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MPCE-046: Applied Positive Psychology

MPCE-046: Applied Positive Psychology

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

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Assignment Code: MPCE-046/ASST/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: MPCE-046

Assignment Name: Applied Positive Psychology

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor




Answer the following questions in 1000 words each. 3 x 15 = 45 marks


1. Explain the distinctions between the Indian and western psychological perspectives.

Ans) Today's mainstream psychology is mostly a result of the Euro-American cultural environment. As a result, it has a little history, but concepts relating to mental processes have a lengthy history dating back to Greek philosophical discussions. Within the framework of the modernity, industrialization, and development ideologies, modern psychology developed. In an effort to comprehend how the mind works, it attempted to follow and accept the natural sciences' paradigm. The main methodological approach in this exercise was to apply the scientific method, which emphasises an external gaze and a focus on viewing external reality by an impartial observer. Quantification also played a big role in science becoming what it is today. With the aid of empirical methodologies, psychology is now regarded as a discipline that focuses on mental functions and actions. It has expanded in many ways to meet the requirements of people in practically every aspect of life.


In the past 150 years, the contemporary discipline has spread from European nations to North America and then to other areas of the world. Many of these nations were formerly colonies of European powers. As a result, the indigenous psychological notions and theories were disregarded and suppressed while the alien knowledge systems were enforced. When Dr. N.N. Sengupta, a Harvard-trained psychologist, joined the faculty at Calcutta University in the years 1915–1916, the discipline was formally established in India. He was Muenzinger's student and studied under Wilhelm Wundt, who is often regarded as the founder of experimental psychology. Dr. Girindrasekhar Bose was another trailblazer; he was interested in psychoanalysis and carried out the first doctoral psychology study on the idea of repression in India.


The concepts, theories, and methods created in the Euro-American centres of learning have generally occupied the teaching-learning practises. To study diverse topics in the context of India, they were adopted and somewhat indigenized. As a result, Indian samples were used in the empirical research, which produced data patterns that varied from Western theoretical conceptions. It was uncommon to use ideas and theories with an Indian provenance. There have been numerous attempts to indigenize Western conceptions and theories and incorporate concepts with Indian origins as a result of the realisation of the limitations of this method. Both knowledge based on Indian facts and psychology with roots in the native Indian intellectual culture have been referred to as "Indian Psychology." The latter usage, though, seems more suitable.


Jadunath Sinha was the first to introduce the term "Indian Psychology" (IP) in the modern era to give an assessment and reconstruction of the wealth of Indian knowledge systems connected to mental processes and consciousness. He then released two more books in this series. Although there were numerous intermittent articles, IP has only recently acquired traction and been revitalised, with multiple volumes and contributions published.


The Vedic literature, Vedga, and schools of thought like Vednta, Skhya, Yoga, Vaieşika, Mms, Crvka, Ayurveda, Buddhism, Jainism, and Tatra, to name a few, are examples of how the principles, theories, and methods of IP have evolved through millennia of testing and practise. The position of Crvka is the one that most closely resembles the materialist viewpoint prevalent in contemporary psychology. Beyond what may be perceived through sensory mode, it did not take into account any other reality. It encouraged people to fully live their lives, increasing pleasure and reducing pain. However, this viewpoint was unable to gain traction. The majority of the other approaches are marked by moral and ethical concerns as well as deep but varied types of engagement with transcendental reality.


It is necessary to become familiar with the traditional Indian psychological approach in light of the current situation. IP is the study of the person, according to Rao, a notable name in Indian psychology. Because Jiva is transpersonal and connected by trans cognitive states, this individual is not a separate, unconnected entity. The individual is consciousness manifest. The concept of consciousness as a whole is irreducibly distinct from the physical entities, such as the mind and the brain. The mind is distinct from consciousness and from the physical body and brain. The mind, in contrast to consciousness, is tangible, however subtle. The mind, in contrast to the brain, possesses non-local properties, meaning that it is not limited by time and space factors in the same way that coarse material objects are.


