If you are looking for MPSE-013 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Australia’s Foreign Policy, you have come to the right place. MPSE-013 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in MPS courses of IGNOU.
MPSE-013 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: MPSE-013/ASST/TMA/2022-23
Course Code: MPSE-013
Assignment Name: Australia’s Foreign Policy
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
1. Describe Australia -US relations during the Cold War.
Ans) Australia joined the United States in conducting the Cold War against the former Soviet Union and for a time even against China, particularly during the period of Sino-Soviet cooperation, while feeling secure and to some extent content with the new alliance ties. The Cold War, which started in Europe, quickly spread to Asia. It started with the rise of communist China and continued with the invasion of South Korea by North Korea on the Korean Peninsula until coming to an end with the years-long Indo-China dispute and the Vietnam War. Canberra moved swiftly to support US-led UN forces fighting communist aggression in Korea. In reality, Australia was the first nation to declare it would do so after the United States and gave the first-ever UN force to repel aggression around 17,000 of its troops.
Nevertheless, it was obvious that Australia carried out the request at American request and would not have done so absent American involvement. After two years and 17 days of intense battle on the Korean Peninsula, the US lost 33,000 soldiers, while the Commonwealth forces lost 1,263 dead and 4,817 injured. More than 1,500 Australians were hurt, 339 of whom lost their lives. The war claimed the lives of an estimated 500,000 South Koreans and an undetermined number of Chinese and North Koreans. During the years 1948 to 1960, Australia sent troops to help put down the communist uprising in Malaya. After that, in 1963–1955, it helped thwart the invasion of Sarawak that was supported by Indonesia. Australia's participation in the Vietnam War was, relative to other countries, more contentious. The UN did not run the operation.
It showed Australia's intention to be a true ally of the United States. Australia aggressively supported the United States during the crucial phases of its military involvement in the Vietnam War and sent sizeable military personnel to fight alongside American forces. Australia sent more than 12,000 sailors, more than 4,000 airmen, and over 40,000 soldiers to fight in the Vietnam War. During the battle, hundreds of Australians—both military personnel and civilians—were injured. The Royal Australian Navy played a significant part in the Vietnam War in addition to Australia's enormous involvement in the country's jungles. Over the duration of the conflict, Australian destroyers travelled around 400,000 miles and fired over 100,000 rounds of gunfire. The renowned "Vung Tau Ferry" was actually the aircraft carrier HMAS Sydney, which had been refitted to carry 16,000 Australian soldiers.
The Menzies Government and its conservative successors provided a number of explanations for sending Australian combat troops to Vietnam in May 1965 after first sending "instructors" there. It was stated that it was crucial to safeguard democracy in the region, echoing the US Government's position. However, the majority of systematic and official public explanations held that Australian involvement in the Vietnam War would promote American involvement in Southeast Asia, which was in Australia's best interests. It was also frequently suggested that Australia and the region would be directly threatened by a communist takeover of South Vietnam, and that the Indo-China problem was a component of a Communist China push between the Indian and Pacific Oceans.
2. Give an overview of Sino- Australian economic relations.
Ans) Australia's future prosperity is intrinsically tied with the economic expansion of Asia, according to an economist from the Australian National University who was previously Australia's ambassador to the PRC. The dismantling of Cold War obstacles has unleashed an unparalleled economic boom, resulting in 'greater China,' which also includes Hong Kong and Taiwan, becoming increasingly linked. By the middle of the 1990s, two-way trade between China and Australia had risen to $56.6 billion, and around a thousand Australian businesses had opened up shop there. The fact that commerce between China and India only totalled $ 13 billion in 2005 serves as a good indicator of the size of the business relationships.
Since 1997, high-level visits have been a hallmark of Sino-Australian ties, with "bilateral economic cooperation" always taking precedence. The PRC was Australia's third-largest commercial partner by May 2000. Since then, the Australian trade minister has led several delegations to China, focusing on a variety of industries, including construction, mining, high-tech resources, insurance, banking, air traffic control, management consulting, and sports services. The WTO accession of China is anticipated to improve access to China for Australian exporters and to further solidify bilateral trade relations. Australian Prime Minister Howard visited China in March–April 1997. He talked about the complementary nature of the two economies with Premier Li Peng. Australian experts were subsequently dispatched to China to conduct feasibility assessments for other projects. Australia established itself as China's go-to source for liquefied natural gas. Trade between Australia and China is heavily reliant on wool and textiles. One-fourth of Australia's wool exports are imported by China. Howard inaugurated the new ANZ bank branch in Bei-iing on this trip. Since then, Australia has provided China with its knowledge in a range of financial services, including banking, insurance, and accounting, as well as through establishing law and consulting firms.
The president of China, Jiang Zemin, visited Australia two years following Howard's trip. The commercial connections between the two countries were further enhanced during this visit. More commercial ties with Australia were the main topic of Jiang's presentation, which he gave as the keynote talk at a significant trade meeting in Melbourne. Insisting for more Chinese changes as well as commitment to the APEC principles on tariff liberalisation and global economic openness, he won the respect of the Australian business sector. Additionally, it was revealed during this visit that Australia had been awarded a contract to participate in a significant overhaul of China's social security system. (This was required since the PRC's reforms and modernization efforts have resulted in a reduction in social welfare services.)
