If you are looking for MMPC-011 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Social Processes and Behavioural Issues, you have come to the right place. MMPC-011 solution on this page applies to 2023 session students studying in MBA, MBF, MBAFM, MBAHM, MBAMM, MBAOM, PGDIHRM courses of IGNOU.
MMPC-011 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: MPC-011 / TMA / JAN / 2023
Course Code: MMPC-011
Assignment Name: Social Processes and Behavioural Issues
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
Note: Attempt all the questions.
Q 1. What is organizational Behaviour? Discuss the society- environment- organisation interface impact on the behavior of individuals, citing examples.
Ans) The study of how people act within organisations is referred to as organisational behaviour, or OB for short. It is an interdisciplinary field that seeks to better understand human behaviour in the workplace by drawing on theories and concepts from psychology, sociology, anthropology, economics, and other areas of study within the social sciences. The fields of motivation, leadership, communication, group dynamics, decision-making, and conflict resolution are only few of the many subjects that are investigated in OB.
It seeks to identify the factors that influence individual and group behaviour within organisations and to develop strategies that can improve organisational effectiveness and employee well-being. Specifically, it is interested in determining the factors that influence individual and group behaviour within organisations. Understanding OB is essential for managers and other people in positions of authority because it enables them to foster a constructive atmosphere at work, boost both employee satisfaction and productivity, and advance the goals of the organisation as a whole. Managers are able to make better decisions about leadership, communication, and employee engagement when they have a better grasp of how individuals and groups behave within the context of the business.
Society – Environment – Organization – Impact on Behaviour
The society-environment-organization interface refers to the interaction between individuals and their environment, including the social, cultural, and physical context in which they live and work. This interface can have a significant impact on the behavior of individuals within organizations, as it shapes their attitudes, values, and beliefs about work, as well as their motivation and job satisfaction. For example, a study found that employees who work in environmentally conscious organizations are more likely to engage in pro-environmental behaviours both at work and in their personal lives. This suggests that the social and cultural context of an organization can influence employee behavior and attitudes towards sustainability. In a similar vein, studies have shown that businesses that place a priority on diversity and inclusion are more likely to successfully recruit and keep individuals who come from a variety of backgrounds. This shows that the social backdrop of an organisation can influence the conduct of employees as well as their views towards diversity and inclusion in the workplace.
It is possible that the social and cultural environment of a business has a substantial impact on the conduct of its employees. An organisation, for instance, that fosters a culture of teamwork and collaboration is more likely to have people that work collaboratively and engage in behaviours that support teamwork. In a similar vein, businesses that place a high value on diversity and inclusion may have staff members who are more receptive to different points of view and more likely to engage in behaviours that promote inclusiveness.
Additionally influencing employee behaviour is the setting in which an organisation is located. For instance, employees of a company with a more open office layout may be more likely to engage in behaviours that promote collaboration, whereas employees of a company with a more traditional office layout may be more focused on individual work. Both types of office layouts have their advantages and disadvantages. In a similar vein, businesses that foster an atmosphere at work that is both pleasant to the senses and conducive to productive work may see increased levels of job satisfaction and productivity among their staff members.
Individuals' actions within companies are susceptible to influence from broader societal issues as well. For instance, if a firm is situated in a region that is known to have elevated levels of air pollution, its workforce may be more worried about environmental issues and more likely to engage in actions that are beneficial to the environment while they are on the job. Similarly, employees who are impacted by social injustice or political instability may be more likely to engage in behaviours that support social justice or advocate for political change within their firm. This is because these employees are more likely to be personally affected by these issues.
When taken as a whole, the society-environment-organization interaction has the potential to have a considerable impact on the actions of individuals working within companies. Leaders are able to create a more positive work environment and encourage behaviours that are aligned with the values and goals of the organisation if they have an understanding of the ways in which the social, cultural, and physical context of an organisation influences the behaviour of its employees.
Q 2. Briefly discuss different models to understand human behavior and explain their relevance in organisations. What are the determinants of personality and explain how personality traits impacts the organisational behaviour, citing examples.
Ans) There are several models used to understand human behavior in organizations. Some of the key models include:
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs: This model suggests that human needs can be arranged in a hierarchical order, with physiological needs such as food and shelter being the most basic and self-actualization needs such as personal growth and development being the highest. The model is relevant to organizations because it suggests that individuals are motivated by different needs and that organizations can create a work environment that meets these needs to improve employee motivation and job satisfaction.
