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MPCE-021: Counselling Psychology

MPCE-021: Counselling Psychology

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for MPCE-021 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Counselling Psychology, you have come to the right place. MPCE-021 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in MAPC courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: MPCE–021/ASST/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: MPCE-021

Assignment Name: Counselling Psychology

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


NOTE: All questions are compulsory.




Answer the following questions in 1000 words each. 3x15=45


Q1) Explain the techniques used in behaviour therapy.

Ans) Behavioural psychology, or behaviourism, arose in the early 20th century in reaction to the method of introspection that dominated psychology at the time. John B. Watson, the father of behaviourism, had initially studied animal psychology. In the 1960s, behaviour approaches emerged as a dramatic departure from the assumptions and methods that characterised psychoanalytic and humanistic therapies. They argued that psychology should concern itself only with publicly observable phenomena i.e., overt behaviour. According to Behaviouristic thinking, as mental content is not publicly observable, thus it cannot be subjected to rigorous scientific inquiry. The new practitioners of behaviour therapy denied the importance of inner dynamics, instead they insisted that

  1. Maladaptive behaviours are not merely symptoms of underlying problems but rather are problems.

  2. Problem behaviours are learned on the same ways normal behaviours are.

  3. Maladaptive behaviours can be unlearned by applying principles derived from research on classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and modelling.


Consequently, behaviourists developed a focus on overt behaviours and their environmental influences. Behaviour therapy involves changing the behaviour of clients to reduce dysfunction and to improve quality of life. Behaviour therapy includes a methodology, referred to as behaviour analysis, for the strategic selection of behaviours to change, and a technology to bring about behaviour change, such as modifying antecedents or consequences or giving instructions. Behaviour therapy represents clinical applications of the principles developed in learning theory.



Around 1920s, the application of learning principles to the treatment of behavioural disorders began to appear, but it had little effect on the mainstream of psychiatry and clinical psychology. Behaviour therapy emerged as a systematic and comprehensive approach to psychiatric disorders in 1960s. Joseph Wolpe and his colleagues used Pavlovian’s techniques to produce and eliminate neuroses in cats. From this research, Wolpe developed systematic desensitisation. At about the same time, Eysenck and Shapiro stressed the importance of an experimental approach in understanding and treating individual patients, using modern learning theory. A Harvard psychologist B. F. Skinner also inspired the origin of behaviour therapy. Skinner’s students began to apply his operant conditioning technology, developed in animal conditioning laboratories, to human beings in clinical settings.


Systematic Desensitisation

In 1958 Joseph Wolpe introduced Systematic Desensitisation, This is actually learning based treatment for anxiety disorders. Wolpe viewed anxiety as a classical conditioned response. His goal was to eliminate anxiety by using a procedure called Counterconditioning. In this, a new response that is incompatible with anxiety is produced. This relaxed state is conditioned to the anxiety arousing conditioned stimulus, like for instance fear of a closed room or fear of heights etc. It is based on the behavioural principle of Counterconditioning, whereby a person overcomes maladaptive anxiety elicited by a situation or an object by approaching the feared situation gradually, in a psychophysiological state that inhibits anxiety.


Exposure: An Extinction Approach

From a behavioural point of view, phobias and other fears result from classically conditioned emotional responses. The conditioning experience is assumed to involve a pairing of the phobic object with an aversive unconditioned stimulus. For example, if a person has a fear of heights, then put him at a height where he has no way to come down except with the help of a ladder that you may provide him later. As a result, the phobic stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that elicits the conditioned response of anxiety. Continuously staying exposed to the aversive stimulus in course of time brings down the anxiety and the extreme negative reaction. As this process of exposure is repeated again and again, the patient does not react negatively or with fear when exposed to heights.


Aversion Therapy

For some clients, the therapeutic goal is not to reduce anxiety but actually to condition anxiety to a particular stimulus that triggers deviant behaviour. In aversion therapy, the therapist pairs a stimulus that is attractive to the client with a noxious UCS in an attempt to condition an aversion to the CS. When a noxious stimulus is presented immediately after a specific behavioural response, theoretically, the response is eventually inhibited and extinguished. Many types of noxious stimuli are used which include for instance, electric shocks, substances that induce vomiting, corporal punishment, and social disapproval.


