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MPC-051: Fundamentals of Mental Health

MPC-051: Fundamentals of Mental Health

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Assignment Code: MPC 051/ASST/TMA/July2022-January2023

Course Code: MPC-051

Assignment Name: Fundamentals of Mental Health

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor




Answer the following questions in about 1000 words each. Marks 15x3=45


1. Discuss the developmental related theories.

Ans) Erickson Erick Erik Erikson made a substantial contribution to the psychosocial theory of personality development. Erikson's well-known theory of psychosocial development attempts to explain how personalities evolve over the course of many phases beginning in childhood.


Psychosocial Stage 1 - Trust vs. Mistrust (Approx. 0-2 yrs.)

According to Erikson's theory of psychological development, this is the initial phase. Between a child's birth and age two, this stage takes place. It is an important period since an infant at this age is entirely dependent on the calibre of care provided. Providing the right care will help a child build trust. This is significant because a child will feel safe and secure in the majority of its future encounters because to this fundamental trust in the caregiver.


Psychosocial Stage 2 - Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (Approx. 2-4 yrs.)

Early childhood is when the second stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development takes place. Children are concentrating on gaining more self-control at this point. Erikson thought that a crucial step in this process was toilet training. He had the opinion that developing self-control over one's physical processes promotes independence and a sense of control.


Psychosocial Stage 3 - Initiative vs. Guilt (Approx. 3-5 yrs.)

In the third stage, which takes place during the preschool years, a kid begins to establish his or her power and gains control over the world (their surroundings) by directing play and other social interactions. Children that succeed at this stage believe they are capable of leading others. People who lack these abilities experience remorse, self-doubt, and a lack of initiative.


Psychosocial Stage 4 - Industry vs. Inferiority (Approx. 5-12 yrs.)

This latency stage spans the first few years of school. With the aid of social interactions, a kid begins to build pride in their abilities and accomplishments at this period of development. Additionally, a child who receives support and encouragement from both parents and instructors will feel competent and confident in their abilities. Those who receive little to no support from their parents, instructors, or classmates will have doubts about their capacity for success.

Psychosocial Stage 5 - Identity vs. Confusion (Approx. 13-19 yrs.)

Adolescence marks the beginning of the fifth stage of development. Children explore their independence and grow in self-awareness at this age. Through personal discovery, those who are properly encouraged and reinforced will leave this stage with a strong sense of self, a sense of independence, and a sense of power. People who are still unsure about their views and desires will feel uncertain and uncertain about the future. When a teen overcomes this crisis, a sense of loyalty will emerge.


Psychosocial Stage 6 - Intimacy vs. Isolation (Approx. 20-24yrs. / 24-39 yrs.)

Early adulthood is the time period covered by this stage. At this point, people begin to consider developing intimate ties. Erikson was a firm believer in the importance of humans being able to experience intimacy and form intimate, enduring relationships with others. Those that are successful at this level will establish dedicated and reliable partnerships. It has been noticed that people with weak self-esteem tend to have less committed relationships and are more prone to experience emotional loneliness, despair, and loneliness.


Psychosocial Stage 7 - Generativity vs. Stagnation (Approx.25-64/40-64 yrs.)

People continue to shape their lives in numerous ways during middle adulthood, such as by pursuing their careers and raising or caring for families. Those who are successful throughout this stage will feel that by participating in their home and community that they are making a difference in the world. Those who are unable to develop this talent will feel unproductive and disengaged from society. A person develops a sense of creativity if they have previously been successful and creative. Those who do not experience this sense of movement become stagnant.


Psychosocial Stage 8 - Integrity vs. Despair (65 yrs. till death)

This stage focuses on looking back on life and happens in late adulthood or old age. Conflict at this point will make those who experience it feel as though their lives have been wasted, and they will have many regrets. The person will have feelings of resentment and hopelessness. Those with a sense of integrity will feel proud of their successes. Looking back after finishing this phase successfully means having few regrets and generally feeling satisfied.


Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

You should be aware of Piaget's substantial contribution after learning about Erikson's hypothesis. From the viewpoint of cognitive development, Piaget also attempted to explain the development that occurs at various stages of child development. The Piaget hypothesis of cognitive development is concerned with how children think, perceive, and learn at each stage. The following subsections provide explanations of Piaget's phases of cognitive development:


Stage I: The Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to 2 years)

From birth until roughly two years of age, children go through this stage of cognitive development. The youngster is currently attempting to make sense of the world using their senses and motor skills. Some skills are natural behaviours that are very helpful to the new-born. Learning is aided by such innate behaviours as sucking, seeing, grabbing, crying, and listening. The infant initially relies exclusively on reflexes and intrinsic behaviour.


Stage II: The Pre-operational Stage (2-7 years)

Between the ages of two and seven is when the preoperative period takes place. There is a seamless transition from the toddler stage to the beginning of childhood. Language proficiency, memory retention, and creative capacity are the main achievements throughout this stage. A youngster can also use one thing to symbolically represent another. A toddler waving their arms in a circular motion, for instance, might symbolise the wheels of a train.


Stage III: The Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years)

Children's cognitive thinking undergoes another change at this stage. Because youngsters find it difficult to relate concepts to things that cannot be touched or seen physically, it is fittingly called "concrete." Children have trouble comprehending speculative and abstract ideas. But now they start to realise that other individuals don't see things the same way they do.


Stage IV: The Formal Operational Stage (11 onwards)

At this age, kids start to learn how to think speculatively and about abstract ideas. Children, for instance, start to develop the capacity to consider outcomes and repercussions before acting. For them to make a judgement call or reach a conclusion, verbal information becomes sufficient. They don't need "solid" physical objects in order to make a choice or take action. They have the ability to reason logically and consistently in order to solve or reach a decision when given an issue. They start to think more like adults.


2. Elaborate the historical perspectives of mental illness and mental health.

Ans) Considering that mental disease and psychological abnormalities have existed in the past and still do today. Views and medical care now reflect some of the difficulties in addressing mental illness or unusual behaviour in the past.


Historical Perspectives of Mental Illness

Ancient Views: Any unusual behaviour displayed by a person in the past was thought to be the work of supernatural forces. All of these occurrences were thought to be the consequence of magical, occasionally evil beings in charge of the world. Ancient people, in particular, believed that the human body and mind served as a battlefield between forces of good and evil from beyond. It was common to interpret abnormal behaviour as the triumph of bad spirits, and the remedy for such behaviour was to coerce the demons to leave the victim's body. It's possible that this supernatural interpretation of abnormality dates back to the Stone Age, a half-million years ago. The removal of a circular piece of the skull using a stone tool, or trephine, is referred to as trephination. Some skulls from that time period found in Europe and South America display signs of this procedure.


Greek and Roman Views: The way abnormal behaviour was perceived and described has evolved over the ages. The observations and writings of the Ancient Greek physician Hippocrates are where the naturalist approach to comprehending abnormal behaviour first emerged. Philosophers and doctors in the thriving Greek and Roman civilizations recognised a number of mental illnesses between around 500 B.C. and 500 A.D. Melancholia, which is characterised by irrepressible sadness, mania, which is a state of euphoria and frenzied activity, dementia, which is a general intellectual decline, hysteria, which is the presence of a physical ailment with no apparent physical cause, delusions, which are eccentric beliefs that are firmly held without adequate basis, and hallucinations, which are the experience of irrational thoughts, were the most prominent conditions


Middle Ages: In the middle ages, only supernatural ideas served as the basis for all explanations of anomalous behaviour displayed by people. The common people's continued belief in demons was unaffected by the enlightened viewpoints of Greek and Roman scholars and medical professionals. Demonology also had a significant rebirth as a result of Rome's fall as Europe's mistrust of science grew. The Middle Ages, or 500–1350 A.D., are characterised by a significant rise of clergy power across Europe. The church then controlled all aspects of education and condemned scientific methods of inquiry. Nearly every element of life was influenced by superstitious and demonological religious beliefs. As usual, the anomalous behaviour was regarded as a struggle between God and the devil, or good and evil.