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory: This model suggests that there are two types of factors that influence employee motivation and job satisfaction: hygiene factors, such as salary and working conditions, and motivators, such as recognition and personal growth opportunities. The model is relevant to organizations because it suggests that organizations need to provide both hygiene factors and motivators to create a positive work environment and motivate employees.
Vroom's Expectancy Theory: This model suggests that employee motivation is influenced by the belief that increased effort will lead to better performance, and that better performance will lead to higher rewards. The model is relevant to organizations because it suggests that employees are motivated by the belief that their efforts will be rewarded, and that organizations need to provide clear performance goals and rewards to motivate employees.
Social Learning Theory: This model suggests that individuals learn through observation and imitation of others. The model is relevant to organizations because it suggests that employees can learn new behaviours and skills by observing and imitating others, and that organizations can create a culture of learning and development by providing opportunities for employees to observe and learn from others.
Personality Trait Theory: This model suggests that personality traits such as openness, conscientiousness, and extraversion influence employee behavior and job performance. The model is relevant to organizations because it suggests that organizations can use personality assessments to identify traits that are important for job performance and to create a work environment that supports employees with different personality traits.
Overall, these models are relevant to organizations because they provide a framework for understanding human behavior and motivation in the workplace. By applying these models, organizations can create a positive work environment, motivate employees, and improve job satisfaction and performance.
Determinants of Personality that Affect Behaviours
Personality is a complex set of psychological traits, behaviours, and characteristics that define an individual's unique patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving.
There are several determinants of personality, including:
Genetics: Research suggests that genetic factors play a significant role in shaping an individual's personality traits.
Environment: Environmental factors such as family upbringing, education, cultural background, and social interactions can also contribute to the development of an individual's personality.
Situational factors: Different situations and contexts can also affect an individual's personality, such as work environments, stress levels, and social support.
Personality traits can have a significant impact on organizational behavior. For example, individuals who are extroverted tend to be more sociable, outgoing, and assertive. They are often effective leaders, and their social skills can help them build strong relationships with others in the organization. On the other hand, introverted individuals tend to be more reserved and reflective. They may not be as comfortable in social situations, but they often excel in tasks that require deep thinking and attention to detail.
Another example is the trait of conscientiousness, which involves being responsible, reliable, and organized. Individuals who are high in conscientiousness are often seen as dependable and are valued in the workplace for their strong work ethic. However, individuals who are low in conscientiousness may struggle to meet deadlines or follow through on commitments, which can create challenges for their co-workers and the organization as a whole.
Finally, the trait of emotional stability can also impact organizational behavior. Individuals who are emotionally stable tend to be calm, composed, and resilient in the face of stress or adversity. This can help them handle difficult situations and maintain a positive attitude, which can be beneficial for the organization. In contrast, individuals who are low in emotional stability may struggle to manage their emotions, which can lead to conflict or poor performance in the workplace.
Overall, understanding the impact of personality traits on organizational behavior is critical for building effective teams and promoting a positive work environment. By recognizing the strengths and weaknesses of different personality types, organizations can leverage the unique skills and perspectives of their employees to achieve their goals.
Q 3. What is stress and explain it’s impact on organisations. Explain different types of stress and it’s effects. How can stress be minimized, explain with relevant examples.
Ans) Stress is a psychological and physiological reaction to a perceived threat to one's well-being. Excess or chronic stress can harm individuals and organisations. Stress is the unconscious preparedness to fight or run in response to any demand. Stress is a psychological, physical response to life events. Life events start it. Change causes tension. Stressors are life occurrences. Thus, a stressor or demand is a person or event that causes stress.
The impact of stress on organizations can manifest in several ways, including:
Decreased productivity: When employees are stressed, their ability to focus and concentrate on their work can be compromised. This can result in reduced productivity and efficiency, as well as an increase in errors and mistakes.
Increased absenteeism and turnover: Employees who are experiencing high levels of stress may take more sick days or even quit their job altogether. This can lead to increased costs for the organization in terms of lost productivity and recruitment expenses.
Poor morale and job satisfaction: Stress can contribute to a negative work environment and lead to low morale and job dissatisfaction among employees. This can lead to decreased motivation and commitment, which can have long-term impacts on organizational performance.