The negative stimulus is paired with the behaviour, which is thereby suppressed. The unwanted behaviour may disappear after a series of such sequences. Aversion therapy has been used for alcohol abuse, paraphilias, and other behaviours with impulsive or compulsive qualities, but this therapy is controversial for many reasons. For example, punishment does not always lead to the expected decreased response and can sometimes be positively reinforcing.


Operant Conditioning Treatments

The term behaviour modification refers to treatment techniques that apply operant conditioning procedures in an attempt to increase or decrease a specific behaviour like positive reinforcement, extinction, negative reinforcement, or punishment.


  1. Positive Reinforcement: When a behavioural response is followed by a generally rewarding event, such as food, avoidance of pain, or praise, it tends to be strengthened and to occur more frequently than before the reward. This principle has been applied in a variety of situations.

  2. Flooding: Flooding, sometimes called implosion, is similar to graded exposure in that it involves exposing the patient to the feared object in vivo; however, there is no hierarchy. It is based on the premise that escaping from an anxiety provoking experience reinforces the anxiety through conditioning.

  3. Participant Modelling: In participant modelling, patients learn a new behaviour by imitation, primarily by observation, without having to perform the behaviour until they feel ready. Learning by watching others’ behaviour is also called Observational learning.

  4. Assertiveness Training: Assertive behaviour enables a person to act in his or her own best interest, to stand up for herself or himself without undue anxiety, to express honest feelings comfortably, and to exercise personal rights without denying the rights of others.

  5. Social Skills Training: Social skills training have been found to be efficacious for depression and schizophrenics. These training programs cover skills in the following areas:

a) conversation,

b) conflict management,

c) assertiveness,

d) community living,

e) friendship and dating,

f) work and vocation, and

g) medication management.

Each of these skills has several components.

Q2) What is art therapy? Describe the steps in art therapy.

Ans) The interaction between art, creativity, and psychotherapy gave rise to the therapy modality known as art therapy. It use artistic mediums to concretely portray internal images, feelings, thoughts, and sensations. It offers the chance for nonverbal expression and conversation, which can help the client become more functional and work through emotional problems. The idea behind art therapy is that the creative process may be used to resolve emotional difficulties as well as to promote self-awareness and personal development.


From prehistoric times to the present, art has been used, but it was Freud and Jung's beliefs that first brought art therapy to the public's notice. These psychologists valued symbolism, which is prevalent in many artistic mediums. In the 1960s, art therapy underwent further development and established itself as a legitimate profession. Wadeson claims that the emergence of art therapy as a recognised profession and therapeutic approach was facilitated by "the founding of the American Journal of Art Therapy and the American Art Therapy Association."


The foundation of art therapy is the belief that the creative process of creating art is therapeutic, enriching, and a way to express thoughts and feelings in a nonverbal way. It is the therapeutic use of artmaking by those dealing with disease, trauma, or other life issues as well as those looking to advance personally. People can improve their cognitive capacities, cope with symptoms, stress, and traumatic experiences, and enjoy the life-affirming delights of making art through creating art and reflecting on the art products and processes. It has been utilised in a variety of situations with children, adults, families, and groups to promote personal growth, increase self-understanding, and help with emotional repair.


It is a technique that can assist people of all ages in finding meaning and understanding, getting respite from intense feelings, resolving conflicts and challenges, enhancing daily life, and achieving a greater sense of wellbeing. The creative process of creating art is used in art therapy, a mental health profession, to enhance and improve people of all ages' physical, mental, and emotional wellbeing. It is predicated on the idea that the creative process inherent in artistic self-expression aids in conflict and problem resolution, interpersonal skill development, behaviour management, stress reduction, improvement in self-esteem and self-awareness, and insight.


Human development, visual art, and the creative process are all integrated in art therapy alongside counselling and psychotherapy paradigms. It is used to diagnose and treat anxiety, depression, and other mental and emotional issues as well as physical, cognitive, and neurological issues as well as psychosocial challenges associated with medical conditions with children, adolescents, adults, groups, and families. Hospitals, clinics, governmental and community agencies, educational institutions, corporations, and private practises are just a few places where art therapy programmes can be found.


Masters-level professionals with training in art therapy or a similar subject are known as art therapists. Theories of art therapy, counselling, and psychotherapy, ethics and professional standards, assessment, and evaluation, individual, group, and family techniques, human and creative development, multicultural issues research methodologies, and practicum experiences in clinical, community, and/or other settings are all part of the educational requirements or syllabus. Art therapists are adept at using a range of artistic approaches for diagnosis and treatment. A knowledge of the psychological components of the creative process, particularly the emotive qualities of the various art materials, is combined with conventional psychotherapy ideas and methods in art therapy.