Rao contends that a vortex of forces produced by the mind-body connection conditions awareness in the human setting, which helps to explain the dilemma of suffering. The conditioned person consequently develops into a tool for customised thought, passion, and action. Subjectivity and ego emerge through individuation. Attachment, worry, sadness, and suffering all accompany the ego. Humanity seeks emancipation in such circumstances through a process of deconditioning training and change in order to get access to consciousness-as-such. Learning processed by the brain is necessary, as are comprehension created by the intellect and realisation accessed through consciousness. Through the realisation of trans cognitive states, yoga is a means of emancipation.


As a result, we discover that IP is broad in its conception of reality and covers all facets of integrated functioning, including the physical, social, moral, and spiritual. It strives to live a programme and affliction-free life. Additionally, the Indian perspective does not take an individual's perspective of reality into account. It has a Cosmo centric perspective and sees things as complementary. The macrocosm and the microcosm are related. Misra and Gergen have provided a comparison of the salient aspects of the Indian and Western perspectives, as shown below, keeping multiple viewpoints in mind.

2. Describe the different ways in which emotions can be managed effectively.

Ans) It is crucial that we understand effective emotion management given the importance of happy emotions for our health and wellbeing. By doing so, we will be able to deal with our negative emotions and foster positive ones. A negative attitude toward emotions characterises the typical perspective of emotions, which is that they interfere with our ability to think clearly, create close bonds with others, and perform well at work. However, emotions are bursting with energy, and we must learn how to make adaptive use of this energy.


Adaptive Potential of Emotion-focused Coping

In the last part, you learnt about emotion-focused coping. We will talk more about its ability to adapt and how it affects health in this section. When we are in a stressful situation, it causes us to feel bad. It may result in unhealthy coping if we don't learn how to control these feelings. Utilizing emotions to manage the stressful circumstance is known as "emotion-focused coping." Stanton has underlined the opportunity for adaptation that comes with an emotional approach to coping. It suggests embracing your feelings rather than pushing them away or avoiding them. Two systems—the behavioural activation system and the behavioural inhibition system—can explain how people approach and avoid emotions, respectively.


Emotional processing, or attempting to understand feelings, and emotional expression, or expressing or revealing one's emotions, are two elements of approach-oriented, emotion-focused coping. These elements support good emotional use for handling stressful events, leading to better psychological results. The idea behind this is that one would be in a better position to react appropriately if they were aware of and understood their emotions under pressure. An emotion-focused coping strategy would therefore produce adaptive behaviour.


Enhancing one’s Emotional Intelligence

Our lives are not complete without our emotions. They have an impact on all of our thoughts and deeds. Therefore, rather of suppressing and avoiding our emotions, we should learn to use them to our advantage for greater performance, problem-solving, and decision-making. This necessitates that we control our emotions so that they work in our favour. Daniel Goleman popularised the phrase "emotional intelligence" in his 1995 book "Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ?" It promotes blending intelligence or thinking with emotions in order to achieve adaptive results. Our actions won't produce positive results if they are solely motivated by feelings or thoughts. A wise combination of the two will enable us to live successful and happy lives.


It is possible to define emotional intelligence as the ability to perceive and use emotions in productive ways. In emotionally charged settings, it entails being aware of one's own feelings as well as those of others. It also requires being able to manage one's own and other people's emotions. Therefore, emotional intelligence is a combination of cognitive and emotional talents that improves learning and achievement, coping and adjustment, and overall wellbeing.


The four-branch ability model of emotional intelligence, which consists of Perceiving emotions, Using emotions, Understanding emotions, and Managing emotions, was first put forth by Peter Salovey and John Mayer. They argued that mastering these four abilities enables one to skilfully navigate emotional circumstances. Say that you are discussing the impending exam with your friend. If you are skilled at reading her body language and interpreting her emotions, you will be able to discern that your friend appears anxious about the impending exam. Then, you'll utilise this knowledge of emotions to decide how to approach her. This aids in decision-making and behaviour guidance. This furthers the understanding of different emotions in oneself and in others, their interactions, and how they affect behaviour.