The Nineteenth Century: As a result, abnormal behaviour eventually began to be thought of as a disease, and throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, hospitals increasingly admitted patients with mental illness. These hospitals and asylums were frequently inhumane and cruelly maintained. Pioneers in bringing about reform in these institutions were Philippe Pinel and William Tuke in the latter half of the eighteenth century. Moral therapy became the name for their method. They emphasised the necessity for serene environs for these institutions, the need to give patients meaningful tasks, and the need for treating patients with dignity. More humane hospitals and institutions were created in the 19th century thanks to Dorothy Dix and others.


The Early Twentieth Century: By the late 1800s, two competing perspectives on mental illness had emerged and were competing for the attention of clinicians. The somatogenic perspective, which holds that abnormal psychological functioning has physical causes, and the psychogenic perspective, which holds that the primary psychological factors causing abnormal functioning, were in decline. The twentieth century saw the full development of these viewpoints.


The Somatogenic Perspective - The somatogenic perspective was founded on Hippocrates' theory that brain illness and an imbalance of the humours caused abnormal behaviour. The work of renowned German researcher Emil Kraepelin was one of the reasons that contributed to this new beginning. A prominent textbook written by Kraepelin in 1883 made the case that physical conditions, such exhaustion, are to blame for mental disorder. He outlined a number of syndromes, or symptom clusters, their physical aetiology, and discussed their likely progression.


The Psychogenic Perspective - The somatogenic method, also known as the psychogenic perspective, first emerged in parallel in the late nineteenth century. According to the psychogenic approach, psychological factors are frequently the main contributors to aberrant functioning. This viewpoint also had a lengthy history. Cicero, a Roman senator and orator, felt that psychological disturbances might result in physical illnesses, and Galen, a Greek physician, thought that many mental problems are brought on by psychological events like anxiety, disappointment in love, and other similar experiences.


Historical Perspective of mental Health

The relevance of making contributions to excellent mental health began to increase as attitudes concerning deviant behaviour and mental disorders changed. In 1941, the United States made one of the earliest attempts to define mental health. As part of the Selective Training Act for the enlistment of young men into the United States army, John Clausen and his co-workers were hired to evaluate mental health for the draught board. The lack of psychosomatic symptoms was the main factor the board used to evaluate the applicants' mental health.


Up until the 1970s, this method of defining mental health was used; normalcy was equated with the absence of psychopathology. The process for evaluating mental health underwent several adjustments following the end of World War II. After the Second World War, the typical adaptive behaviour of soldiers was investigated, and the results were documented in academic journals. Important research centred on how soldiers transitioned from the military to civilian life. In 1958, Marie Johoda made a significant contribution to changing how mental health was seen. In her model, she suggested that the criteria for evaluating mental health should place more emphasis on the good elements of mental health than on the lack of mental illness symptoms.


A Growing Emphasis on Preventing Disorders and Promoting Mental Health

Following the discussion on mental health, focus was placed on safeguarding against disorders and fostering overall good mental health. After the 1960s, preventative programme development started. Primary preventive programmes made an effort to improve resiliency, or the capacity to deal with stressful situations. Later, as positive psychology emerged and expanded, prevention programmes began to emphasise encouraging and preventing tactics. The study and promotion of good sentiments, such as optimism and happiness, is known as positive psychology. It honours and promotes admirable qualities like tenacity and insight. It emphasises developing good traits including interpersonal skills and other skills. Additionally, it encourages tolerance, selfless actions, and group-directed virtues.


3. Critically explain the models of humanistic psychology.

Ans) The models/theories propounded by Rogers and Maslow under the vicinity of the school of Humanistic psychology are as follows:

Person-centred Theory

His idea is predicated on the fundamental tenet that each and every person has a propensity to satisfy his or her own desires. All people possess the innate capacity for love, creativity, and purpose. He had the opinion that every person has a personal opinion of himself. The self-concept is what is meant by this. There are essentially two ideas of who one is. The first is who the individual sees himself as. The second one represents his ideal self or what he would like to become. Functional and psychological illnesses arise when there is a mismatch between the real (self-image and experiences) and the ideal self; when there is congruence between the two, the person is well-adjusted.


