If you are looking for MPA-017 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Electronic Governance, you have come to the right place. MPA-017 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in MPA courses of IGNOU.
MPA-017 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: MPA-17/ASST/TMA/2022-23
Course Code: MPA-017
Assignment Name: E-Governance
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
This assignment consists of Sections I and II. There are five questions in each Section. You have to answer a total of five questions in about 400 words each. It is necessary to attempt at least two questions from each Section. Each question carries 10 marks.
Q1) Define e-governance and the legal and policy framework of ICT and e-governance in India.
Ans) The use of ICT in government operations for effective governance is known as e-governance. E-governance, in other words, is the use of ICTs by the public sector with the goal of enhancing information and service delivery, promoting citizen participation in decision-making, and increasing government accountability, transparency, and efficiency. According to the Ministry of Information and Technology, e-governance encompasses far more than the simple computerization of standalone back-office functions. It suggests significant adjustments to how government functions as well as new duties for the legislative, executive, judicial, and citizen branches.
Legal and Policy Framework of ICT
The legislative and political foundation for ICT and e-governance has been established by the following provisions.
Information Technology Act 2000: The crucial concerns of transparent and open government, accountable and citizen-friendly administration, and the right to information were already covered in the Action Plan approved by the Conference of Chief Ministers in 1987. The Information Technology Act was published in 2000 to address these concerns.
Report of the Working Group on Convergence and E-governance 2002-07: The Working Group on Convergence and E-report Government's made the case that government must change from being a passive information and service supplier to being a platform or forum for the engaged participation of citizens. The main topic of this report was public investments. It was unable to envision the scope of private initiative that would emerge in the convergence domain, in e-commerce or related segments.
Common Minimum Programme: The Common Minimum Programme of the UPA Government, which among other things declares that e-governance will be pushed on a huge scale, acknowledges the significance of e-governance. It made a solemn commitment to the citizens of the nation to establish a government that would be free from corruption, transparent, and accountable, as well as an administration that would always act responsibly and promptly.
National E-Governance Plan: Data Centers, State-wide Area Networks, and Common Service Centers are three crucial components of the National E-Governance Plan that together create the fundamental framework for efficient service delivery.
Expert Committee: In order to incorporate technological advancements made after the IT Act 2000, an expert committee had also been established. In August 2005, the Expert Committee submitted its findings after having finished its discussions.
Right to Information Act 2005: The Right to Information Act of 2005 grants citizens the following rights:
a) Examine the government's and its agencies' projects, records, and paperwork.
b) Make a note of the information, extract it, or get certified copies.
c) Obtain material samples with certification.
d) Retrieve information using any electronic modality, including printouts, diskettes, floppies, tapes, and video cassettes.
Q 2) Explain the various components of ICT, namely computer hardware, computer software, Local Area Network, Wide Area Network, and satellite.
Ans) Information and communication technology have evolved over time in many different ways. Some of them also have multiple iterations. Technology's viability, however, depends on how affordable it is for its consumers and how long it lasts before being replaced by a far superior and more affordable alternative. Following is a discussion of some significant and practical information and communication technologies:
Computer Hardware: Computer hardware refers to the actual components of a computer that allow the computer software, programmes, and data to function inside the hardware. Automobiles, microwaves, electrocardiographs, CD players, and many more home items all contain embedded systems that utilise computer hardware.
Computer Software: Software for computers is made out of encoded data. Similar to computer programme, but with a broader definition, is the term. Software is run by the central processor unit after being loaded into RAM. It is an organised set of instructions for altering the hardware state of the computer in a specific order to achieve a specific outcome.
Local Area Network: A computer network known as a local area network typically covers a smaller area. The majority of local area networks connect workstations and personal computers within a single building or group of buildings. In a LAN, each node has its own CPU that it uses to run programmes.