Steps in Art Therapy

  1. Assessment: During the first session the therapist has with the client, assessment frequently occurs at the start of art therapy. The therapist uses assessment to learn about the client's experiences and to gather any other information about the client that they may be interested in learning. At this point, it's crucial to be completely upfront with the client and make it obvious that the session is purely for assessment purposes rather than treatment. An important initial stage in treatment is assessment since it allows the therapist to determine whether art therapy is appropriate for the client or would be ineffective.

  2. Treatment in the Beginning: Building a strong connection with the client at the first session is the therapist's first priority since it promotes the growth of trust in the working relationship. Additionally, it is critical for the art therapist to comprehend the client's perspective better. The art therapist can introduce art therapy to the client by providing background information about it and responding to any queries the client may have after developing a relationship with them and understanding their perspective. The therapist might now advise creating some art at this moment.

  3. Mid-Phase of Treatment: Although it might be challenging to determine when a treatment has transitioned from the initial phase to the middle phase, there are a few significant alterations that are listed below:

a) Once the client and therapist have developed a trusting relationship.

b)  The sessions' emphasis shifts to become more goal-oriented, which does signify the halfway point.

The therapist initially creates direction and boundaries, both personal and professional, during the middle phase of treatment. One of the hardest tasks for an art therapist is choosing which method to utilise when out of the numerous that are used in the practise. The art therapist must tailor the art therapy for each individual client because each situation is different, and each client is unique.

4. Termination: The end of art therapy is announced simply and abruptly. The art therapy can be stopped at any time by either the client or the art therapist. When the client or the therapist realises that the therapy has an end, the decision to end is typically made. It is a crucial step in the therapeutic process. The manner in which therapy is concluded will have a significant impact on how well it works. If termination is handled improperly, the patient or client could relapse as the therapy's end draws near.


Q3) Explain the need and scope of educational counselling.

Ans) Counsellors operate in a range of community settings created to offer different counselling, support, and rehabilitation services. Depending on their expertise, which is dictated by the environment in which they work and the population they serve, their duties might vary substantially. Counsellors frequently struggle with children, adolescents, adults, or families who have multiple issues, such as mental health disorders and addiction, disability and employment needs, school problems or needs for career counselling, and trauma, despite the fact that the specific setting may have an implied scope of practise. To provide the right counselling and assistance to their clients, counsellors must be aware of these challenges.


Counsellors at the school assist students in setting attainable academic and career objectives by assessing their skills, interests, talents, and personalities. To assess and coach students, counsellors employ a variety of techniques, including interviews, counselling sessions, interest, and aptitude testing. They also provide programmes for career education and information centres for careers. Counsellors frequently help with students who are struggling academically, have social development issues, or have other special needs. The individual receives assistance from educational counselling for issues relating to schooling. It primarily focuses on assisting students in selecting acceptable academic programmes. When providing educational counselling, the counsellor takes the student's aptitude, interests, skills, and unique background into consideration.


As a result, the following objectives of educational and career counselling might be stated:

  1. Investigate, evaluate, and develop the elements that make up their self-concept.

  2. Investigate, assess, process, and organise data regarding different educational and career pathways in light of their preferences and needs as well as the demands of the job market.

  3. Integrate knowledge about education and vocation/career options with knowledge gleaned from self-observation so that individuals can build decision-making skills with regard to their educational preferences and choices for occupations that fit their unique psychological make-up.

  4. Make and carry out personal strategies for your education and career.


Need for Educational Counselling

The contemporary era has presented several difficulties. Choosing appropriate and relevant educational and career possibilities has become a key choice in this age of the internet and global competition. The vocational market offers a wide variety of options. Additionally, there is the pressure and expectation from the peer group and parents. The kinds of courses and careers chosen are also influenced by society. In the process, the person's skills, interests, aptitude, and values are overlooked. In this situation, counselling and consulting services are urgently needed.


With so many possibilities available in the world of education, there has always been a perceived need for expert counsel that might point a student in the appropriate route. One of a young mind's most essential concerns is the topic of employment opportunities. In the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, education in India used to be mostly disconnected from career and employment options. Also lacking was organised guidance, with the possible exception of parental and older family members. As a result, we frequently witness situations in which a person's job type and fundamental qualifications are completely unrelated. This has occasionally led to grave questions regarding the value of education.