He also held the view that a single, positive force—which he called "self-actualization"—motivates all human behaviour. This tendency to protect and improve oneself can be seen. Childhood memories have a significant role in this process. A child's need for positive attention arises organically as soon as he or she becomes aware of who they are. This favourable opinion is supported by the child's parents and other significant adults' love and acceptance. The expectations that the child's parents or environment place on them determine the favourable respect they receive from them or another significant person. These criteria are referred to as worth conditions. They decide which experiences the youngster has had are "good" or "poor."


The child will be open to new experiences and learn if the standards of merit are limited and fair. The child's development will be hampered if these are excessive and unrealistic, which will also have an impact on self-actualization. It has been proposed that this is the root of abnormal behaviour. He applied his thinking to a therapeutic process. He put out the idea of unwavering admiration. This entails creating a welcoming and accepting environment where the client's requirements are respected and acknowledged without any stipulations of value being imposed. He recommended a "Client Centred Therapy" while keeping the idea of unconditional positive regard as a fundamental consideration.


Roger’s Theory - Important Concepts

Incongruity: The genuine self, as defined by Rogers, is the component of a person's existence that is based on the actualizing tendency, complies with organismic valuing demands, and enjoys positive respect and self-regard. He or she develops an ideal self when forced to live with conditions of worth that are at odds with organismic valuing and when they only obtain conditional positive regard and self-regard. By ideal, Rogers meant something unattainable, something that is constantly out of reach, the bar that a human cannot reach.


Incongruity is the difference between the true self and the ideal self, or between the "I am" and the "I should." The incongruity increases with the distance between the real and ideal selves. The anguish of the affected person increases as incongruity increases. In fact, Rogers' definition of neurosis is fundamentally incongruity.


Rogers went on to elaborate on the idea of defences. He asserts that a situation is dangerous for a person when there is a discrepancy between that person's perception of themselves and their current circumstances (i.e., between the ideal and the real self).


He also discussed the idea of perceptual distortion, which is the process of reinterpreting a situation to make it seem less dangerous. It resembles Freud's reasoning very well.


Psychosis is also partially explained by Rogers. When a person's defences are breached and their sense of self is broken into tiny, disjointed parts, psychosis results. His or her behaviour is also inconsistent and characterised by psychotic breaks and odd behaviour episodes. He or she might speak incoherently, exhibit improper emotions, and lose the ability to distinguish between the self and the outside world.


Maslow’s Theory

He believed that all people are inherently moral, sensible, and social creatures. In contrast to past deterministic and pessimistic views, his focus is on the optimistic and positive aspects of human nature. He viewed human behaviour as a free and intentional act. The fundamental urge or motivation for self-actualization underpins all human behaviour. The hierarchy of needs is an idea that Maslow contributed. In order to evolve and achieve self-actualization, according to his theory, there are five stages of wants that must be satisfied.


He arranged human needs and motivations in a hierarchy to explain them. There are various levels in this hierarchy of wants, which is built in accordance with the importance and intensity of unmet human needs. However, a person's position within this hierarchy is defined by either deficiency- or growth-oriented behaviour (D behaviour) (G behaviour). Deficit-oriented people are those whose basic needs have not yet been met and who are focused on gaining fulfilment and eradicating deficit. When one's basic needs are met and one is driven to achieve self-actualization, one is said to be growth-oriented.


The physiological needs are at the base of the hierarchy. The most fundamental components of human motivation are these. The need to satiate biological requirements, such as those for food, water, sex, physical comfort, and survival, constitutes the first level. These requirements relate to elements that are necessary to sustain life. When these requirements are met, the second level needs start to emerge and become more significant. The second level is that of safety requirements, which searches for an atmosphere that is steady and predictable. It is the desire for safety, defence, and safety from harm. These emotions are generally related to the person's aspirations for a secure and stable environment.


When these wants are met, the third level needs—love and a sense of belonging—appear. These demands drive the individual to identify with various groups and have friends and companions as well as a family. As these requirements are met, a need for self-esteem arises. This includes the want to be respected, to have faith in oneself, and to have people admire one.