Wide Area Network: Wide Area Network covers a sizable amount of ground. An average WAN is made up of two or more LANs. WAN connections between computers frequently use open networks, like the telephone network. Many private WANs were created for a single organisation. Created by Internet Service Providers, offer LAN to Internet connectivity for businesses. Leased lines are most frequently used to construct WANs. A hub within the WAN and a router are connected to the LAN on opposite sides of the leased line, respectively.
Satellite: A satellite is an object that travels in space's orbit around another object. In 1946, when researchers started using confiscated German V-2 rockets to take measurements in the upper atmosphere, the space era officially began. Before this, researchers studied the ionosphere using balloons and radio waves. Upper-atmosphere research was carried out between 1946 and 1952 utilising V-2 and Aerobe rockets. Sputnik I was launched into space on October 4, 1957. The International Space Station is now the largest man-made satellite in orbit around the globe.
Q3) Examine the role of ICT in administration.
Ans) ICT improves the efficiency and effectiveness of administration by facilitating its three primary duties. Internal computerization and automation helps administration carry out its public duties by streamlining internal operations and work procedures. This promotes transparency and accountability. ICT facilitates multi-stakeholder policy formation, allowing government to include the ideas and suggestions of professionals, academia, the private sector, civil society organisations, the media, the community, and individuals when formulating policies.
With the use of ICT, traditional administrative processes have undergone an electronic metamorphosis that has made them more responsible, transparent, decentralised, and citizen centric. ICT:
Tends to lessen the excessive delays in file processing and transfer brought on by a department's or organization's various levels.
Encourages the centralization of data and file storage. This improves upkeep, lessens wasteful work, minimises storage space, and lowers security hazards.
Reduces time waste by establishing an effective communication mechanism amongst departmental staff.
Replaces the manual procedure of processing leave requests, transfer orders, or employee general provident fund advances using standard process sheets and related paperwork.
Planning and Decision Making
With the assistance of the following applications, ICT facilitates planning and decision-making:
Geographic Information Systems (GIS): GIS is a particular subcategory of decision support systems that uses digitalized maps to collect, store, check, integrate, analyse, and display data. Every document or digital object has a place that can be found. Government departments can generate information for planning, problem-solving, and decision-making by combining maps with other databases and spatially oriented databases. This increases productivity and the calibre of their decisions.
Management Information Systems (MIS): There have been numerous instances of state initiatives utilising MIS in planning and decision-making. The Maharashtra Department of Irrigation has implemented a thorough MIS. The State's infrastructure consists of a network between the Divisional Offices and Mantralaya levels of the Irrigation Department.
ICT facilitates the efficient and successful delivery of public services, which assists administration in carrying out its obligations to residents. Administration is able to offer the following thanks to ICT-enabled service delivery:
Websites for departments should have accurate and thorough information, preferably in local languages. The internet and websites are utilised to share information about the government's numerous policies and programmes. In order to promote information sharing and efficient communication, government departments also post notices and various acts that are occasionally promulgated online. The government is now able to enlighten those who live in isolated, underdeveloped areas without access to libraries, newspapers, etc.
Citizens receive seamless and integrated services. To offer seamless services to the public, all service providers, all services, and all service delivery channels have been merged. The services can now be delivered smoothly across all levels of government as well as over the phone, internet, and service counters.
Q1) Describe the need and importance of ICT intervention in local governance. Also, mention in detail the application areas of ICT in PRIs.
Ans) The panchayats in rural regions now have the constitutional legality to act as local self-governments in the third tier of government thanks to the passing of the 73rd Amendment Act to the Indian Constitution. They have been given a great deal of authority to manage their affairs, including the duty to plan for their territories and collect money for their maintenance. The advantages of ICT are hardly ever realised, and they often operate in isolation with minimal involvement from the public except from voting every five years.
Governance refers to transparency, accountability, and the rule of law. Particularly at the local level, a lack of information results in adhocism in the prioritisation of policies and programmes, poor judgement, a delayed process for making adjustments during implementation, and limited public participation. Most states have implemented a three-tier Panchayati raj system in rural regions, with village panchayats serving as the lowest level, block panchayats serving as the middle level, and zilla panchayats serving as the district level. It is ideal for there to be a solid organic connection throughout the entire process.