Additionally taken into consideration are the contextual and environmental aspects. Given the friend's low socioeconomic level, she wishes to successfully complete her courses on time. Therefore, this can be increasing her anxiety over her next exam. Finally, this will enable you to manage her emotions by implementing successful interactional and guiding tactics. Different emotion management techniques are used for managing emotions.


Socioemotional Selectivity Theory

How do you feel when you are joyful or joyful? And how do you feel when you're depressed, irate, or annoyed? Even though we are aware of the distinctions between the two types of situations that can result in happy or negative feelings, do we actively choose to have pleasant emotions and experiences? Does our perspective on both good and negative emotions change with age?


Laura Carstensen's idea of socioemotional selectivity approaches emotion perception and experience from a developmental standpoint. According to this, older adults choose or concentrate more on pleasant feelings than younger people do. People tend to cherish the emotional richness of life more as they age because they are more aware of how short their lives are and how important it is to build meaningful relationships, enjoy life, savour each moment, and find significance in everything. Selectivity is evident as a result of their increased attention to good emotions rather than negative ones. As we become older and think about our death, happy events and positive feelings become our top priorities. This is adaptively significant and improves one's wellbeing and mental health.


Emotional Storytelling

Have you ever needed to express yourself after going through a particularly trying time or trauma? How did you feel before and after telling someone about your feelings, worries, concerns, or distress? Speaking aloud about your experiences can be cathartic, especially if they were unpleasant or traumatic. It gives people a chance to express and process their bad feelings, which ultimately helps them cope and has other positive effects on their health. Studies show that the stories can forecast how people will feel about their health. Jamie Pennebaker conducted the first studies on the advantages of emotional storytelling in 1989. She found that, compared to the control group, the emotional storytelling group, which addressed their emotional pain via writing, experienced a wide range of health benefits.


A person can express and release the stress associated with their unpleasant emotions by discussing their emotional stories verbally or in writing. It provides a secure environment where emotionally charged thoughts and feelings can be explored, expressed, and let go rather than stifling them. It aids individuals in mental organisation, cognitive processing of the event, meaning finding regarding their traumas, and social network reintegration. It is crucial to include cultural settings when conveying emotional stories because emotions are influenced by them. For instance, individualistic cultures of western nations prefer a more direct and forceful posture, but collectivistic cultures like India value family harmony more and avoid emotional clashes within the family. Therefore, the social and cultural background affects how emotions are experienced and expressed.


3. Explain the key concepts in resilience and describe the evolution of the concept over time.

Ans) Certain keywords have been discovered as a result of decades of resilience study. The most important terminology in this field have been expanded upon by Wright, Masten, and Narayan. Following is a description of a few of these keywords:


Resilience: Positive adaptability in the face of adversity is how resilience is defined. Among people with high degrees of resilience, positive adaption outcomes like recovery, wellbeing, and post-traumatic growth may be shown.


Adversity: Any experiences that obstruct a system's or a person's normal course of growth are referred to as adversities. Adverse incidents disrupt the person's equilibrium, which eventually has an impact on functioning.


Risk: A risk signifies a high likelihood of a poor result. Risk variables are those characteristics of a circumstance that can foretell this unfavourable event.


Cumulative risk: A healthy adaptation may be hindered by any risk factor. However, the likelihood of unfavourable outcomes increases when many risk factors are present. The influence of a risk factor is also likely to be amplified when it occurs repeatedly.


Proximal risk: All risk variables that an individual directly experiences are considered to be proximal risks. When seen in the context of Urie Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems theory, this can be understood. The local environment is referred to as the microsystem in this framework. In the microsystem, proximal risk factors are typically present.