At its highest level, it is the desire to make the most of one's individual talents, to maximise one's potential, and to partake in pursuits for which one is best fitted. This stage is known as "self-actualization."





Answer the following questions in about 400 words each. Marks 5x5=25


4. Discuss the sociological theories related to mental health.


Sociological Theories of Mental Health

The basic theoretical foundation for social perspectives on mental health and sickness. For instance, it has been suggested that a person's mental disease may be tied to the society and culture to which they currently belong. The numerous sociologically oriented perspectives on mental health and sickness are briefly discussed in the following subsections.


Social Causation: The significance of socially induced stress in the development of mental disease has been the subject of theories. The association between social adversity and mental disease is emphasised in this social approach to understanding the aetiology of mental illness. Sociologists examine the link between social class and mental health and view low social class and/or poverty as the primary indicators of disadvantage.


Critical Theory: The critical theorists were the institute's members at the Frankfurt Institute of Social Research. They looked at the connections between people's physical surroundings, cultural lives, and inner selves.


Social Constructionism: A school of sociology called social constructionism challenges the widely accepted beliefs about the nature of reality. In the framework of power and oppression in that society's societal systems, it touches on themes underlying what is understood to be normal and abnormal in that society.


Social Realism: In sociology, social realism is the presumption that social reality, social structures, and associated social phenomena exist independently of our conceptions or perceptions and exist in addition to the existence of individual members of society. According to sociological viewpoints on mental illness, social processes must be taken into account as part of the illness's underlying causes.


Structural Strain Theory

According to the structural strain theory, society's overall structure is where chaos first emerged. Society should be changed to lower stress levels or improve coping skills in order to prevent or lessen mental illness. The impact of crisis events and underprivileged neighbourhoods on mental health are two examples of societal systems that stress people.

Effects of Poor Neighbourhoods on Mental Health: The overwhelming body of research favours the causal impact of chaotic neighbourhoods on mental health. This is due to the high rates of racial segregation, unemployment, single-parent families, residential instability, crime, and physical decay that define poor communities, among a number of other drawbacks.


Survivors of Disaster: Social exclusion, or a lack of social integration have negative effects. In terms of playing social roles, social isolation can also occur at the individual level.


Implications of Applying the Sociological Theories in the Field of Mental Illness

According to studies, people who are socially and economically disadvantaged or have less authority and influence are more likely to suffer from mental illness. Other approaches to mental illness may overlook the concept of the organisational involvement in the aetiology of mental illness, which is specific to this approach. Studying the stress brought on by social systems, social institutions, and societal surroundings is crucial in order to comprehend the complex and multifaceted causes of mental illness.


5. Discuss the various causes of abnormality.

Ans) The various causes of abnormality are as follows:


Biological Factors

According to studies, several mental diseases are linked to an improper balance of the brain's neurotransmitters, which are specialised molecules. Neurotransmitters facilitate communication between brain nerve cells. The brain may not properly transmit messages if these substances are out of balance or not functioning properly, which can result in symptoms of mental illness. Some mental problems have also been related to other biological issues, such as flaws in or damage to specific brain regions.


Biological elements that could contribute to the onset of mental disease include:

  1. Genetics (heredity): Since many mental illnesses run in families, having a family member who has one increases a person's risk of getting one themselves. When several genes combine with other variables, such as stress, abuse, or a traumatic experience, a mental disorder can develop or be triggered in a person who has a hereditary vulnerability to it.

  2. Infections: Brain damage, the onset of mental disease, or a worsening of the symptoms, have all been related to specific infections.

  3. Brain defects or injury: There has also been a connection between various mental diseases and flaws in or damage to specific parts of the brain.

  4. Prenatal damage: According to some research, birth trauma, such as a loss of oxygen to the brain, or disruption of early foetal brain development may have a role in the emergence of some diseases, including autism.


Substance Abuse

Particularly long-term alcohol or drug misuse has been connected to paranoia, despair, and anxiety.


Psychological Factors

Significant psychological trauma from childhood, such as emotional, physical, or sexual abuse, a significant early loss, such as the death of a parent, neglect, and a lack of social skills are among the psychological elements that contribute to the development of mental disorders.


