If you are looking for MPA-018 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Disaster Management, you have come to the right place. MPA-018 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in MPA courses of IGNOU.
MPA-018 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: MPA-018/ASST/TMA/2022-23
Course Code: MPA-018
Assignment Name: Disaster Management
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
This assignment consists of Section-I and Section-II. There are five questions in each section. You have to answer a total of five questions in about 400 words each. It is necessary to attempt at least two questions from each section. Each question carries 10 marks.
Q1) Examine the relationship between development and environment.
Ans) The harmful consequences of natural calamities are amplified by developmental activity. A good illustration of this are the floods that occurred in Rohtak in 1995. Large portions of the town were still underwater months after the floodwaters had subsided. Floods had not caused damage; rather, waterlogging brought on by unusual topography and shoddy land use planning had. Due to the high demand for and strain on the limited supply of land, ad hoc land use decisions are a typical practise in our system.
Highly chemicalized canal irrigation in Punjab has caused widespread salinization, waterlogging, and groundwater poisoning. Mega construction projects like dams flood tens of thousands of acres of forest and fertile land in other parts of India, forcing millions of people from their homes. Parallel to this, it's possible that several of these enormous dams, with their enormous reservoirs, increased or produced seismicity in earthquake-prone regions like Koyna in Maharashtra.
Recurring droughts in Orissa, the desertification of large areas of Gujarat and Rajasthan, where economic depredations continue to have an impact on already fragile ecologies, and environmental degradation in the upstream regions of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar are all examples of disasters that are here to stay. In the plains, flooding is causing a growing amount of damage to property, the environment, and human lives.
Recurrent floods and droughts are caused by the unchecked clearing of forests, severe harm to the ecosystem of mountains, excessive groundwater use, and shifting patterns of agricultural production. Rainwater rushes out when trees are destroyed, resulting in floods and a reduction in groundwater recharge. The extensive deforestation and network of roads that have been arbitrarily built in the name of development are directly responsible for the latest spate of landslides in the Himalayas. It is now widely accepted that man-built constructions like canals, dams, and embankments have made the country's flood problem worse.
The vulnerability of coastal areas to dangers like storm surges and cyclones has increased as a result of the destruction of mangroves and coral reefs. As was seen following the tsunami in December 2004, the commercialization of coastal areas, particularly for tourists, has boosted uncontrolled growth in these places, increasing the risk for disaster. It has been realised that by integrating relatively straightforward, efficient risk reduction practises into current urban improvement practises and those that involve communities in decision-making, levels of protection can be provided within the most vulnerable urban settlements. Over time, this will help to protect lives, improve livelihoods, and decrease poverty.
Q2) Define risk reduction and highlight the significance of Total Disaster Risk Management Approach.
Ans) The following list summarises the strategic goals of the TDRM Approach as they were presented at the Regional Workshop on TDRM conducted in 2001 in Kathmandu and sponsored by the Asian Disaster Reduction Centre and OCHA, Kobe:
By taking into account the underlying causes of disasters and the contextual variables in disaster risk and its management, to address the numerous concerns and gaps in the various phases of the disaster management cycle holistically and thoroughly.
Building a solid database for policy reference and improving local capacity and capability, particularly in disaster risk management as part of a decentralised strategy
To encourage coordination and cooperation among participants in catastrophe response and reduction across multiple levels, across multiple dimensions, and across multiple disciplines. It is a good thing that more sectors are getting involved now that they were previously less interested in disaster preparedness and response.
Risk reduction can take place in two ways:
In order to lessen the impact of a future event, mitigation encompasses all actions done to lessen the impact of the danger itself as well as the conditions that make people vulnerable. Therefore, mitigation efforts can concentrate on the threat itself or the elements that are exposed to it. Examples of hazard-specific mitigation strategies include reducing the likelihood of the hazard, such as water management in drought-prone areas, avoiding the danger by locating people far from it, and strengthening infrastructure to lessen damage in the event of a disaster.
Aiming to lessen physical, economic, and social susceptibility to threats as well as the root causes of the same, mitigation should go beyond these concrete steps. So, addressing issues like property ownership, tenancy rights, wealth inequality, etc., may be part of mitigation.
This preventative strategy includes steps that allow communities, governments, and people to react quickly to catastrophic situations and efficiently handle them. The creation of workable emergency plans, the creation of warning systems, the upkeep of inventory, and employee training are all examples of preparation. Additionally, it can include evacuation preparations for regions that could be at danger from a repeating disaster as well as search and rescue operations. Therefore, preparation includes all of the actions that are taken in advance of a disaster to reduce the likelihood of fatalities, the interruption of vital services, and property damage.
Therefore, preparation includes all of the actions that are taken in advance of a disaster to reduce the likelihood of fatalities, the interruption of vital services, and property damage. All preparation strategy must be backed by suitable legislation that outlines a clear division of labour and allocates funds for particular tasks.
Q3) Critically examine capacity building for earthquake vulnerability reduction.
National Programme for Capacity Building of Engineers in Earthquake Risk Mitigation (NPCBEERM)
In order to implement structural earthquake risk mitigation measures, the National Institute of Disaster Management, Ministry of Home Affairs has prepared a National Roadmap that outlines the actions that must be taken right away in light of the vulnerability of almost 55% of the Indian landmass to earthquakes. The country's key ministry for disaster management is the Ministry of Home Affairs. Previously reactive relief has given way to proactive mitigation and preparedness with the transfer of the subject and responsibility from the Ministry of Agriculture to the Ministry of Home Affairs.