Distal risk: Distal risks are environmental risk variables that are present but not in the near area. These elements have an indirect effect on the person through other circumstances. Distal risk variables may be present in large circles, like the macrosystem, according to Urie Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems theory.


Protective factor: While hazards impair growth and adaptation, protective factors lessen the impact of challenges. Early researchers on resilience discovered that the existence of protective characteristics suggests that the person will exhibit resilient results when challenged with challenging conditions. There are both internal and exterior protective factors. The term "internal protective factors" refers to personal qualities like self-worth, self-efficacy, or internal locus of control. Resources like supporting connections within the family and community are examples of external protective factors.


Cumulative protection: According to research, having many protective variables present is better for fostering resilience than having only a few.

Evolution of the Concept Over Time


Resilience, Invincibility and Invulnerability

Those who performed well in the face of adversity were occasionally referred to as invulnerable and invincible during the early years of resilience research, which was mostly focused on children. Later, experts argued that such descriptions might not be true because it is improbable for humans to not be affected by events that happen in their lives. Transitions do have an impact on emotions, thoughts, and ultimately behaviour. However, words like "invulnerable" and "invincible" imply that resilient people are impervious to stress. The terms "invincibility" and "vulnerability" are no longer used interchangeably with "resilience" because this is an incorrect assumption.


Resilience and Coping

Coping is a phrase that is occasionally used interchangeably with resilience. Although it would initially seem that coping and resilience have the same meanings, this is not the case. According to psychology literature, there is a crucial distinction between coping and resilience: coping is primarily thought of as one's reaction to adverse events like the loss of a loved one, interpersonal conflict, financial, professional, or academic losses. But the resilience phenomenon is not just limited to unfortunate events. Resilience is necessary to manage all kinds of transitions, whether they are positive—like landing one's dream job—or negative—like being let go from one's dream job.


Resilience and Other Overlapping Concepts

In the wake of adversity, a number of associated characteristics, including post-traumatic growth, constructive adaptation, personal growth, and benefit finding, are frequently investigated. However, resilience is not the same as any beneficial development that occurs after trauma and adversity. The phenomena that supports these procedures and results is resilience. When development is unanticipated, it aids in achieving favourable results. Investigations have noted links between these characteristics and resilience for this reason.


Resilience as Bouncing Back and Bouncing Forward

Resilience was frequently referred to in the early years of resilience research as overcoming hardship. This concept implies that despite experiencing disruption brought on by adversity, resilient people return to their original or improved levels of functioning. This adaptability is comparable to a spring's. When a spring is reinserted into a device after being stretched or deformed, it retains its original functionality. In later years, studies suggested that one should bounce forward rather than back. When you bounce ahead instead than back, it highlights that you are moving in the right direction.


Resilience as a Trait, Process, Skill and an Outcome

Resilience as a trait: According to research, resilience was first explored as a personality trait. It was thought to be a quality that could result in beneficial adaption outcomes like wellbeing or post-traumatic growth. Research on the trait of resilience looked at how it related to other factors. It has been discovered that traits like resilience support successful adaption outcomes like personal development.


Resilience as a process: Researchers asserted that resilience is a process because it requires a journey toward a successful adaption outcome as their field of study developed. For instance, negotiating with various protective factors is a part of the resilience process. In addition to external protective elements like close friendships and welcoming communities, these may also include internal protective aspects like self-efficacy and autonomy.


The ability of resilience: Researchers have recently proposed that resilience is, at least in part, a skill. Resilience is a skill that can be learnt and developed further, just like other general skills like good communication or more specialised abilities like art or music. Engaging with difficult situations, for instance, can help people find and hone their protection mechanisms, just as frequent practise can allow a singer to refine their musical ability. A skill like resilience can be learned through interventions like counselling.