The top Australian exports to China include coal, oilseeds, iron ore, wool, and copper ore. Clothing, toys, sporting goods, footwear, televisions, VCRs, telecommunications gadgets, and household goods are all imported by Australia from China. Nearly all of the goods that Australia sells to China are natural resources that are crucial to China's economic development. Since the 1990s, the trade in wheat and sugar has lost some of its significance for China, despite being so important during earlier periods. Australia imports products that may be necessary for a comfortable existence but are insignificant to the country's economy as a whole. In other words, Australia is much more dependent on China than China is on Australia for its growth.
3. Describe the nature and features of Australia –ASEAN relations.
Ans) Australia is one of ASEAN's dialogue partners, and the joint business council and Australia-ASEAN Economic Cooperation Programme have been developing initiatives to give trade and investment partnerships additional impetus. The Laos-Thai friendship bridge over the Mekong, which connects Bangkok to Vientiane via roads, was built with Australian aid. Australia's second-largest export market is all of ASEAN.
For the Australians, the ASEAN area serves as "front defence." Because of this, Australia had previously participated in the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) and made a significant contribution to the Five-Power Defense Pact by providing training resources to the local defence forces. Australia has also made a considerable contribution to the East Timor and Cambodia peacekeeping efforts. Australia isn't yet seen as a reliable regional partner, nevertheless, as a result of disparities in attitude, perspective, and thinking. For instance, it did not share ASEAN opinion with regard to its enthusiasm and support for the East Timor referendum. Australia should have exercised restraint in relation to East Timor's secession since it is a signatory to the ASEAN Treaty of Amity and Cooperation and has already gone into a defence arrangement with Indonesia. It wasn't in the spirit of a constructive cooperation when it criticised Indonesia in the name of East Timor's right to self-determination. The ASEAN endeavour had been to ensure regional peace, but East Timor developments opened the floodgates of instability, which is not at all in the interests of good collaboration. It was not just Indonesians who disagreed with Australia's attitude; other ASEAN members did as well.
Trade and investment are crucial elements of regional cooperation, and Australia has given the ASEAN region the attention it deserves, which has turned out to be beneficial for both parties. At the ASEAN-Australia Consultative Meetings and ASEAN Post Ministerial Conferences, relationship-building tactics are considered. In addition to developing the mechanism to raise money and expertise, the ASEAN-Australia Development Cooperation Program (AADCP) makes plans and programmes. In the 1990s, there were rising trends in commerce between Australia and ASEAN. Trade volumes increased significantly from $8.8 billion in 1990 to $18.4 billion in 1995. Australia and Singapore's bilateral commerce reached $5 billion in 1993–1994; Indonesia came in second with $1.9 billion, Malaysia came in third with $1.3 billion, the Philippines came in sixth with $698 million, and Vietnam came in seventh with $443 million. In a similar vein, Australian investments in the ASEAN area increased, reaching A $6.6 billion in 1998 alone. The completion of the Lao-Thai Friendship Bridge over the Mekong has in fact directly connected the ASEAN region with the People's Republic of China thanks to considerable investments in the tourism industry, transportation infrastructure, and environmental sectors.
Between 1988 and 1998, Australia's overall exports to ASEAN increased by three times. It climbed from A$7.5 billion in 1988 to A$18.4 billion in 1998. Under Paul Keating's leadership, ASEAN was seen as Australia's most significant export market, surpassing the US. Even though only 13% of all Australian exports went to ASEAN nations, Australia gave that region top emphasis. East Asia accounted for six of Australia's top 10 commercial partners in 1995. As a whole, ASEAN is Australia's second-largest export market, and ASEAN exports to Australia are expanding. In 1995, two-way trade was A$18.4 billion. At 1991, Australian investment in ASEAN has increased by A$6 billion yearly, and since that time, ASEAN investment in Australia has increased by 17% annually.
Write a short note on each part of the question in about 250 words.
4. a) Australia’s views on the nuclear arm race
Ans) In actuality, Australia could not have been neutral or unaffected by the Cold War nuclear arms competition between the superpowers. Therefore, it is not immune to the improvements in arms control that are occurring in the wake of the Cold War. In actuality, it has not and could not have been immune to the nuclear theories and programmes of others, including those of China, France, and Britain. In the areas near to Australia, all five nuclear-armed states have conducted nuclear tests. the nuclear tests conducted by India and. Austria also considered Pakistan in May 1998 to be in its neighbourhood.
Australia's nuclear non-proliferation and weapons control policy is composed of four main components:
A nuclear test site has been used in Australia. It had let Britain to test a nuclear bomb in Western Australia's Monte Bello Islands in 1952, and Prime Minister Robert Menzies received praise for Australia's role in the development of the British nuclear weapon.
Around 40% of the world's uranium deposits are owned by Australia. Uranium is the primary component of nuclear energy and is utilised for both peaceful and military applications, including the creation of nuclear weapons. Leading uranium exporter is Australia. It participates in the nuclear through its export policies.
