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MPCE-023: Interventions in Counselling

MPCE-023: Interventions in Counselling

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for MPCE-023 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Interventions in Counselling, you have come to the right place. MPCE-023 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in MAPC courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: MPCE-023/ASST/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: MPCE-023

Assignment Name: Interventions In Counselling

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


NOTE: All questions are compulsory.




Answer the following questions in 1000 words each. 3x15=45


Q1) Explain Autism spectrum disorder. Describe the causes and counselling techniques for such children.

Ans) A pervasive developmental disorder is autism. The structural changes in the brain that are typically visible at birth or emerge as the kid starts to develop are thought to be the cause of many illnesses. Autism is a developmental disease that causes a wide variety of unruly behaviour. Language, perception, motor development that is unrelated to reality, and social settings are all examples of this. Sometimes memory impairment also affects intellectual capacity, which is hampered.


Causes of Autism Spectrum Disorder

Although scientists are unsure of the exact aetiology of ASD, it is likely that both genetics and environment are involved. Numerous genes linked to the illness have been discovered by researchers. Multiple brain regions have shown anomalies in studies of patients with ASD. According to other studies, serotonin or other neurotransmitters in the brain may not be functioning normally in ASD sufferers. These anomalies show that ASD may be brought on by problems in genes that affect brain growth and that regulate how brain cells communicate with one another early in foetal development, possibly as a result of the influence of environmental factors on gene function.


Twin and family studies are compelling evidence that certain people are predisposed to autism genetically. According to studies on identical twins, there is a 90 percent likelihood that the other twin will also be impacted if one sibling has a condition. Numerous research are being conducted to identify the precise genetic variables connected to the emergence of ASD. One in 20 or about 5% of families with one child who has ASD will have a second child who also has the condition. This poses a risk greater than that faced by the general public. Insights into the genes that contribute to this elevated susceptibility are being sought by researchers.


Techniques for Helping Children with ASD

The following counselling techniques are available from the counsellor:

  1. Assist the client in learning the foundations of social behaviour.

  2. Gaining some linguistic proficiency.

  3. Psychological counselling.

  4. Parental guidance.

  5. Teaching kids to do their own assignments    

  6. Involving the kid in a range of activities.

  7. Techniques for changing behaviour, etc.


Parental acceptance and warmth make up the first dimension of parenting behaviour and seem to have an impact on how much children internalise their parents' demands and standards. Counsellors should be aware that kids with low self-esteem and poor self-control, as well as numerous anxiety disorders and other emotional and behavioural issues, are those whose parents don't value them highly.


Parental standards and strictness make up the second aspect of parenting behaviour. A high level of violence and maladjustment are linked to lack of control. Children that have parents who are moderately controlling, set high expectations for their children's behaviour, and anticipate increasingly mature behaviour from them are always going to display high levels of violence.


During parental counselling, the counsellor must explain to the parent how their parenting style is negatively affecting the behaviour development of their child. The goal of counselling must be to assist parents in adopting a permitted parenting style, which is one of acceptance and minimal control. They need to be vigilant about rewarding excellent behaviour and continuously reinforcing regulations.


The counsellor needs to make it plain to the parents, guardians, family members, teachers, etc. that punishment shouldn't undermine the child's self-esteem. If a kid is disciplined, the cause for the punishment should be disclosed and the punishment should be prompt and consistent. The greatest tactic is to penalise a bad reaction and honour a good substitute behaviour. For instance, a lot of problematic behaviours in kids can be attention-seeking. If parents and instructors provide the child more acceptable ways to get attention, punishment for these responses will be more effective.


General Counselling Techniques

Kids have unique viewpoints and personalities. Counselling can be just as challenging for kids as it is for adults. even more challenging at times. Whatever the reason, it's crucial to keep in mind that communicating with children differs from communicating with adults. There are numerous counselling methods that can be used with kids.


  1. Defining Their World: Children may find counselling challenging due to the inherent challenges of being a child and relating to an adult, particularly one they do not know. It's critical to comprehend a child's perspective while beginning therapy with them. Ask a question in their language to lead the conversation rather than making assumptions at the outset. The child will start to tie the question to how he feels and give more of an explanation about his personal situation as the rapport between you both grows or as he feels more at ease.