Resilience as an outcome: The topic of resilience as a result of adversity has been the focus of numerous scientific studies. Positive adaptation is indicated by resilient outcomes such posttraumatic growth, benefit discovery, and wellbeing. Researchers that are interested in resilience as a result have looked into the internal and environmental protective factors that support resilient outcomes. Early on in the field's development, the majority of researchers looked for psychosocial competence to serve as a marker of resilience. One resilient result, for example, was the capacity to complete developmental tasks at the appropriate age within a specific cultural setting. Additionally, positive peer interactions and accomplishments in the classroom Resilience





Answer the following questions in 400 words each. 5 x 5 = 25 marks


4. Compare and contrast Seligman’s and Wong’s visions of positive psychology.

Ans) Although Seligman's ideas and method for PP have gained a lot of support, they have been criticism for overemphasising positive emotions and downplaying the importance of the unpleasant emotions we face in our daily lives. According to existential-humanistic psychologists, both pleasure and pain improve our well-being.


According to German psychiatrist Viktor Frankl, who invented the therapy known as "logotherapy" after surviving the Holocaust under Hitler's rule, there is a direct link between despair, anxiety, and a sense of meaninglessness. He came to the conclusion that when a person loses all hope and a feeling of purpose in life, he tends to get despondent and give up based on his own experiences and those of his fellow prisoners in the "concentration camp"


On the other hand, he can overcome that and have a sense of well-being if he can view his pain and suffering objectively and looks for a significance even in that unfortunate situation. He based his renowned book Man's Search for Meaning on this. According to him, when there is a lack of meaning, people attempt to fill the hole in two different ways: by engaging in hedonistic pleasures, pursuing power and materialism, or by feeling hatred, boredom, or neurotic obsessions and compulsions.


Seligman and Wong both concur that the main goal of positive psychology is to comprehend the characteristics of a good life or worthwhile life and the circumstances that support such a living. Therefore, there is no difference in their fundamental vision, which is to encourage flourishing and a good existence. The distinctions, however, are in what they have prioritised, how they approach positive psychology from a philosophical and methodological perspective, and what they assign value to. Paul Wong gave us a comparison of his vision for PP and Martin Seligman's vision, which is shown in Table below.


Comparative View of Seligman’s and Wong’s Visions of Positive Psychology

5. Define character strengths and point out their significance.

Ans) A natural ability to behave, think, or feel in a way that promotes optimal functioning and performance in the pursuit of desired outcomes can be described as a strength. According to this notion, a strength may be somewhat innate or instinctual. It is something that a person has a predisposition to naturally.


Environmental influences and experiences, as is the case with the majority of psychological variables, can foster and encourage the development of particular strengths or work against it. For instance, encouraging a naturally creative youngster's innovative methods of doing things can help the child develop their creative thinking. On the other side, the child's creative instincts would be dampened over time if their original thought were ignored or disregarded.


Similar to how our personality is represented in our actions, ideas, and emotions, our strengths may be recognised in all facets of the human experience, including our affect, behaviour, and cognitions. Utilizing our skills in the social, professional, and personal domains enables us to accomplish our objectives more quickly and successfully. Because we are doing something that comes naturally to us, that we are good at, and that we love doing, it improves our overall performance.


Significance of Character Strengths

According to the global Gallup Poll, the majority of people believe that focusing on weaknesses rather than strengths will help them progress more. Research on the importance of strengths across cultures, however, indicates that identifying, nurturing, and utilising your talents can have a variety of positive effects.


Thus, character traits are crucial for people to succeed in a variety of spheres of their lives as well as feel good about themselves. The idea behind strengths is that they are energising for the user, valuable in and of themselves, and advantageous to society. They provide a substantial contribution to reaching one's own well-being, achieving one's life goals, enhancing one's connections with others, getting along with others, and making one's country a better place. Martinez-Marti and Ruch showed that the association between character traits like optimism, zest, and humour and wellbeing is constant over the course of a person's life.