Environmental Factors

A person who is predisposed to mental disease may become unwell as a result of specific stimuli. A dysfunctional family, feelings of inadequacy, low self-esteem, anger, or loneliness, shifting jobs or schools, societal or cultural expectations, and substance misuse by the individual or the individual's parents are a few examples of these stressors.  Biological, psychological, and social elements are all included in the biopsychosocial model paradigm. This paradigm aims to comprehend mental diseases from the viewpoint that they can have numerous causes and that no single recognised or reliable cause has been identified.


6. Elucidate attention as one of the cognitive function.

Ans) In a technical sense, attention is the allocation of resources to different inputs. The brain requires a selective mechanism to enable the organism to concentrate on the most crucial data for later processing in order to function properly. The processes of sensory selection, response selection, attentional capacity, and sustained performance are all part of the attention process. Alertness/arousal, focused attention, selective attention, divided attention, and sustained attention are common divisions of attention (vigilance). Commonly, more than one of these processes—such as motor speed, information processing speed, language ability, etc.—are measured by the several tests used to determine whether an individual's ability to pay attention is impaired, which impacts their ability to operate normally.


Patients with brain injuries or children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder have trouble maintaining focus over time. The disability impacts how well the patient performs during the course of repeated or continuous activities. Measures of reaction time and information processing speed can be used to assess attention impairments and sluggish processing speed.


Types of Attention

Selective attention: Our sensory system is constantly exposed to a variety of stimuli from our surroundings, yet we appear to focus reflexively on one channel of information at the expense of others. Selective attention refers to the capacity to concentrate on one stimulus among many other stimuli. For instance, if you are hungry, you will only search your kitchen for edible stuff, regardless of other items that are there.


Vigilance: This is a reference to our capacity to maintain concentration on a single stimuli over time. For instance, when attending a lecture, we make an effort to pay attention the entire time. This is obviously distinct from selective attention and calls much more deliberate effort. Some neurological conditions and psychiatric disorders are associated with variations in vigilance abilities.


Arousal and alertness: These words are often associated with physiological states that might change in proportion to attention. Take into account, for instance, your own circadian pattern of attentiveness. You get 6-8 hours of sleep every day during which you are largely unresponsive to outside stimuli, however a loud fireworks display or a thunderclap may still wake you up. You are undoubtedly more alert at specific moments throughout your waking hours than at other times. According to research, alertness normally increases throughout the day, peaks in the early evening, and then declines as you get closer to night. Both while you are awake and while you are asleep, unforeseen sudden events may disrupt your degree of attentiveness.


7. Describe the classical conditioning theory.

Ans) The term "respondent conditioning" also applies to classical conditioning theory. According to the theory, learning occurs when a reaction is made to be connected to a new stimulus. This process of connecting a response to a new stimulus is referred to as conditioning. Following Ivan Pavlov's test, the concept of classical conditioning emerged. A scientist by training, Pavlov was particularly interested in how dogs digested food.


He discovered while conducting his physiological research that dogs salivate even before being offered food. When it caught sight of food, the bucket used to feed it, or even the footsteps of the person who fed it, it would start to salivate. What is now known as classical or response conditioning was studied as a result of these observations. Pavlov performed an experiment in which he repeatedly associated the sound of the bell with the subsequent presentation of food.


Following a few tests, the dog began to drool at the ring of the bell even when no food was immediately forthcoming. With practise, or more trials, the amount of saliva increased. He trained the dog to salivate when the bell rang, in other words. In this form of classical conditioning, the stimulus that inadvertently prompts a reflexive reaction is known as the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) (food).


Unconditioned response (UCR) is the term used to describe the reflex-like reaction brought on by the unconditioned stimulus (salivation). The stimulus that initially elicits no reaction (in this case, a bell) but eventually starts to elicit one (salivation) when it is repeatedly matched with an unconditioned stimulus is known as the conditioned stimulus (CS). Called the conditioned response, the reaction (salivation) brought on by the initially neutral conditioned stimulus (bell) (meal) is said to have occurred (CR).