Australia has historically relied on its alliance with the West for its security, initially on Britain then, since the Second World War, on us. There is a widespread consensus, and succeeding administrations have sought out a solid and binding alliance with the US.
The fact that Australia is home to several facilities that are essential to US strategic planning is very critical. The US set up the C31 command, control, communication, and intelligence facilities using Australia's geographic location.
In conclusion, the four aforementioned factors—British nuclear tests in the 1950s; nuclear-powered ships visiting Australian waters with or without nuclear weapons on board; export of uranium; and American C31 facilities on Australian soil—should be taken into account when analysing Australia's challenges and opportunities in containing the nuclear arms race and nuclear proliferation.
b) Australia and WTO
Ans) Due to its small size, Australia notably benefits from the reduced uncertainty that is provided by the rules-based trading system that is currently governed by the WTO. Undoubtedly, the chances for nations that export agricultural products, like Australia, are brightest during the current round of multilateral trade negotiations at the WTO. It makes sense that Australia is now regarded as a very responsible WTO member, especially in light of the extensive unilateral economic change it has implemented over the past two decades. Australia needs to abandon its previous protectionist practises and pursue further liberalisation in order to maintain that image and the disproportionately significant influence that permits it to influence the WTO's future course. A number of developing nations from Asia, Africa, and Latin America voiced their concerns and demanded a fair share of the trade; Australia has repeatedly worked to advance the WTO's commitment to agricultural trade reforms.
Australian reform opponents contend that unless its trade partners undergo greater change, Australia shouldn't open its economy further. However, proponents of economic liberalisation claim that delaying further reform would be "unfair" to the vast majority of Australian companies and consumers who suffer from ongoing market interventions. Being a minor economy, it must increase its negotiating leverage in multilateral trade talks. Due to these factors, the Australian government complements its multilateral integration efforts with regional ones, such as those of the Indian Ocean Rim countries and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation process, as long as the other participants in these regional initiatives continue to support WTO-compliant open regionalism.
5. a) Australia’s uranium export policy
Ans) Australia's uranium export policy embodies fundamental tenets first outlined in 1977, adjusted to reflect a number of international and domestic developments in the intervening period. It provides assurances that exported uranium and its derivatives cannot benefit the development of nuclear weapons or be used in other military programs. This is done by precisely accounting for amounts of Australian-Obligated Nuclear Material (AONM) as it moves through the nuclear fuel cycle. At the same time, the policy recognises the needs of customer countries and the nuclear industry for predictability about the way Australia exercises the non-proliferation conditions governing its uranium supply.
1) Australian uranium may only be exported for peaceful non-explosive purposes under Australia's network of bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements, which provide for:
a) Coverage by IAEA safeguards
b) Fallback safeguards in the event that IAEA safeguards no longer apply for any reason
c) Prior Australian consent for any transfer of AONM to a third party, for any enrichment beyond 20 per cent of uranium-235 and for reprocessing of AONM, and
d) Physical security requirements.
2) Australia retains the right to be selective as to the countries with which it is prepared to conclude safeguards arrangements.
3) Customer countries must be a party to the NPT. In the case of India an exception has been granted on the basis of the 2008 decision of the Nuclear Suppliers Group, the application of IAEA safeguards to India's civil nuclear facilities and separation of the Indian civilian and military nuclear programs.
4) NPT Non-Nuclear Weapon State customer countries must at a minimum be a party to the NPT and have concluded a full scope safeguards Agreement with the IAEA
5) Nuclear weapon state customer countries must provide an assurance that AONM will not be diverted to non-peaceful or explosive uses and accept coverage of AONM by IAEA safeguards.
6) Commercial contracts for the export of Australian uranium should include a clause noting that the contract is subject to the relevant bilateral nuclear cooperation agreement.
b) Changing trends of foreign policy of Australia
Ans) Australia has undoubtedly come a long way from its early affiliation with the British Empire and the Commonwealth, while the two still work together on development and human rights issues. Since 1991, the association has been firmly on a new course for the new century, advocating democracy and good governance, human rights and the rule of law, as well as sustainable economic and social development. This is thanks to the Harare Commonwealth Declaration. Through its regular sessions, which are held every two years, the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) has voiced criticism of various forms of discrimination and violations of human rights in South Africa, Nigeria, and Fiji.
The culture of the nation's foreign policy has also been shaped by a variety of externalities and domestic imperatives in the context of the geo-physical region in which Australia is located. The first is how Australia's perceptions of nations and regions including China, Japan, Russia, and Southeast Asia are changing. The second is the growing understanding in Australia that economic concerns should take precedence over strictly military ones. ' The third is a shift toward an Asia-focused strategy and away from European and American interests. The fourth change is from a bilaterian to a more multilateral outlook. This is demonstrated by Australia's initiatives to establish ties with the Asia-Pacific Economic Community (APEC) and Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), as well as its participation in the Asia-Europe Meetings and the ASEAN Institutional Forum (ARF) (ASEM). A return to the bilateral strategy has, however, been seen in recent years. The fifth and final goal is to increase defence self-sufficiency while acknowledging the important role the US plays in the Asia-Pacific region as a whole..
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