Health problems and increased healthcare costs: Chronic stress can contribute to a range of health problems, including cardiovascular disease, depression, and anxiety. This can result in increased healthcare costs for the organization, as well as decreased employee well-being and productivity.
Types of Stress
Psychological Stressors: All living things are in a state of stress since life involves ongoing adaptation and stress is a dynamic state in an organism. Psychosocial variables produce stress that may be more detrimental than the unpleasant item. Psychological stressors can precede physical events, endure longer, and cause stress afterward. If one can't adapt to internal expectations, they're stressful.
Organisational Stressors: Organisational membership is a dominant source of stress. The concept of organizational stress first evolved in the classic work of Kahn et, al. They were the earliest to draw attention to organisational stress in general and role stress in particular.
Pareek pioneered work on role stress by identifying as many as ten different types of organisational role stresses. They are described briefly below:
Inter-role distance (IRD): is what people feel when their organisational role and their non-organizational role are at odds with each other. For instance, the role of a CEO is different from the role of a husband.
Role Stagnation (RS): This kind of stress comes from the gap between the need to grow out of his old role and the need to take on his new role well. It's the feeling of always having to play the same part. When someone is under this kind of stress, they might feel like they cannot move up in their career.
Role Expectation Conflict (REC): This kind of stress happens when different important people have different expectations about the same role, and the person in that role isn't sure who to please.
Role Erosion (RE): Role stress occurs when the individual in the role thinks someone else is doing some of their duties. When the actor does the work but someone else receives the credit, this happens also.
Role Overload (RO): is when the person in the role feels like there are too many expectations from the important roles in this role set. There are two parts to this stress: the amount and the kind. The first one means you have too much to do, while the second one means it's too hard.
Role Isolation (RI): Role stress caused by psychological distance between the occupant's role and others in the same role set. "Role distance" is different from "inter-role distance" (IRD) since IRD is the distance between the different roles that the same person plays, whereas "role isolation" is the feeling that others don't reach out to you readily, indicating that your role doesn't have strong linkages to other roles.
Personal Inadequacy (PI): This form of stress occurs when the person in the role feels they lack the skills and training to do their job. When organisations don't teach their personnel to keep up with fast change inside and outside the company, this happens.
Self-Role Distance (SRD): A person feels self-role distance stress when the role he plays goes against how he sees himself. This is a conflict because the person and the job don't fit well together.
Role Ambiguity (RA): is when it's not clear what's expected of you in your role. This could be because you don't know enough about it or don't understand it. It could be about activities, responsibilities, personal styles, or social norms.
Resource Inadequacy (RIn): This type of stress shows up when the person in the role feels like they don't have enough resources to do the tasks expected of them in their role.
Steps to Minimise Stress
Practice relaxation techniques: Relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, and mindfulness meditation can help to reduce stress and promote feelings of calmness and relaxation. These techniques can be practiced at home or in the workplace, and they do not require any special equipment or training.
Exercise regularly: Regular exercise has been shown to reduce stress levels and improve overall well-being. Exercise can help to release endorphins, which are natural "feel-good" chemicals in the brain that can promote feelings of happiness and relaxation. Even moderate exercise such as brisk walking or yoga can be effective in reducing stress levels.
Manage time effectively: Poor time management can be a significant source of stress. To minimize stress, it can be helpful to create a schedule or to-do list, prioritize tasks, and break larger tasks into smaller, more manageable steps. This can help to reduce feelings of overwhelm and increase productivity.
Build social support: Having a strong social support network can help to reduce stress and improve overall well-being. This can include spending time with friends and family, joining a support group, or seeking support from a mental health professional.
Seek work-life balance: Balancing work and personal life is important in minimizing stress. This can include setting boundaries around work hours, taking regular breaks during the workday, and scheduling time for leisure activities and self-care.
Q 4. Discuss the concept and evolution of organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB). Describe the antecedents of OCB and explain how organisation benefits with OCB, citing examples.
Ans) Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is a concept that refers to discretionary behaviours performed by employees that go beyond their formal job requirements and contribute to the effective functioning of the organization. These behaviors are not explicitly recognized or rewarded by the organization, but they are seen as beneficial to the overall well-being of the organization and its members.