The frequency and severity of CR gradually increase with trial volume, and it is also acquired gradually. With a variety of conditioned stimuli, such as buzzers, lights, geometric shapes, etc., this fundamental approach can be applied. Additionally, different arrangements can be made for how the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli interact.


For instance, to elicit a CR, the CS may be administered before the UCS. Forward or delayed conditioning is the term used for this. Backward conditioning occurs when the CS is administered following the delivery of the UCS. Giving CS and UCS at the same time results in simultaneous conditioning. Only a "memory trace" of the CS is left since CS can be displayed and erased prior to UCS. Trace conditioning refers to this. When the US is absent during several trials of CS, extinction takes place.


8. Explain the eastern concept of mind.

Ans) Maxwell Bennett has provided a comprehensive and in-depth review of earlier theories on the nature of the human mind. Man began writing down his innermost thoughts and experiences around 6000 years ago, particularly his amazing dreams and sleep-related events. He believed that they were the elusive, mysterious creatures that became known as spirits in Shamanism. This spirit was later referred to as the "soul" by Homer, who believed that it was housed in the skull and may have existed between the eighth and fifth centuries BC.


It was believed that these wandering spirits were capable of ethereal flight. Homer created a distinction between two different kinds of souls: a physical soul composed of mental, emotional, rational, and intellectual elements, and an impersonal, eternal soul that may travel over space.


The ideas of the soul in the eastern and western cultures differ, despite certain commonalities. "Atma" is the Sanskrit word for the soul. There is a school of thought that makes a distinction between the mortal human life soul known as "jeevatma" and the eternal divine impersonal soul known as "paramatma." This is the "dvaita" (Sanskrit for "two") school of thought. It draws a sharp distinction between individual souls, who are referred to as "jivatmas," and God, who is defined as the ultimate eternity and is also known by the name ‘parmatma.’


According to one viewpoint, despite the fact that God is necessary for the survival of each creature's particular soul, God did not create them. Indian philosophies do not typically link the soul to psychological characteristics like emotions, memory, learning, etc., in contrast to western systems. The Indian medical system explains the fundamental causes of mental illness in terms of physical abnormalities. However, mental illness is viewed as a separate discipline, in contrast to current western beliefs.


An individual's (universal) Self or self-existent essence is referred to as their atman, which is different from their ego (Ahamkara), mind (Citta), and embodied existence (Prakti), in Sanskrit. The phrase is frequently translated as "soul," however "Self" is a preferable translation because it only refers to pure consciousness or witness-consciousness, independent of affiliation with phenomena. To achieve moksha (freedom), a person must develop self-knowledge (Atma Gyaan or Brahmajnana).


The concept of Atman is fundamental to the various schools of Indian philosophy, which hold varying opinions about the relationship between Atman, the individual Self (Jvtman), the supreme Self (Paramtm), and the Ultimate Reality (Brahman), positing that they are either entirely identical (Advaita, Non-Dualist), entirely different (Dvaita, Dualist), or simultaneously non-different and different.





Answer the following in about 50 words each. Marks 10x3=30


9. Leadership and social power

Ans) Leadership is viewed as a key component in determining whether a social activity succeeds or fails. Leadership is the process through which one person persuades a group of people to pursue a common objective. Because it can affect a change in societal norms or attitudes, leadership is crucial.


There are three key components:

  1. Power: It refers to the capacity for influencing others, and more particularly, the capacity of the leader to persuade people to follow after similar objectives. A leader can exercise a variety of powers, such as the ability to reward or punish others.

  2. Persuasion: This is the capacity to persuade people to adhere to a particular objective.

  3. Vision: Leadership entails guiding the team in accordance with a future vision.


10. Functional perspectives of normality

Ans) The functional perspectives of normality are as follows:

  1. Normality as health: This fundamentally embodies the standard medical psychiatric understanding of health and illness. Doctors frequently view health as the norm.

  2. Normality as utopia: In contrast to the statistical definition of normality as what is average or typical, an ideal meaning of normality refers to a level of perfection that people strive for but rarely attain.