  2. Sharing Their World: A tried-and-true method, role play may be quite illuminating and powerful. Depending on the child's age, it can be advisable to ask him for assistance in creating a play about life at home in order to better understand him.

  3. Showing Their World: With children, art therapy can be a remarkably powerful type of counselling. Even if it's beneficial, using art therapy in counselling doesn't require certification. The majority of kids like drawing or creating art, and it can be a good diversion for them when they don't feel comfortable expressing themselves vocally.

  4. Play Therapy: According to the Association for Play Therapy, a child needs roughly 20 sessions to resolve their issues, however some kids may need more or less. Each child receives time from a play therapist, who also meets with the family of the child occasionally. To assist the children in addressing behavioural, educational, emotional, and social issues, he or she employs certain play strategies. These issues can occasionally be the result of traumatic life events including divorce, natural disasters, domestic abuse, death, or war.


Q2) Describe the stages in couple counselling.

Ans) Couples counselling goes through the stages listed below. A proposed three-stage counselling paradigm is as follows:


Stage One: Exploration

Active listening techniques and a non-judgmental, empathic approach are the best ways to accomplish this, thus these skills are carefully taught, and their significance is emphasised. However, there are a few duties that must be finished during the exploration stage. First, the client needs to be given a general description of the type of service being provided to them. Concerning confidentiality, they must be aware of the restrictions that can be put in place because there may come a moment when information needs to be shared with another professional who is treating the same patient in order to make another referral. A first contract and informed consent must be made. A concise description of the issue must be gathered, along with some basic information. The "intake technique" is what we refer to as here.


Once this has been completed, any obvious indications that the clients have other urgent therapeutic needs are attended to. Additionally, an assessment of the right depth is used, and if necessary, a referral is issued. Counselling starts when there are no signs of any additional issues or disturbances, and assessment develops progressively throughout the first investigation as the presenting issue is examined. More opportunities for problem-solving and teamwork experience are presented to both the counsellor and the clients. The counsellor will use her abilities to encourage the development of a therapeutic alliance with the clients during this process. Depending on the complexity of the client's condition and the ease of the client-counsellor relationship, this process will normally take two to six weeks.


Steps Under Stage One-Exploration

1)  Intake and assessment

a) Usually general

b) Detailed where necessary

2) Initial exploration

3) Formation of therapeutic alliance

4) Ongoing examination of presenting problem

5) Contracting for further work


Stage Two: Understanding

Looking back at previous relationships and how they were experienced might help to shed light on specific patterns and issues that a couple is experiencing. The psychodynamic viewpoint is taken into account in this. Relationships that follow specific patterns are said to do so not only by conscious decision but also as a result of prior experiences where many attitudes, feelings, and behaviours were not addressed but rather accepted as normal. These unexamined features, which are at the unconscious level, would have included ideas of what behaviour is acceptable and unacceptable, what roles are suitable and improper, and what emotions are to be welcomed or avoided.


These memories from the unconscious surface through a process known as transference, which can be intentionally induced by the therapist or occur naturally when the client freely discloses all repressed and suppressed emotions to the therapist or counsellor. The therapist or counsellor, on the other hand, recognises this transference and uses it to explain to the client what kinds of feelings were present and why they were there. This provides an insight into the client's behaviour and explains why he or she acted in the way that they did. This understanding of the reason behind one's behaviour helps the client understand and give up that behaviour. In certain instances, there is no communication, and either no relationship develops, or a new relationship is formed that breaks the previous relationships' patterns. This kind of circumstance can also occur in relationships between clients and therapists.


Couple relationships will experience this process on both sides, making the ensuing connection even stronger as each partner fulfils both conscious and unconscious expectations of the other. While we have an understanding of what transference is, how it manifests, and how the counsellor manages it in the counselling session to get insight into the client, countertransference may also occur and needs to be acknowledged. The counsellor’s countertransference is a response to the client's transference. It might be an unconscious response to the sensed, but not consciously understood, behaviour of the client or it can be a conscious response to the observed behaviour of the client.


Stage Three: Action

Many clients can change their behaviour appropriately with just a basic comprehension of their situation. For the understanding to stick and for change to happen, others must actively adopt new behaviours. Some of these exercises are meant to help the clients start to see themselves and their relationships in new ways. Among the methods employed in this regard are

  1. Communication: It is obvious that there is a communication issue when a relationship has deteriorated, and partners have grown distant from one another. It also suggests that proper and adequate communication between the spouses needs to be restored or created. The most effective strategy to solve this issue is to encourage active communication. Each partner can be motivated to start talking to the other again and to re-evaluate the subconscious assumptions that have taken the place of active contact.