Therefore, it is crucial to provide the vast majority of our young people with the appropriate vocational training. A significant problem is fostering the proper work ethics and values among the vast urban and rural youth populations that graduate from high schools and colleges, as well as developing entrepreneurial spirit. The idea of educational and career counselling is becoming more and more significant in this setting. Organized educational and career counselling is a relatively new practise in India. To be a successful counsellor, one needs to have extensive exposure to the outside world. A good counsellor has the following abilities in addition to having a thorough awareness of the economy, educational systems, and developing areas of opportunity on a global scale and being a competent psychologist:

  1. Matching a student's career aspirations to chances for employment not just in India but also globally,

  2. Evaluating a student's fundamental skills and skill sets to match them with job duties or higher education in the appropriate field,

  3. Recommending the most significant area of study or job for a candidate while taking all relevant case data into account.


In terms of counselling, there is no such thing as absolute right or wrong. Counselling is nothing more than a professional opinion provided to a specific student in response to his or her inquiry on a particular topic. The student must carefully analyse the benefits and cons of each choice, consult with family members, and make a final decision. The student should approach the counsellor with more questions if necessary.


Scope of Educational Counselling

Counselling is the term used to describe the specialised help given to students in the areas of educational and career counselling. It is a complete and ongoing process that aids pupils in becoming more effective, adjusted, and aware of their full potential. In this process, personal counselling is also a big part of the educational and career counselling. The counsellor offers support in a range of areas, including work, education, financial aid, social life, and personal adjustment.


In the area of career counselling, students are given assistance in selecting courses and training programmes, developing effective study techniques, locating the essential students for pre-employment activities, job placement services, and successfully adjusting to the work environment and co-workers. Activities in educational and career counselling primarily target people who are:

  1. About to make a decision on their future career and schooling,

  2. Looking for new academic or training opportunities,

  3. Having a job but not being happy with it, they look for additional opportunities for training and professional development.

  4. They want to get back to work but are unemployed or have lost their jobs for whatever reason.

  5. To realise their potential and become a part of society, the socially marginalised groups require appropriate educational and career guidance.





Answer the following questions in 400 words each. 5x5=25


Q1) Describe the drama therapy techniques.

Ans) Drama therapy techniques differ from therapist to therapist or from session to session, but certain concepts are common to all forms.

  1.  Use of Metaphor: The first is the use of metaphor through action. Behaviours, problems, and emotions can be represented metaphorically, allowing for symbolic understanding. An emotion can be represented with a metaphorical image: anger displayed as a volcano, an exploding bomb, or a smouldering fire. These images can be dramatised which allow the client to gain more insight into the qualities of the emotion and how it functions positively or negatively in his/her life.

  2. Concrete Embodiment: This technique allows the abstract to become concrete through the client’s body. Embodiment allows clients to “experience” or “reexperience” in order to learn, to practice new behaviours, or to experiment with how to change old behaviours. Playing a role quite different from oneself often feels more comfortable than playing oneself directly.

  3. Dramatic Projection: This technique is akin to concrete embodiment and employs metaphor. It is the ability to take an idea or an emotion that is within the client and project it outside to be shown or acted out in the drama therapy session.

  4. A client’s difficulty asking for help can be dramatised in a scene with other members of the group, with puppets, or through masks, so the problem becomes an external problem which can be seen, played with, and shared by the therapist and the group.

  5. Creation of Transitional Space: The creation of Transitional Space is an important component in many therapeutic and learning environments, but it is essential in drama therapy. Transitional space is the imaginary world that is created when we play or imagine together in a safe, trusting situation.

  6. It is a timeless space in which anything we can imagine can exist. It is created jointly by the therapist and the clients playing together and believing in the possibility that anything can happen.

  7. Incorporating other Arts: Drama therapy is like a crossroad, where all the arts come together and are allowed to work together. Drama therapists use music, movement, song, dance, poetry, writing, drawing, sculpture, mask making, puppetry, and other arts with their drama therapy activities. Drama therapists are required to have training in the other creative arts therapies and why many drama therapists have credentials in one of the other arts therapy modalities.


Q2) Explain transactional analysis.