Does this imply that we ignore our flaws? In no way! Although research on strengths suggests that one's strongest areas are where they have the best possibility of success, this does not mean that one should overlook their deficiencies. In actuality, doing so isn't always practical or even advisable. After all, a salesperson who does not relish the task of interacting with new individuals, or who has the ability to 'woo,' runs the risk of losing his job. Abilities-based programmes therefore put an emphasis on assisting individuals in maximising their strengths and figuring out how to best manage their deficiencies.


6. Explain forgiveness and highlight its importance for one’s well-being.

Ans) A quality of character that falls under the temperance virtue category is forgiveness. Modesty is referred to as temperance. This category of virtues encompasses our abilities to control or regulate our ideas, feelings, and actions. Thus, the virtues of temperance "temper" our reactions and keep us from going too far. In particular, the virtue of forgiveness shields us from excessive hostility. It is a quality that is highly regarded in all civilizations.


It might not always be simple to exercise forgiveness. It might not produce a visible result right away. It might not have any obvious advantages for the person who does it. Furthermore, it most certainly does not deter future offences. But it is extraordinarily satisfying. It is the capacity to move on from a difficult situation without the help of negative character traits like guilt, shame, or fear, or even positive character traits like incentives or threats. While the negative emotions of resentment, hostility, vengeance, etc. leave us feeling hollow within, forgiving others makes us feel good and at peace knowing that we did the right thing. It's moving to witness forgiveness in action.


Forgiveness and Well-Being

Studies throughout time have demonstrated a relationship between forgiveness and improved psychosocial well-being and decreased psychological suffering. Particularly, individuals who forgive easily also exhibit a high degree of happiness and social integration. Forgiveness is associated not just with improved mental but also with improved physical health outcomes.


Researchers believe that practising forgiveness may benefit physical health because it reduces stress and harmful negative emotions like rage. True forgiveness boosts the immune system, lowers anxiety, and promotes inner serenity. Beyond the relationship with the perpetrator, forgiveness is found to have positive benefits. Higher forgiving personalities are also more likely to offer their time or provide money to charities. As a result, this character strength has positive effects on an individual, interpersonal relationships, and society as a whole.


Undoubtedly, some people are more understanding than others. Religious and spiritual beliefs encourage forgiveness. However, people who have a propensity to ruminate find it more challenging to forgive. They could keep returning to the wrong that has been done to them in their minds. They frequently harbour resentments and injured feelings, which hinders their capacity for empathy. But forgiveness can be developed. Positive psychologically oriented psychotherapeutic therapies have prioritised aiding clients in gaining empathy and perspective-taking abilities. These encourage forgiving.


According to Reed and Enright, Forgiveness Therapy is a four-phase intervention programme that involves examining one's negative sentiments towards the transgression, choosing to forgive, attempting to understand the offender better, and building empathy and compassion for the offender.


In women who had endured emotional abuse from their partners, this programme demonstrated a reduction in depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms as well as an improvement in self-esteem, forgiveness, environmental mastery, and the ability to find meaning in suffering. Furthermore, it was shown that these benefits persisted over time. In couples counselling, forgiveness can be a crucial component, especially when dealing with infidelity.


7. Explain the positive outcomes of grit and determination.

Ans) The foremost authority on "grit," Angela Duckworth, grew up hearing her father remind her on a regular basis, "You are no genius." Duckworth acknowledged that it was accurate. She lacked brilliance. Others were far more brilliant and intelligent than she was. Nevertheless, Duckworth had ambition. She aimed to succeed. But as a little girl who had always been told she wasn't brilliant, she frequently pondered how she would succeed in that case. That is what planted the roots of this inquiry in her inquisitive mind, and she set out to unravel the success indicators.


Another intriguing finding was made by Duckworth while she was working as a math instructor. She discovered that several of her math-inclined kids were receiving pretty subpar grades in the subject. On the other hand, individuals who had difficulty in class were performing considerably better than she had anticipated. She stated that "talent for math was different from excelling in math." In other words, ability or talent did not guarantee success. These students who were "weak" in math made sure to attend class regularly, take notes, ask questions, and occasionally lingered after school or during lunch to discuss issues, she observed.