  2. Use of Genogram: The usage of genograms is another tactic that is advantageous in this situation. This diagram shows how the family of the couple is organised as a tree. The couple's parents, their siblings, their prior relationships, and their kids are all depicted in this figure.

  3. Sculpting: This is a development of the genogram, which enables a family structure to be visually represented using ordinary things like stones, coins, or buttons. It is up to the client to decide how to display certain people and how close or far apart they are from one another.


Important Steps in Action

  1. Summarising: To help clarify some of the topics that appear to be at odds with one another, this entails summarising the ideas and reflecting back what has been said. The clients are encouraged to thoughtfully challenge one another. It also challenges the couple's steadfast familial beliefs, which none of them has ever acknowledged.

  2. Introducing Unacknowledged Feelings: The counsellor might notice a sense that the client is possibly rejecting. If the counsellor determines that the client's sentiments are close enough to their consciousness to be relevant to them, then simply discussing those feelings in the room may assist the client obtain new insights.

  3. Pointing out the Discrepancies: It greatly helps when the couple's differences in verbal and nonverbal communication are highlighted. This is true since it's possible that neither partner is conscious of acting in this way. Clients may express anger while grinning, or they may conversely use a different tone when speaking of something positive.

  4. Challenging Clients for Action: The most crucial method is to gain the clients' trust before pressing them to take action. Focusing on differences in thoughts, feelings, and behaviours that emerge during the Exploring and Understanding stages is the goal of challenging.


Q3) Explain cognitive behaviour modification. Describe the techniques used in it.

Ans) In counselling, the most often utilised intervention is cognitive behaviour modification. It concentrates on recognising dysfunctional self-talk to alter undesirable behaviours. By combining behaviour therapy and cognitive therapy, cognitive behaviour modification was created. To mould and promote desired behaviours, it is an intervention that integrates cognitive and behavioural learning concepts. In cognitive behaviour modification, the client is taught to identify negative thought patterns or behaviours and to swap them out for positive or constructive ones. These are problem-solving, self-management, self-education, and stress-inoculation approaches.


Self-Instructional Technique

Donald Meichenbaum created self-instructional training as a component of cognitive behavioural therapy. We frequently talk to ourselves, and the type of self-talk we use influences how we behave. Anxiety and other emotional and behavioural issues are brought on by poor and illogical verbalizations. Therefore, in self-instructional training, clients learn to identify damaging or negative self-statements and are then trained to replace them with more adaptive ones through practise and homework. So, positive self-talk or internal statements take the place of negative self-talk or remarks. Stress and anxiety can be reduced by recognising and changing unhealthy, destructive, and negative internal statements to healthy, good ones.


The client is first made aware of his internal negative self-talk. The client is then assisted in realising how his negative verbalizations cause his worry, fear, or other feelings, as well as his behaviour. The client then determines the constructive self-talk he needs to replace the negative ones with. He is then instructed on how to practise using positive self-talk until it becomes second nature to him. Anxiety, fear, addiction, obsessive behaviours, bad eating patterns, etc. can all be successfully treated with self-instructional training.


Stress Inoculation Technique (SIT)

Meichenbaum's Stress Inoculation Training is a comprehensive cognitive behavioural intervention programme that uses problem-solving, cognitive restructuring, self-instruction, self-monitoring, relaxation training, and other techniques. Training in stress immunisation gets a person ready in advance to manage stressful situations successfully. The term "inoculation" refers to the belief that just as vaccination protects against diseases, stress inoculation training helps protect against stressors in daily life. In SIT, patients learn about stressful events, the nature of stress in general, the bad effects that stress may have on them, as well as what they may do to prevent those negative effects.