Concept and Evolution of OCB
The concept of OCB emerged in the 1980s and 1990s as a response to the limitations of traditional job performance measures, which were seen as too narrow to capture the full range of behaviors that contribute to organizational effectiveness. The initial research on OCB focused on identifying specific behaviors that were considered to be "citizenship" behaviors, such as helping colleagues, volunteering for extra duties, and providing constructive feedback.
Over time, researchers have expanded their understanding of OCB to include a broader range of behaviors, such as participating in organizational initiatives, engaging in interpersonal relationships, and displaying positive attitudes towards the organization. This broader understanding of OCB has been influenced by research on organizational culture, social exchange theory, and social identity theory, which emphasize the importance of social relationships, shared values, and group identity in shaping employee behavior.
The evolution of OCB has also been influenced by changes in the nature of work and organizations. In recent years, there has been a growing emphasis on the importance of employee engagement, well-being, and meaningful work. This has led researchers to explore the role of OCB in promoting positive work environments and enhancing employee well-being. Additionally, the rise of flexible work arrangements, remote work, and the gig economy has led researchers to question the applicability of OCB to non-traditional work contexts.
Antecedents of Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB)
Antecedents of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) are the factors that lead employees to engage in discretionary behaviors that go beyond their formal job requirements and contribute to the effective functioning of the organization. The antecedents of OCB can be divided into two broad categories: individual and organizational factors.
Individual factors that influence OCB include personality traits, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and perceived organizational support. For example, employees who are high in conscientiousness and agreeableness may be more likely to engage in OCB because they value responsibility and cooperation. Additionally, employees who are satisfied with their jobs and feel a strong sense of commitment to the organization may be more willing to go above and beyond their formal job requirements.
Organizational factors that influence OCB include leadership behaviors, organizational culture, and job design. For example, organizations that prioritize ethical leadership, promote teamwork and collaboration, and provide opportunities for autonomy and growth may be more likely to foster a culture of OCB.
Benefits of OCB
Organizations can benefit from OCB in several ways. First, OCB can enhance organizational effectiveness by promoting teamwork, innovation, and productivity. Employees who engage in OCB are more likely to share knowledge and resources, collaborate with colleagues, and take initiative in problem-solving. This can lead to better outcomes for the organization as a whole.
Second, OCB can enhance employee well-being by promoting a positive work environment and reducing job stress. When employees feel valued and supported by their colleagues and organization, they are more likely to experience positive emotions, job satisfaction, and a sense of belonging.
Finally, OCB can contribute to the overall reputation of the organization. When employees engage in OCB, they are demonstrating a commitment to the organization's values and mission. This can enhance the organization's reputation and attract top talent.
For example, an organization that encourages employees to engage in OCB by providing opportunities for skill development and recognition may experience improved employee retention and reduced turnover. Additionally, organizations that foster a culture of OCB by emphasizing teamwork and collaboration may experience improved innovation and productivity. Ultimately, organizations that prioritize OCB may enjoy a competitive advantage in the marketplace by attracting and retaining talented employees and enhancing their overall reputation.
Q 5. (a) Briefly explain the dimensions of optimism and discuss how having optimism in work place helps organisations.
Ans) Optimism is an important personality trait that can have a significant impact on individual and organizational outcomes.
Personal optimism: Personal optimism is the belief that one's own future will be positive and successful. Employees who are high in personal optimism tend to have a positive outlook on their own abilities and future prospects. This can lead to higher levels of motivation, job satisfaction, and engagement. Optimistic employees are more likely to set and achieve challenging goals, which can lead to higher levels of performance and productivity. Additionally, optimistic employees tend to be more resilient in the face of setbacks and challenges. This can help them bounce back from failure and continue to strive for success.
Future optimism: Future optimism is the belief that the future in general will be positive and successful. Employees who are high in future optimism tend to have a positive outlook on the future of their organization and industry. This can lead to a sense of hope and optimism among employees, which can enhance collaboration and teamwork. Optimistic employees are more likely to be open to new ideas and perspectives, which can lead to better communication and problem-solving. Additionally, optimistic employees tend to be more supportive of their colleagues, which can enhance team cohesion and effectiveness.
