialised training and development approaches, such as special assignments, scheduled position rotation, and supervisory coaching, to align or match employees' career needs to opportunities provided by the organisation.


Career Planning Process and Activities


Organisation's HR Inventory

An inventory of this kind is a crucial requirement for any effective career planning within the organisation. The following information should be included in this inventory:  organisational structure and its several levels.  the amount of people who are currently working for the organisation. Manning tables are created to demonstrate the types of positions at various organisational levels as well as the amount of people manning each post.


Employee's Potential for Career Planning

Finding the right personnel who may have the essential skills and potential for moving up the ladder and who are eager to be promoted and take on more responsibility is the next obvious step after choosing a career path. For this, the performance appraisal and merit rating management control technique is used. For effective staffing and career planning in the organisation, personnel must undergo regular evaluations and merit ratings. This is only achievable if you are aware of the quantity, diversity, and potential of the workforce for which a career plan is being developed.


Formulation and Implementation of Training and Development Plans and Programmes

The training and development programmes must be developed and created in a way that they suit the needs of both management and employees in order for career planning to be successful. Employees that are willing to be trained and developed further to further their careers inside the organisation should take part in these programmes. Different types of employees may require different training techniques and different types of skill and information to be delivered. For skilled workers, the focus may be on honing their technical abilities, while for senior supervisors, executives, and managers it may be on developing their leadership, interpersonal, and conceptual skills.


Age Balance and Career Paths

The requirement to accommodate individuals at the same level of management and supervisory hierarchy, some of whom are youthful direct recruits and others who are promotees who are usually invariably significantly older, may be a common challenge in career planning. The former, who are better educated and qualified, have expectations for rapid vertical mobility, whilst the latter cannot expect to rise up very high due to their insufficient education or formal professional qualification. Therefore, promotion and direct hiring must be planned at every level to guarantee that each group receives a fair portion. If this facet of personnel administration is overlooked, intense rivalries, jealousies, or groupism may emerge.


Review of Career Development Plans in Action

Planning your career is a continual process. It is a process, after all. A periodic review process should be used in career planning so that the employee is aware of the direction the organisation is taking, any changes that are anticipated to occur, and the resources and skills needed to adapt to the organization's changing demands. Even for the organisation, an annual evaluation is desirable to understand an employee's performance, limitations, goals, and aspirations as well as to determine whether the career plan in place is supporting the corporate objective, which is the efficient use of human resources by matching an employee's skills to the requirements of the position and his or her needs to the benefits of the position.


Career Counselling

Counseling about potential career pathways and what to do to get promoted is another aspect of career planning. Employees who plan their own careers and prepare or train for professional advancement within the organisation are in need of such counselling. This does not entail disclosing how many specific stages are listed in the organization's long-term plan.

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