The goal of stress inoculation is to increase people's readiness and sense of control. The main objectives of SIT therapy are to increase clients' coping abilities and confidence in their ability to use such skills in a flexible way to meet the demands of stressful situations. In SIT, clients learn more about the items that serve as triggers for fear and anxiety. They learn how to recognise indicators as soon as they arise so that they can immediately put their newly acquired coping mechanisms into practise. By doing this, the patient can deal with their stress and worry before they spiral out of control. Three overlapping and interconnecting phases make up SIT:

  1. Phase 1 Conceptual Educational Phase: The client receives education about the nature of stressors and how particular modes of thinking might result in stress and mental health issues during the initial conceptualization phase. So that coping strategies can be modified appropriately, they are assisted in making the distinction between components of their stressors and the stress-induced reactions that can be changed and those that cannot. While more active solutions are useful for stresses that are more adjustable, acceptance-based coping is good for situational elements that cannot be changed.

  2. Phase 2 Skills Acquisition and Skills Consolidation Phase: The client receives training in a range of abilities in the following phase of skill acquisition, including communication, socialisation, relaxation, problem-solving, cognitive assessment, and cognitive restructuring.

  3. Phase 3 Application and follow-through phase: The client puts the abilities they've learned into practise in this final stage of application. Additionally, the client is given the chance to put their coping mechanisms into practise in hypothetical circumstances by using visualisation, modelling, and role-playing techniques. Following the completion of counselling, a follow-up meeting is scheduled to assess the client's training's efficacy.


Self-Management Technique

In order to retain self-motivation and accomplish personal goals, individuals utilise self-management strategies that draw on their cognitive and behavioural abilities. The majority of persons who choose to employ self-control or self-management techniques are unhappy with some area of their lives. Therefore, reducing behavioural excesses or deficiencies is the aim of self-management techniques. When a person does not engage in a positive, desirable behaviour frequently enough, behavioural deficits result. Numerous self-management techniques employ sensory control, reinforcers, and punishers to change the unwanted behaviour. In fact, these techniques can be divided into three major categories, including:

  1. Environmental Strategies: Environmental techniques entail altering the times, locations, or circumstances in which one engages in problematic behaviour.

  2. Behavioural Strategies: The goal of behavioural strategies is to alter the causes or effects of a behaviour.

  3. Cognitive Strategies: Cognitive techniques entail altering one's thoughts or beliefs towards a specific behaviour.


Problem Solving Technique

We deal with a great deal of issues in life relating to our various conditions at home, at work, in school, and in college. To lead a productive life, we must effectively resolve them. Here, problem solving is useful as a process, a skill, and a tool. As a tool, it aids in problem-solving and goal-accomplishing. It is a process with a lot of steps, and as a talent, it may be used to a variety of issues and circumstances throughout life.





Answer the following questions in 400 words each. 5x5=25


Q1) Describe the stages of interpersonal counselling.

Ans) IPC has a six-session treatment plan with a quick turnaround time. Each session's explicit focus is on one of the following: assessment, education about the relationship between interpersonal relationships and psychological symptoms, identifying current stressors and assisting the patient in more effectively managing them, and ending the IPC relationship. Interpersonal counselling can be used in general practise to, among other things, improve the client's self-esteem, social adjustment, and interpersonal interactions, as well as to lessen psychological symptoms and boost morale.


Visit 1: The Treatment Contract

The counsellor decides if the client is eligible for IPC during the initial appointment, which is typically the longest session. IPC is not appropriate for those who have serious depression, bipolar disorder, or who are psychotic or suicidal because therapy is offered. The counsellor analyses how the client's life circumstances contribute to the start of symptoms and inquiries about recent changes in life circumstances, mood, and social functioning in order to create an interpersonal diagnosis. By the end of the session, the counsellor and client should have created an explicit treatment agreement that focuses on:

  1. The purpose of the intervention was not psychiatric.

  2. The intervention's brief time frame.

  3. The anticipated advantages to lessen symptoms and discover better coping mechanisms.

  4. IPC is a supplement to routine medical care.


Visit 2: Determining the Specific Problem Area(s)

To review the following, the counsellor must identify the specific problem area(s).

  1. Duration and beginning of the current symptoms.

  2. Current circumstances in life.

  3. Intimate interpersonal connections.

  4. Any most recent alterations to any of these


Visits 3-5: Working on Specific Stress Areas

Working together, the counsellor and client address specific issues. Help the patient re-establish interests and romantic connections that can replace what has been lost. Discuss the deceased's personality, relationship with them, and circumstances surrounding their illness and passing.