  3. Normality as average: The third viewpoint, which is frequently used in normative studies of behaviour, is founded on a mathematical idea known as the bell shaped curve, as was already mentioned. This view of normality holds that the outcome of interacting systems is normal behaviour.

  4. Normality as average: This strategy views those who fall in the middle as normal, while those who fall on either extreme are considered abnormal. This method is based on a statistical principle that assesses a person's overall evaluation and score.


11. Phases of conative style

Ans) The phases of conative style are as follows:

  1. Direction Phase: The important stage of direction contains five elements: defining one's purpose, understanding needs of others, aspirating and imagining potential futures, making decisions, and setting goals by individuals.

  2. Energizing Phase: In the energising phase, a person must overcome inertia, have a high sense of self-worth, be physically fit and energetic, pay attention, talk favourably, control their emotions, and interact positively with others.

  3. Preserving Phase: In the preservation phase, one engages in daily self-renewal, keeps track of thoughts, feelings, and behaviour, performs self-evaluations, considers their progress, and completes duties.


12. Utilitarian concept of mental health

Ans) Many classification system and mental health act in many country attempted to define mental illness but mental health perse has not been defined. Some unaddressed question like ” what is diseased in mental illness, what do you treat or set right by treatment, how the psychiatrist say that a patient is improved and describe or define mental health” are addressed.


13. Dualistic view towards biological basis of body and mind

Ans) This point of view holds that only mental phenomena are real and that physical occurrences can be reduced to mental ones. This phenomenology has a big impact on humanistic psychology. They emphasise the essential character of experience and the fact that our understanding of the outside world depends on our interpretation of it.


14. Brain disease

Ans) The brain controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. Inflammation in the brain can lead to problems such as vision loss, weakness and paralysis. Loss of brain cells, which happens if you suffer a stroke, can affect your ability to think clearly. Brain tumours can also press on nerves and affect brain function. Some brain diseases are genetic. The symptoms of brain diseases vary widely depending on the specific problem. In some cases, damage is permanent. In other cases, treatments such as surgery, medicines, or physical therapy can correct the source of the problem or improve symptoms.


15. Evolution of adaptive mechanisms

Ans) Humans have physiologically based systems that predisposition them to act, feel, and think in particular ways from the moment they are born. This enables individuals to acquire knowledge, retain it, speak a language, recognise specific elements of their surroundings at birth, emote on a universal level, and form relationships with other people. The frequency with which specific genes, together with the traits they create, arise in an inbreeding population changes with time. Due to genetic mutations, certain features, such as those resulting from natural selection, evolutionary adaptations, and brain evolution, change.


16. Defense mechanisms

Ans) Freud claimed that the ego does its best to reconcile the needs of the id, the superego, and the demands of reality. But when worry takes over, the ego has to stand up for itself. It accomplishes this by automatically suppressing the urges or transforming them into a more bearable, non-dangerous form. The term "ego defence mechanisms" refers to this method of controlling ideals or urges that are morally or socially unacceptable.


17. Mental health as resilience

Ans) Resilience is the ability to adapt to difficult situations. Resilience isn't about putting up with something difficult, being stoic or figuring it out on your own. In fact, being able to reach out to others for support is a key part of being resilient. Resilience can protect from various mental health conditions, such as depression and anxiety. Resilience can also help offset factors that increase the risk of mental health conditions, such as being bullied or previous trauma. If there is an existing mental health condition, being resilient can improve your coping ability.


18. Mesmerism and hypnotism

Ans) Mesmerism: Inducing a trance-like mental state in which victims are highly suggestible is known as mesmerism. It was used to treat psychological problems when an Austrian doctor by the name of Friedrich Anton Mesmer started a clinic in Paris. His patients had hysterical disorders, mysterious illnesses with no obvious physical explanation. Unexpectedly many patients seemed to benefit from this treatment, known as mesmerism.


Hypnotism: Hypnosis, a method that relies on the power of suggestion, can treat hysterical conditions, several scientists came to the conclusion that hysterical diseases are mental disorders. Some scientists disagreed, however, and thought that hysterical diseases had subtle physiological underpinnings.

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