Benefits of Possessing Grit and Determination

Academic achievement: In middle school, high school, secondary school, and undergraduate students around the world, grit has been linked to academic success. Additionally, it has been linked to military cadets' leadership abilities, college contentment, and learning engagement.


Career outcomes: Hard workers are less likely to switch occupations regularly. In the United States, grit has been linked to improved teacher retention and instructional effectiveness, as well as higher work performance in Chinese insurance personnel. Grit-filled people are also less likely to abandon difficult career training programmes like medical residencies or military boot camps.


Work-related functioning: Grit is linked to decreased levels of burnout at work and participation in unproductive work habits. Positive leadership traits and increased work engagement are linked.


Well-being and positive psychological outcomes: Grit has been found to be connected with better levels of life satisfaction and psychological well-being in a variety of populations from across the globe and throughout the age spectrum. Additionally, it is linked to prosocial behaviour, positive habits, optimism, and mental wellness. In addition, grit is linked to lowered levels of substance usage, perceived stress, and suicidal and depressive thoughts. Additionally, students who exhibit greater grit are less likely to participate in harmful internet use, compulsive shopping, or gambling.


8. Define mindfulness and describe the dimensions of it.

Ans) Even though its roots can be traced back to the Brahmanic traditions of the Indian subcontinent, which gave rise to Buddhism, the term mindfulness is a translation of the Pali word sati, which has its origins in Buddhist traditions. The term "mindfulness" is typically used to describe both a mental state or quality and a type of meditation that aids in cultivating such a state or quality.


According to Kabat-Zinn, mindfulness refers to "the consciousness that comes from paying attention on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally to the flow of experience moment by moment" in reference to its first meaning. A "pre-conceptual awareness" and "acceptance" of one's experiences, flexible attention control, an unbiased or detached openness to experience, and an orientation to be "here-and-now" are the main characteristics of mindfulness.


"The distinct and single-minded awareness of what genuinely happens to us and in us at the successive times of perception," said NyanaponikaThera. By "keeping one's consciousness alive to the current world," Hanh defined mindfulness. The phrase "paying attention" in this context refers to focusing on what one is doing while also being conscious of one's feelings, thoughts, and memories that come to mind at the time. It also refers to recognising when one's mind wanders in order to bring it back on track.


Dimensions of Mindfulness

  1. Non-judgmental: Observing without judging or categorising the fleeting thoughts and the present moment.

  2. Non-striving: Not attempting to fulfil any particular objectives and avoiding attachment to desired results.

  3. Acceptance: Being receptive and accepting of reality as it is right now. It does not imply passive acceptance or unwillingness, but rather a knowledge of and openness to one's experiences.

  4. Patience: Being calm enough to allow events to proceed at their own speed. being understanding of ourselves, others, circumstances, and the present moment.

  5. Trust: Having faith in one's body, one's feelings, and the reality that everything that occurs in life is just as it should be.

  6. Openness: Receiving everything for the first time when it occurs. Recognizing opportunities through being totally in the present moment.

  7. Letting Go: Not identifying with any idea, emotion, or experience.

  8. Gentleness: Softness, tenderness, and consideration.

  9. Generosity: Being and giving with love and compassion in the now without becoming dependent on receiving something back.

  10. Empathy: Attempting to comprehend the current situation, sentiments, and viewpoints of others.

  11. Gratitude: A state of gratitude and appreciation for the moment.

  12. Loving-Kindness: The sensation of unwavering love, compassion, and forgiving.





Answer the following questions in 50 words each. 10 x 3 = 30 marks


9.Personality psychology and positive psychology

Ans) Reading about the development of personality psychology reveals that virtue and character were once disregarded as scientific concepts since they carry strong connotations. Therefore, Gordon Allport introduced the term "personality" as an unbiased and objective phrase in their place. We've come full circle today and are regaining those terms as legitimate scientific notions! Not just them, but also a host of other subjects that Humanistic Psychology associates with Self-Actualization, such as altruism, forgiveness, gratitude, love, courage, creativity, meaning, wisdom, spirituality, transcendence, and many others, have been explored with renewed enthusiasm.