India has seen six moderate-intensity earthquakes in the past 15 years, which have significantly damaged both life and property in the afflicted areas. The destruction caused by the earthquakes in Latur in 1993 and Bhuj in 2001 have once again highlighted the need for mitigation policy planning with a view to controlling the impacts of disasters, especially for disaster risk mitigation from earthquakes to prevent/minimize further extensive damages that would otherwise be wrought considering the frequency of tremors in seismic zones IV and V.
National Programme for Capacity Building of Architects in Earthquake Risk Mitigation (NPCBAERM)
The building's design is created by the architect. The engineer doesn't oversee its execution on the ground till after that. As a result, the architect's role is vital in ensuring a safe construction. The current limitation is that undergraduate architecture programmes do not offer seismic design courses. Despite the fact that the necessary curriculum update is now under consideration, professional architects still need to receive earthquake safety training. As a result, training for architects is necessary as we steadily move towards a certification system where properly qualified and educated architects are given certifications to continue practising.
The Indian Institute of Architects, a non-profit organisation registered under the Societies Registration Act, and the Council of Architecture, which fulfils the legislative responsibility of registration, make up the country's current regulatory infrastructure for architects. From an aesthetic and academic standpoint, the IIA researches and promotes the best architectural practises. Despite being a large organisation with representation on all significant national and international committees, it does not register architects. In terms of effectiveness and ethics, the CoA regulates the profession. Every person who wants to practise their profession must register with the CoA.
Q1) Define the concept of Search, Rescue and Evacuation phases and analyse its various techniques.
Ans) After a disaster strikes, the process of finding potential trapped or isolated disaster victims, transporting them to safety, and providing them with medical care is known as search and rescue, or SAR for short. Locals are typically involved in search and rescue efforts because they are familiar with the area's geography and can help locate and rescue those who are stuck there. SAR crews use sniffer dogs that have been properly trained to find trapped humans beneath the rubble.
As well as using specialised equipment to carefully remove fallen structural pieces and reach out inside piles of rubble with visual or auditory devices to locate survivors, heavy machinery like cranes and earthmovers are utilised to remove heavy rubble. In the event of floods and cyclones, boats and helicopters are employed to conduct search and rescue operations. Teams are formed, and SAR operations are conducted in a systematic manner throughout the entire area, with each team covering its designated sectors. A few crucial actions must be followed in order to relieve the evacuees' suffering after the search, rescue, and evacuation. prominent among them are:
Water and food
Temporary subsistence supplies
Health and sanitation
Emergency evacuation is the urgent egress or departure of people from a location when there is a risk to life or property that is either immediate or continuous. Examples include the small-scale evacuation of a structure due to a storm or fire to the extensive evacuation of a city owing to a flood, bombardment, or impending weather system, particularly a tropical cyclone. Evacuees may need to be decontaminated before being evacuated out of the polluted area in instances involving hazardous chemicals or potential contamination. Planning for evacuations is a crucial component of corporate management, which also includes emergency evacuation. Phases can be used to categorise an evacuation's progression:
movement to an area of refuge or an assembly station
Pre-movement time is the term used to describe the first four phases of a movement. For example, for ships, there is a separation between assembly and embarkation. The specific phases vary depending on the entity. These are distinct from one another. Thus, the choice of whether to board the boats or rafts is typically decided after assembly.
Q2) Evaluate the guiding principles for Shelter provisions.
Ans) In the impacted areas, many organisations are striving to provide shelter. Different methods using various materials, sizes, and techniques are being used in various contexts. Following the 2005 Kashmir earthquake, Prof. Ian Davis developed a ten-point guideline on the provision of temporary housing, which is as follows:
Monitor what is going on: Use this disaster to educate coordinating organisations about what is happening at the micro and macro levels of this industry, such as who is deciding on shelter techniques, where the knowledge is, what the conventional wisdom is around shelter, what the disputes and challenges are, etc.
Tents: It's likely that a large range of tents with various specifications will show up, some of which will be completely inappropriate for the local environment or cultural norms while others will be perfectly appropriate. Families can be very successful if they rip their designated tent and use the canvas in inventive ways.
Standards: The Sphere Project stipulates minimum requirements for housing provision, and these standards are recognised globally. These ought to be followed, and if adjustments are required, they ought to be made.
Location of Tents: Families should be permitted to bring a tent and set it up close to their home wherever possible rather than on a large campsite. The benefits of this are clear; it would allow for improved care of domestic animals in rural areas, protection of household items that may still be in wrecked homes, and maintenance or restoration of livelihoods that may be dependent on the home.
Shelter Materials: Distributing shelter supplies like blankets, roofing, sheeting, plastic sheeting, lengths of planed lumber, carpentry tools, wire, rope, nails, etc. is perhaps one of the finest practises.
Shelter for Families with Damaged Dwellings: Houses that are damaged but still standing can be destroyed by aftershocks. When people are sleeping flat and a damaged structure collapses, the risks are very great.
Local Advice Centres: Whether or if the government tries to halt the activity until structural safety surveys have been carried out, repairs start right away. Volunteer engineers, architects, and builders can be organised into small teams and given specific locations to advise on shelter choices, as well as options for repair and reconstruction.
Transition Housing: A successful tactic is to assist families in building a temporary home that will eventually become a permanent residence. This strategy is superior to paying for pricey rehabs that will eventually be replaced by another permanent residence.
Debris: Large-scale building debris destruction frequently occurs in catastrophe scenarios as part of the clean-up and recovery efforts. In the process, important masonry and timber waste is destroyed. It is crucial to gather usable construction debris for recycling.
Shelter Units: Every tragedy will draw a group of daring inventors or business opportunists who will try to persuade authorities to place large orders for their unique cardboard, plastic, polyurethane, etc. based innovations.
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