Ans) Transactional analysis is another cognitive theory formulated by Eric Berne in the early 1960s. He believed that the majority of our life experiences are recorded in our subconscious minds in an unaltered fashion and become a part of the way we behave. The behaviour is subconsciously designed to get reactions and determine how others feel about us. It is a method of dealing with behavioural disorders and can be used to manage classroom behaviour if we understand that children’s acceptable and unacceptable behaviour is designed to ascertain how others feel about them. He believed that there were three states of mind in all humans, no matter how old they were, called the ego states.


Views of Human Nature

Transactional analysis is an optimistic theory based on the assumption that people can change despite an unfortunate events of the past. It focuses on four methods of understanding and predicting human behaviour:

  1. Structural analysis: understanding what is happening within the person.

  2. Transactional analysis: describing what happens between two or more people.

  3. Game analysis understanding transactions that lead to bad feelings.

  4. Script analysis understand a person’s life plan.


Role of a Counsellor

The counsellor initially plays the role of a teacher. The counsellor helps the client obtain the tools necessary for change in the present. Counsellors work contractually on solving “here and now” problems and focuses on creating productive problem-solving behaviours. Using transactional analysis, counsellors establish an egalitarian, safe and mutually respectful working relationship with their clients. This working relationship provides tools which the clients can utilise in their day-to-day functions to improve the quality of their lives.



The primary goal of TA focuses on helping clients transform themselves from “frogs” into “princes and princesses.” Others goals are

  1. To learn the language and concepts underlying Transactional analysis,

  2. To learn analyse relationships with one another in terms of TA.

  3. To develop our ability to engage in straight, effective communication with one another on a daily basis.



TA has initiated a number of techniques for helping clients to reach their goals. The most common are structural analysis, transactional analysis, game analysis and script analysis. Other techniques include Treatment Contract, Interrogation, Specification, Confrontation, Explanation, Illustration, Confirmation, Interpretation and Crystallisation.

Q3) Who is a vulnerable child? Describe counselling for children with disability

Ans) A kid who can't defend themselves is considered to be vulnerable. A youngster who is reliant on others for care and protection falls under this category. A child that is vulnerable is defenceless, exposed to actions, situations, or circumstances that they are unable to control, as well as susceptible to and approachable to a threatening parent or caregiver. Physical and emotional maturity, the capacity to convey needs, mobility, size, and dependency are all considered when determining vulnerability.


Due to their age, all children are thought to be at risk for being exploited, abused, violent, and neglected. But age is not the only factor that determines vulnerability. Although age is a factor, the child's capacity for self-defence is also used to determine vulnerability. The issue that emerges is whether or not kids can defend themselves. Can kids take care of their basic requirements, protect themselves from harm, or even identify a threat? A youngster is vulnerable because of a variety of things that make it difficult for them to develop appropriately. The following factors make children even more vulnerable:

  1. Age within Age: Younger children are significantly more reliant on the safety net, especially those under the age of six.

  2. Physical Disabilities and Mental Disabilities: If a child has a physical or mental handicap, they are more likely to be abused or neglected.

  3. Powerlessness: Crises from the environments and people around the kids. A child is less vulnerable if the state, family, or community gives them the authority to take part and fulfil their own rights and obligations.

  4. Defencelessness: results from a lack of protection from the government, parents, or community. How is a child meant to defend themselves against abuse if there is no law against it?

  5. Passivity: According to the child's circumstances or treatment. An oppressed or exploited child, for instance, is unable to ask for assistance or protection.

  6. Invisible: Children who are not even recognised by the system are extremely vulnerable.


Counselling for Child Abuse

One of the most important issues on the world human rights agenda is the issue of child abuse and human rights breaches. The knowledge and acceptance of children's rights as fundamental, inalienable rights is still developing in India. The following methods of counselling can be used with such youngsters.

  1. Using Props: The concerns and anxiety of the abused child can be reduced by having them hug their favourite doll, stuffed animal, or blanket. They symbolically create imaginative worlds, employ structured or unstructured play situations, artwork, music, puppets, or clay to depict trauma and abuse.

  2. Educating Caregivers: Educating the child's caretakers becomes crucial once the counsellor has a firm grasp of the child's problems and requirements. Counsellors assist caregivers in carrying out the treatment plan, which can take weeks or months and be frustrating and fraught with failures even in the most accepting and supportive circumstances.



Q4) What are the usual psychological responses to a HIV positive test result? Describe

counselling for the AIDS patients and their family.