  1. Examine old pictures, visit with old friends, and talk about at subsequent meetings.

  2. Promote participation in novel social activities.

  3. Restore self-esteem through helping the client establish an emotional intelligence and a social support network.


Visit 6: Termination

If the client thinks they have accomplished what they set out to do, this appointment may take place sooner than the customary two weeks after visit five. The counsellor should discuss the termination of IPC after going over the client's present situation and past sessions. The therapist should highlight the client's development, accessible resources, and capacity to handle new challenges. The therapist should collaborate with the patient to discover potential stressors and coping mechanisms, particularly by mentioning tactics that the therapist found successful during therapy.


Q2) Describe the techniques for helping children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Ans) The most popular type of therapy is the use of drugs that activate the central nervous system. The counselling techniques utilised for ADHD and learning difficulties are basically the same. These counselling techniques are used in conjunction with medication to treat ADHD. It is also possible to apply psychosocial counselling procedures. When combined with other treatments like behaviour modification, parental education, etc., the medication has been demonstrated to be more effective at changing the social behaviour of ADHD patients.


It is essential to counsel the parent of the child and include them in the therapeutic plan as well as the behavioural part of the treatment. After correctly recognising the problem, it is the counsellor’s obligation to give parents and caregivers appropriate information about the sickness. The neutral course of the condition, positive cases, and the prognosis with and without therapy should all be included in this material. Additionally, they should be given helpful pointers on how to raise their child on a daily basis, such as the importance of averting hard situations that are known to be exhausting for parents.


During parental counselling, parents can learn the essential concept of setting up a child's environment to include a regular pattern and suitable constraints placed on the child's behaviour. The counsellor should have a conversation with the family members if, after assessing the client's requirements, they decide that family counselling is required. Since treating an ADHD child in the family can be done as a whole by employing the family as the treatment unit, such family therapy may be advantageous.


Behavioral therapies such social modelling and imitation, social management, social support, self-instruction, self-praise, and behaviour contracts must also be a focus for the counsellor. The counsellor may also use integrative counselling strategies as necessary in addition to these other approaches. In addition, research has shown that yoga and pharmaceuticals are both effective in treating ADHD.


Q3) Explain the key assumptions of solution-focused counselling

Ans) Murphy outlined the following solution-focused counselling tenets:

  1. If it works, keep doing it. Try again if it doesn't work and try something else. This supposition accurately describes the practical approach of solution-focused counselling. Finding what works and doing more of it is part of the process. Clients are also urged to build on their strengths, accomplishments, and other resources. Try another approach if the first one doesn't work. Any technique's efficacy in fostering change and bringing clients closer to their objectives determines its value.

  2. Every client is different, creative, and adaptable. By taking a curious viewpoint, we may approach each client with a novel perspective that respects their particular circumstances, objectives, and resources. It encourages the customers to recognise and use their particular talents and assets in pursuit of worthwhile objectives. Considering clients to be capable and resourceful does not minimise the gravity or suffering of a situation. However, it does open up opportunities for solutions that might otherwise go unnoticed.

  3. Relationships of cooperation improve solutions. The best indicator of counselling results is the strength of the client-practitioner partnership. Mutual respect and shared objectives are the foundation of successful therapeutic interactions. Clients' trust in our dedication and capability to assist them in achieving their goals, as well as our flexibility to accommodate their goals, resources, and comments, are all examples of this.

  4. Results are improved through customer input. It has been demonstrated that getting formal client feedback on outcome and alliance, in addition to developing cooperative and accountable partnerships, increases the effectiveness of counselling by a factor of two.

  5. No issue is permanent. There are always variations in a problem's rate and intensity, no matter how persistent it may seem. Counsellors that are solution-focused look for these variations or exceptions to the rule by explicitly asking for them, investigating the circumstances behind their occurrence, and motivating students and others to continue doing whatever it is that has led to them.

  6. Big solutions are not always necessary for big issues. The practical tenet that one minor modification in any aspect of the issue system can cascade into larger and more substantial improvements forms the foundation of solution-focused counselling.


Q4) Explain application of cognitive therapies for personal-social related issues.

Ans) It has been discovered that cognitive behavioural therapies are helpful in addressing issues that are personal or social in nature. Many times, we struggle with our lack of drive and struggle with our self-efficacy. In such circumstances, cognitive behavioural therapy may be beneficial to the patients. It is now widely acknowledged that anger is a serious social issue.