Any institution's ability to carry out its duties and fulfil its job as assigned depends on the delivery method and the supporting policies working in unison with one another. The institutions engage with the stakeholders and share ideas in order to stay on course. Structures must be redesigned, and people-centered governance methods and procedures must be brought closer to the direct stakeholders. This procedure can be facilitated by ICT involvement. ICT interventions support the development process by encouraging procedural openness, fostering information sharing, boosting productivity, and removing geographical barriers. ICTs not only increase the availability of information with affordability and dependability, but also improve decision-making and stimulate innovation as a result.
Application Areas of ICT in PRIs
The use of ICT can greatly improve PRIs by making them more responsive, responsible, and citizen friendly. In addition to being more transparent, wired PRIs would also be more amenable to social audit. As we can see with the Gyandoot Program in Madhya Pradesh, people may quickly submit their complaints by email. Programs and projects for rural development can be monitored with the help of software like Rural Soft.
ICT can also aid in curbing unethical practises in PRI-led programmes to enhance rural infrastructure. A thorough visual record of the projects can be preserved with the help of satellite images and Geographic Information Systems, which can be accessed at any time with a mouse click. The projects' physical verification would no longer be dependent on the passage of time; instead, it could be done by anybody, from anywhere, at any time.
Q2) Write a note on the concept and significance of e-learning.
Ans) E-learning is a strategy for enhancing and facilitating learning that is based on computer and communication technology. It refers to the use of internet, e-mail, websites, and CD-ROMS as computer-based electronic technologies to transmit, facilitate, and enhance formal and informal learning and knowledge sharing from any location at any time. Mobile phones, personal digital assistants, and digital television are more examples of communication technologies.
Computer-Based Training is another name for e-learning. E-learning and CBT are frequently used interchangeably, CBT is the older term, dating back to the 1980s. E-learning emerged from CBT as the internet, CDs, and DVDs advanced in technology. It consists of online, web-based, and Internet-based learning.
E-learning is important in a variety of ways. It
Enables just-in-time learning by allowing for flexible learning. Due to its accessibility and learner-controlled pace, it is a tool for effective and efficient learning.
Provides learners with chances for collaborative internet and web-based learning. It facilitates remote learning using wide-area networks. Through the organisation of the lessons to be taught and the development of multimedia CD-ROMs or websites, it emphasises the practical part of learning. The ability to hyperlink and create interactive elements to demonstrate challenging concepts or conduct exercises is a significant advantage.
Gives online learners access to a greater selection of learning experiences, like educational animation.
Uses synchronous and asynchronous communication to deliver e-training, giving learners the convenience of flexibility. Technology like blogs, wikis, and discussion boards are used in asynchronous learning to let students contribute when they have the time. With a chat session, a virtual classroom, or a meeting, all participants can join in at once thanks to synchronous activities.
Uses electronic media to help employees in a company develop their role competencies. Specialized training is provided through customised software, which mostly uses the synchronous mode over a dedicated broadband internet connection to fulfil the unique demands of the clientele.
Enhances instruction by fostering the professional growth of teachers through instruction in the use of ICT in the classroom. Teachers can incorporate technology into their lessons by using e-learning platforms like world links, which helps to build engaging, student-centered learning environments in the classroom.
As put by Gupta and Singhal, e-learning is a planned effort towards providing interactive and experiential learning; flexibility in terms of time, place, and pace; participation and accessibility; expertise and qualitative subject matter; best resource at the learners’ doorsteps and personalised training; and centres round the trainees.
100% Verified solved assignments from ₹ 40 written in our own words so that you get the best marks!
Don't have time to write your assignment neatly? Get it written by experts and get free home delivery
Get Guidebooks and Help books to pass your exams easily. Get home delivery or download instantly!
Download IGNOU's official study material combined into a single PDF file absolutely free!
Download latest Assignment Question Papers for free in PDF format at the click of a button!
Download Previous year Question Papers for reference and Exam Preparation for free!