  1. Shock is experienced upon receiving a diagnosis, realising one is dead, losing hope for the future, etc.

  2. Fear and anxiety are frequent symptoms that include uncertain prognosis, drug side effects, treatment failure, social/sexual rejection, isolation, and abandonment, contracting the illness from others or contracting it yourself, partner's reaction, etc.

  3. Depression is characterised by the inability to find a remedy, the constraints placed on one by potential illness, the potential for social, occupational, and sexual rejection if therapy is unsuccessful, etc.

  4. Anger and anger are expressed over contracting the infection, having to implement new, unwelcome health/lifestyle constraints, incorporating difficult medication regimes, and potential side effects.

  5. Guilt occurs from viewing HIV as a punishment, such as for being gay or doing drugs, or from the stress it causes a partner or family.


Counselling the AIDS Patients and Family

HIV infection progresses to AIDS, which commonly shows up 7–10 years after the first infection. One becomes essentially defenceless against a variety of opportunistic pathogenic pathogens once AIDS manifests. The three stages of AIDS/HIV and their treatment are separated into areas where the counsellor needs to use extreme caution. Asymptomatic stage is the first stage; symptomatic stage is the second; and end-of-life stage is the third.

  1. Asymptomatic Stage: The counsellor needs to keep in mind that the patient needs to be treated for food and nutrition, support, and therapy with antiretroviral medicines to prevent further transmission.

  2. Symptomatic Stage: At this point, the counsellor must keep in mind that they must assist the patient with managing the nutritional impacts, treating HIV-related illnesses, receiving medical care, and receiving emotional support.

  3. End of the Life Stage: The counsellor's job is crucial at this point because they not only support the patient but also the family. As the patient and family are grieving and depressed. The counsellor should help the patient get emotionally ready for the truth and help him or her prepare for death so that they may both help the patient live out the time they have left to the fullest and help the family face the reality of death.


There is no cure for AIDS. Preventive measures are the only way out. The AIDS patient receives a variety of medicines to combat the infections. It has been determined that the antiretroviral therapy is effective. The effectiveness of pharmacological regimens is, however, significantly influenced by patient adherence. Patients who experience adverse effects frequently become sicker, and some patients may not be able to handle the negative effects. Counselling may be a useful tool in assessing adherence in individuals and assisting the difficult process of adjusting to a daily drug schedule.


Q5) Describe the goals and steps involved in group counselling.

Ans) Typically, counselling involves several interlocking stages. Clients initially assist therapists in comprehending their current challenges, or in other words, assist clinicians in comprehending why they are seeking counselling. Clients decide to participate in counselling as a solution to their difficulties based on this initial interaction. Conversations and exercises that foster a deeper comprehension of the clients' requirements and preferences come after this stage. Clients and physicians then decide on change objectives and a strategy for achieving these objectives. The success of the tactics utilised to accomplish the aims of counselling are then periodically assessed or re-evaluated.


Depending on how many clients attend a session, one or more therapists give group therapy treatment. According to the client's diagnosis, this style of psychotherapy counselling is a highly recommended treatment. Although it is often used alone, it may also be a part of a therapeutic strategy that incorporates both counselling and medication. Due of the interaction involved, this can be helpful in treating those who have PTSD or other behavioural disorders. People in group therapy receive the support they require from a group of peers who are dealing with some of the same issues in addition to a counsellor.


The method is modified to fit the needs of the new conditions if new information becomes available that alters either the knowledge of the problems or the counselling’s objectives. The fundamental counselling phases are 

  1. Building a relationship between the patient and the doctor.

  2. Defining and evaluating the scenario or issue being presented.

  3. Determining and establishing counselling or treatment objectives.

  4. Creating and putting into practise interventions.

  5. Planning, finishing, and monitoring.


Goals of Group Counselling

Instilling optimism in clients and bringing people together are the two main objectives of group counselling, which aims to provide clients additional support throughout the session. It supports individuals who experience loneliness and isolation, which can exacerbate behavioural problems and lead to depression. The intention is to spark conversation among the group members and contribute to self-esteem building. The group environment is a good location to start since it is helpful when the clients need to use a new behaviour as part of their treatment. There is a sense of belonging during the sessions when a group joins with a common objective in mind. In order for each client to have a deeper grasp of their individual illness, group counselling places a strong emphasis on encouraging interpersonal learning with others and providing feedback.