The most popular method for managing anger during the past 20 years has been cognitive behavioural therapy. Beck et al. conducted a meta-analysis of the numerous studies carried out over the course of twenty years and found that cognitive behavioural therapy is effective for controlling anger. Social anxiety is a problem that is addressed in cognitive therapy. The following are characteristics of social anxiety:

  1. A false impression of one's looks, talent, and self-worth.

  2. Guilt, rage, and shame feelings resulting from previous social interactions.

  3. Believe they must act appropriately in social settings.

  4. Habits of procrastination brought on by social anxiety concerns and misgivings.


Dealing with concerns related to social anxiety can be done using the systematic desensitisation technique. The key component of systematic desensitisation is "systematic." The progression in behavioural therapy for social anxiety must be methodical, progressive, hierarchical, and repetitive. This therapy won't be effective if it moves too quickly or if there is too much of it. Any desensitisation procedure must be systematic and progressive in order to be effective. Socially anxious people are taught self-assertion techniques. Through the therapy, they come to understand the importance of being more realistic and not expecting perfection from themselves in social circumstances.


Other topics covered by cognitive behaviour therapy include how to boost one's self-confidence and self-esteem, how to handle interpersonal conflicts and marital problems, how to get over phobias and worries, and how to deal with all kinds of mental disorders. The stress of everyday life has been successfully treated with cognitive behavioural therapy. The foundation of cognitive therapy for stress is the idea that our thoughts about the events in our lives rather than the events themselves are what actually cause us stress.


According to cognitive behaviour therapy, cognitions can affect behaviour, and cognition, behaviour, and environment are all interconnected. The personal-social issues that people experience frequently involve all of these aspects of behaviour, cognition, and environmental circumstances. Therefore, cognitive behavioural therapy makes an effort to uncover these connections, makes the patient aware of them, and identifies the erroneous presumptions or dysfunctional thought processes that underlie them, enabling the patient to address their issues.


Q5) Define eclecticism. Describe the three pathways of integrative approach in counselling.

Ans) Psychoanalysis and behaviour therapy are typically the two ideas or techniques that are combined in talks of eclectic treatment. It is also said that there are just as many eclectic therapists as there are eclectic approaches. The two people talking to each other is the shared element at the most basic but real level. The same therapy can be conceptualised as an interpersonal interaction in which the therapist's personality plays a crucial role. Between these two are the therapist's credibility, trustworthiness, and attractiveness as well as behaviours like expertise, authority, rapport, and support.


Pathways of Integrative Approach in Counselling Practice

There are three paths to an integrative approach in counselling practise, according to Arkowitz, namely:


Technical Eclecticism Approach

Technical eclecticism is a set of techniques that emphasises differences and picks among several approaches. This route requires utilising methods from several schools without necessarily adhering to the theoretical tenets that gave rise to them. Working with people from different cultural origins seems to call for a specific kind of technical eclecticism. Clients who are expected to meet all the requirements of a certain theory may suffer harm, whether or not the ideals advocated by the theory are in line with their own cultural values.


Practitioners are challenged to adapt their theory and practise to match the specific needs of the client rather than forcing the client to fit the parameters of a single theory. Counsellors are expected to be knowledgeable about many cultures, conscious of their own cultural heritage, and equipped to help a wide range of clients deal with the reality of their culture.


Theoretical Integration Approach

This describes a philosophical or theoretical development that goes beyond simple technique blending. This route aims to produce a conceptual framework that combines the best elements of two or more theoretical perspectives with the understanding that the result will be richer than either theory by itself.


Common Factors Approach

The common factors approach seeks to identify commonalities among various theoretical frameworks. Although there are variances amongst the theories, counselling has a recognisable core made up of nonspecific characteristics that are present in all therapies. Multimodal treatment was founded by Arnold Lazarus. Multimodal therapists use approaches from numerous other therapeutic systems that have been shown to be successful in treating particular issues.


Lazarus expresses concern about theoretical eclecticism since he thinks that combining elements of several ideas will probably confuse and complicate problems. He argues that practitioners can specify precisely what treatments they will use with different clients as well as the criteria by which they choose these procedures by remaining philosophically consistent but technically eclectic.