10. Pure research vs. applied research

Ans) The difference between pure and applied research depends on the goal of the research. Pure research, also known as basic research, has no specific goal, but it advances the knowledge and contributes to the generation of new theories, principals and ways of thinking. Applied research, on the other hand, aims to solve a specific and practical problem. Applied research is also based on the findings of pure research.


11.Yama and Niyama

Ans) The niyamas are actions or observances, whereas the yamas are just things not to do or restraints. They come together to build a set of moral principles. The five yamas are self-regulatory practises that govern how we interact with others and the rest of the world. Nonviolence is ahimsa. Satya: sincerity.


12. Transcendence as a virtue

Ans The Dalai Lama is a transcendent being who speaks openly why he never loses hope in humanity’s potential. He also appreciates nature in its perfection and lives according to what he believes is his intended purpose.


Strengths that accompany this virtue include those that forge connections to the larger universe and provide meaning:

  1. Appreciation of beauty and excellence

  2. Gratitude

  3. Hope

  4. Humour and playfulness

  5. Spirituality, or a sense of purpose


13. Fixed vs. growth mindset

Ans) If you have a fixed mindset, you think that some traits, such as talent and intelligence, are innate and immutable. You typically believe you will never be good at anything if you aren't good at it now. On the other hand, if you have a growth mindset, you believe that intelligence and talent can be developed through practise and hard work.


14. Three types of life by Seligman

Ans) Through the use of exhaustive questionnaires, Seligman found that the most satisfied, upbeat people were those who had discovered and exploited their unique combination of “signature strengths,” such as humanity, temperance and persistence. This vision of happiness combines the virtue ethics of Confucius, Mencius and Aristotle with modern psychological theories of motivation. Seligman’s conclusion is that happiness has three dimensions that can be cultivated: the Pleasant Life, the Good Life, and the Meaningful Life.


15. Real self and ideal self

Ans) The Ideal self and the Real self are the two components of the "self." According to Carl Rogers, we all picture ourselves as the person we would like to be rather than as the person we actually are. Our ideal self and our true selves can diverge significantly. The greater the discrepancy between our ideal selves and our actual selves, the more discord there is within us. Rogers stressed the necessity for us to strive for harmony or consistency between these two selves because of this.

16.Five components of PERMA model

Ans) Seligman expanded on the hedonic-eudaimonic features of happiness by adding other dimensions and proposing the more complete PERMA model of happiness. The acronym represents for the five main factors that contribute most significantly to our well-being: Positive emotions, Engagement, Positive Relationships, Meaning, and Accomplishment. Each of the five elements of the PERMA model, according to Seligman, has three characteristics: they contribute to an individual's well-being; many individuals pursue them for their own purpose; and they are defined and measured independently of one another.


17.Emotional bank account

Ans) Centred on the Gottman Relationship model described above, the emotional bank account is a good exercise for couples to work on their intimacy, conflicts, and emotional distance. This system is identical to a financial bank based on deposits and withdrawal. Imagine a scenario where your spouse gets hurt accidentally. You can do one of the two things, turn towards or turn away. A general rule of thumb is to have at least 5 positive interactions to 1 negative reaction during a conflict and 20:1 in everyday life. This way the benefit of doubt will tend to outweigh the negative approach to conflict.


18. Employee engagement

Ans) Employee engagement is a human resources (HR) concept that describes the level of enthusiasm and dedication a worker feels toward their job. Engaged employees care about their work and about the performance of the company and feel that their efforts make a difference. An engaged employee is in it for more than a pay check and may consider their well-being linked to their performance, and thus instrumental to their company's success.

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