Attributional style: Attributional style refers to the tendency to attribute positive events to internal, stable, and global causes, while attributing negative events to external, unstable, and specific causes. Employees who have an optimistic attributional style tend to attribute positive events to their own abilities and efforts, while attributing negative events to external factors beyond their control. This can help them maintain a positive outlook and avoid feelings of helplessness or hopelessness. Optimistic employees are more likely to view challenges as opportunities for growth and learning, which can enhance their resilience and adaptability.
Having optimism in the workplace can help organizations in several ways. First, optimistic employees tend to have a positive attitude towards their work, which can lead to higher job satisfaction and engagement. Optimistic employees are also more likely to be resilient in the face of challenges and setbacks, which can lead to better performance and productivity. Additionally, optimistic employees tend to be more open to new ideas and perspectives, which can lead to better communication and problem-solving. Optimistic employees are also more likely to be motivated and committed to their work, which can lead to better retention rates and reduced turnover.
Second, optimism can contribute to a positive organizational culture. When employees are optimistic, they are more likely to be motivated, creative, and adaptable. This can lead to a culture of innovation and continuous improvement, which can help organizations stay competitive in a rapidly changing business environment. Additionally, a positive organizational culture can attract and retain talented employees, which can enhance the organization's reputation and competitive advantage.
For example, an organization that encourages employees to maintain a positive outlook and offers training programs to develop optimism may experience reduced stress and improved mental health among its workforces. Additionally, organizations that foster a culture of optimism by emphasizing collaboration, creativity, and innovation may experience improved performance and productivity. Ultimately, organizations that prioritize optimism may be better equipped to navigate challenges and capitalize on opportunities in today's complex and dynamic business environment.
(b) Briefly discuss the concept of spiritual intelligence in organisations and how spiritual intelligence has effect on managerial leadership. Explain with examples.
Ans) Spiritual intelligence is a relatively new concept in the field of organizational behavior that refers to the ability to connect with oneself, others, and the universe at a deeper level beyond material and cognitive dimensions. It involves a capacity to reflect on the meaning and purpose of life and work, to develop a sense of inner harmony and authenticity, and to integrate ethical and moral values in decision-making processes. The concept of spiritual intelligence has emerged as a response to the limitations of traditional intelligence measures and the growing awareness of the importance of non-material factors in organizational life, such as meaning, values, and purpose.
Effect on Managerial Leadership
Spiritual intelligence has a significant impact on managerial leadership, as it can enhance the ability of leaders to inspire, motivate, and guide their employees towards higher levels of performance and engagement. Leaders who possess high levels of spiritual intelligence are often more attuned to the needs and aspirations of their employees, and they are more capable of creating a work environment that fosters creativity, innovation, and collaboration. They are also better equipped to navigate the complexities and uncertainties of the business world with a sense of purpose and vision, and to make ethical and sustainable decisions that benefit both their organizations and society at large.
There are several dimensions of spiritual intelligence that have been identified in the literature, including:
Self-awareness: This dimension refers to the ability to reflect on one's own thoughts, feelings, and actions, and to develop a sense of inner harmony and authenticity. Leaders who are self-aware are often more effective in managing their own emotions and reactions, and they are better able to understand and empathize with the perspectives of their employees.
Transcendence: This dimension refers to the ability to connect with something beyond oneself, such as nature, community, or spirituality. Leaders who are transcendent often have a strong sense of purpose and meaning in their work, and they are more capable of inspiring their employees towards a shared vision and mission.
Consciousness: This dimension refers to the ability to perceive and interpret reality in a holistic and interconnected way, rather than as a collection of isolated events or objects. Leaders who are conscious are often more adept at recognizing patterns and trends in the business environment, and they are more capable of developing innovative and sustainable strategies.
Ethics: This dimension refers to the ability to integrate ethical and moral values in decision-making processes, and to act in accordance with these values even in the face of challenges or conflicts. Leaders who are ethical are often more respected and trusted by their employees, and they are more likely to create a culture of integrity and accountability.
An example of how spiritual intelligence can impact managerial leadership can be seen in the case of the CEO of Patagonia, Yvon Chouinard. Chouinard is known for his commitment to sustainability, social responsibility, and ethical business practices, which he has incorporated into the core values and mission of his company. Chouinard's leadership style is characterized by his authenticity, humility, and empathy, which have helped him to inspire and motivate his employees towards a shared vision of creating a more sustainable and just world. Under his leadership, Patagonia has become a leading example of how a business can be successful while also having a positive impact on society and the environment.
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