Answer the following questions in 50 words each. 10x3=30


Q1) Free association

Ans) This method was frequently adopted by Freud and later psychoanalysts because they believed it offers crucial hints about how the unconscious mind functions. They held that the continual stream of ideas, memories, images, and feelings that we experience contain hints to the contents of the unconscious that are meaningfully related with one another. It entails the subject presenting an unfiltered, uncalculated account of what they are thinking and feeling throughout the session while laying on a couch in a partially darkened space.


Q2) Counter Transference

Ans) This is a psychoanalyst's emotional response to what the patient is projecting onto the analyst, according to theory. In this case, the counsellor's feelings for a patient and his or her response to the patient who reminds the doctor of a close friend or relative could obstruct objectivity. This transference is encouraged, and the counsellor interprets any positive or negative emotions that are conveyed. The client can get understanding of the impact of the past through transference analysis. The basis of the therapeutic process, according to analytically oriented therapists, is transference since it strives to bring about consciousness and personality transformation.


Q3) Beneficence

Ans) According to the beneficence principle, you should always act in your client's best interests after conducting a thorough evaluation. Beneficence is a reflection of the counsellor’s obligation to promote the client's welfare. Simply said, it is to act morally, to take initiative, and to guard against harm whenever possible. It emphasises operating firmly within one's sphere of expertise and rendering services in accordance with suitable education or experience. It is required to utilise ongoing, frequent monitoring to raise the calibre of the services offered and to make a commitment to updating practise through CPD.


Q4) Difference between guidance and counselling.

Ans) Giving leadership, supervision, direction, or expert guidance for future actions is referred to as guiding. Counselling deals with issues that you are struggling with, whereas guidance is more about things that you are unsure of or unfamiliar with and you have someone who is knowledgeable explain them to you. There is no specific problem that has been found in an individual, hence guidance is pre-problem. Counselling is post-issue, which means that a problem has already been discovered and is being addressed rather than being resolved.


Q5) Anxiety hierarchy

Ans) Systematic desensitisation employs a hierarchy of anxiety. It comprises of a list of all circumstances and occurrences that make the consumers fearful. By arranging the hierarchy elements from the least to the most anxiety inducing, the counsellor must assist the clients in ranking them. The subjective unit of distress is this rating. The client is instructed to see each SUD in a calm state, which eventually lowers the client's fear and dependence.


Q6) Four broad categories of rights of children

Ans) Children’s rights are the rights of special protection and care afforded to the young including their right to association with both of biological parents, their identity as well as the basic needs for food, universal state-paid education, and health care. Interpretations of children’s rights range from allowing children the capacity for autonomous action to the enforcement of children being physically/mentally, and emotionally free from abuse. The following four broad categories of rights cover all civil, political, social, economic, and cultural rights of every child.

  1. Right to Survival

  2. Right to Protection

  3. Right to Participation

  4. Right to Development


Q7) Diagnosis of anorexia nervosa

Ans) People are diagnosed as anorexic if they weigh less than 85 per cent of the expected weight for their age and height in the normal circumstances. They might look extremely thin and feeble because of their significant weight loss, and they often have other health problems, including low blood pressure, constipation, dehydration, and low body temperature.


Q8) Clinical features in paranoid personality disorder

Ans) Characteristics of personality disorders include:

  1. Early onset: This has been seen since at least late adolescence.

  2. No considerable stretch of time when not apparent.

  3. Pervasive: This is visible in a variety of personal, social, and professional contexts.

  4. clinically substantial maladaptation that impairs social and professional functioning or causes personal suffering


Q9) Seasonal affective disorder

Ans) Sometimes, especially in northern nations and generally in the winter, people can suffer depression at specific times of the year. SAD refers to this seasonal pattern of depression. Light therapy is frequently used to relieve SAD patients' depression episodes. Sadness, remorse, and despair are common emotions felt with depression. Additionally typical symptoms of depression are impatience, agitation, and anxiety.


Q10) Supportive Psychotherapy

Ans) The goal of supportive psychotherapy is to assist the anxious addict who suffers from addiction in feeling more equipped to deal with his or her issue successfully and confidently. This inter-personal psychodynamic method to client treatment makes every effort to boost the client's self-assurance with the aid of the counsellor. The counsellor makes an effort to help the client become more aware of the positive aspects of life. Counsellors can employ Luborsky's supportive/expressive psychoanalytically oriented therapy to help clients with addictive anxiety.

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