Answer the following questions in 50 words each. 10x3=30


Q1) Tics

Ans) A tic is a muscle twist or spasm that is connected to muscles. Eye blinking, lip licking, neck twisting, nose blowing, throat clearing, mouth twisting, and other actions fall under this category. It often happens between the ages of 2 and 14 years. Boys are more likely than females to experience it. Treatments for such anxiety-related issues include cognitive therapy, relaxation techniques, mindfulness techniques, and behaviour modification. Yoga is beneficial in healing these patients as well.


Q2) Enuresis/encopresis

Ans) It refers to the uncontrollable, regular night-time urination even after the age of five. It is sometimes referred to as bedwetting. Counsellors need to be aware that the child's behaviour could be caused by stress or excessive fatigue. It may also be brought on by a number of organic problems, including a disordered bladder's brain control, a drug side effect, or neurological dysfunction. Personal immaturity, emotional issues, flawed learning, dysfunctional family interactions, antagonism, and anxiety can all be contributing factors.


Q3) Jungian Psychodynamics

Ans) In his first work, Psychology of Dementia Praecox, published in 1907, Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung supported the Freudian psychodynamic viewpoint, albeit with significant reservations. The term "psychodynamic therapy" refers to a variety of therapeutic modalities that encourage clients to express their actual emotions so they can experience and comprehend them. Similar to psychoanalysis, psychodynamic psychotherapy works under the premise that everyone has an unconscious mind and that the feelings kept there are frequently too painful to confront.


Q4) Selective Mutism

Ans) This type of anxiety issue prevents the youngster from speaking in a particular social setting. Counselling Children For instance, in social gatherings or at school. These youngsters are unable to comprehend or fit into their class or culture. This issue can only be identified if the child is able to talk, and it must be constantly present for a month because many children exhibit these symptoms during the first few weeks of school.


Q5) Mental Filter Distortion

Ans) People who choose to distort the world through mental filtering tend to brush over good things and focus on the bad. Even if ten things go perfectly, someone who is affected by a mental filter might only be aware of one mistake. You can increase the likelihood of stress by including some overgeneralization and all-or-nothing thinking in the mix.


Q6) Reality Therapy

Ans) Here, the emphasis is on what the person experiences and what he realises about his life when the phenomenological and existential viewpoints are taken into account. In other words, both the person's experiences and his realisations about his existence are necessary for reality therapy. More specifically, reality therapy emphasises that the client is in control of his feelings in this instance. Contrarily, the choice theory pushes clients to acknowledge their role in causing their own emotions.


Q7) Psychodrama

Ans) In a psychodrama technique, the client plays out or dramatises scenarios from their past, present, or future lives. This is done in an effort to comprehend things better, explore emotions, find emotional release, and improve behaviour. Group therapy is the main component of psychodrama. Additionally, it aids in realising one's place in the world. Psychodrama employs a variety of particular strategies that are intended to heighten emotions, make implicit beliefs more explicit, heighten self-awareness, and practise new behaviours.


Q8) In groups and out groups

b) Even though in-groups and out-groups are not formally controlled or supervised by counsellors, they frequently have a significant impact on how clients behave. Almost any criterion, including socioeconomic status, artistic or athletic successes, a special talent, racial or cultural origins, etc., can be used to classify people into these groupings. Out groups are made up of people who are not included in in groups, and in-groups are characterised by association mostly with peers who share the distinguishing attribute. It's critical for counsellors to comprehend how clients categorise themselves and others as belonging to or outside of groups in various therapeutic scenarios.


Q9) Challenges of e-counselling

Ans) Practical and technological issues, such as skill gaps and computer literacy. Older individuals and those with diverse cultural backgrounds may experience discomfort. miscommunication due to a lack of nonverbal clues and visual indicators. unable to see interactions between families or couples. There are delays in asynchronous communication between contacts and responses. reduced ability to handle any crisis. Verifying the therapist's credentials and/or that the client or therapist is the person they claim to be online.

Q10) Psychotherapy

Ans) Since psychotherapy has roots in Freudian psychodynamics, there was formerly a medical component to the training, giving it a sense of respectability. Psychotherapy requires extensive training, which includes interacting with actual clients while being closely supervised. Less lengthy and intensive instruction is provided in counselling courses. Psychotherapy also necessitates a protracted time of self-analysis. Psychotherapy places a strong emphasis on carefully analysing old problems.

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