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MPY-001: Indian Philosophy

MPY-001: Indian Philosophy

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for MPY-001 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Indian Philosophy, you have come to the right place. MPY-001 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in MAPY courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: MPY-001/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: MPY-001

Assignment Name: Indian Philosophy

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor



I) Give answer of all five questions.

ii) All five questions carry equal marks.

iii) The answer of questions no. 1 and 2 should be in about 500 words.


1. What do you understand with the statement, “world as mind independent reality”? How does Nyaya prove its realism? Mention some of the possible objections against Nyaya’s realism. 10+ 10= 20

Ans) Contrary to the "consciousness causes collapse" interpretation of quantum mechanics, realism in physics asserts that the world is, in some sense, mind independent. It holds that even if the results of a potential measurement do not exist prior to the act of measurement, this does not necessarily imply that the observer created them. Contrarily, according to that interpretation of quantum mechanics, the wave function adequately captures reality. The wave function's descriptions of the various possible realities are all equally valid. The wave function is condensed by the observer into their own reality. According to this interpretation of quantum mechanics, reality can be mined dependent.


The world is how it is regardless of how humans or other inquiring agents perceive it, according to metaphysical realism. The nature of the world is fixed by the objects it contains, along with their properties and the relationships they enter into, and these objects [along with the properties they have and the relationships they enter into] exist regardless of our capacity to recognise their existence. Metaphysical realists contend that if this isn't the case, then none of our beliefs about the world can be objectively true because true beliefs describe how things are, and beliefs are objective when true or false regardless of what other people may think.


Metaphysical realism is seen by many philosophers as being straightforward common sense. Others think it's a clear implication of contemporary science, which depicts people as weakened beings at sea in a hostile universe that wasn't their doing. However, metaphysical realism is debatable. Metaphysical realism also raises epistemological issues: how can we know about a mind-independent world? This is in addition to the analytical question of what it means to assert that objects exist independently of the mind. Prior semantic issues include the connections made between our beliefs and the supposed mind-independent states of affairs they represent. The Representation Problem is this.


Anti-realists contest the existence of a mind-independent world. They draw the conclusion that realism must be false because they think the epistemological and semantic issues cannot be resolved. Michael Dummett and Hilary Putnam presented the first anti-realist arguments based on explicitly semantic considerations. Which are:

  1. The cognitive and linguistic behaviour of an agent does not support the existence of realist mind/world links, according to Dummett's Manifestation Argument.

  2. Dummett's Language Acquisition Argument states that learning a language would be impossible if such connections were to exist.

  3. Putnam's Brain-in-a-Vat Argument: According to realism, both the possibility of our being profoundly deluded (or "brains in a vat") and the impossibility of our being able to even form the belief that we were.

  4. Putnam's Conceptual Relativity Argument: Since the objects that exist depend on the conceptual scheme used to classify them, it makes no sense to ask what the world contains independently of how we conceive of it.

  5. We'll start by defining metaphysical realism, illuminating its unique claim about mind independence with a few examples, and setting it apart from other doctrines, particularly factualism, with which it is frequently confused. The Representation Problem will then be discussed before the anti-realist arguments against metaphysical realism are presented. We discuss the responses of metaphysical realists to these issues, outlining how the discussions have developed, offering various substitutes, and tolerating anti-realist arguments.


2. Write a note on Pratityasamutpada. 20

Ans) One of the Buddhist terms that illuminates the ultimate truth is pratittyasamutpda. In particular, it is a specific Buddhist teaching that addresses phenomena, or ongoing changes, brought on by karma, the vicissitudes of life, all of which originate from both direct causes (hetu) and indirect causes (pratyaya).


"Those who perceive 'dependent origination' (pratyasamutpada) will perceive the dharma; those who perceive the dharma will perceive 'dependent origination,'" the Buddha once said. The principle of "Because this exists, that arises; because this does not exist, that does not arise" underlies the pratyasamutpda doctrine. In conclusion, it is possible to view all of the Buddha's other teachings as being based on the prattyasamutpa doctrine. As with Dharmadhtu, which holds that everything in the universe, including beings, is self-created, Pratyasamutpa can also be linked to other schools of Buddhism. No single being exists independently, according to Dharmadhtu, which has come to symbolise the universe as being universally corelative, generally interdependent, and mutually originating. Dharmadhtu is a modern-day ethical and psychological transformation that enables us to break free from the constraints of samsara by removing the psychological causes of suffering. Nirvana is exactly what we have here.


A fundamental Buddhist principle upheld by all schools of Buddhism is known as pratiyasamutpada, also known as dependent origination or dependent arising. All dharmas (phenomena), according to this statement, are dependent upon one another: "If this exists, that exists; if this ceases to exist, that also ceases to exist." All things (dharmas, phenomena, and principles) arise as a result of other things, according to the fundamental principle.


In the doctrine, there are illustrations of how suffering arises (anuloma-paiccasamuppda, "with the grain," forward conditionality) and illustrations of how the chain can be broken (pailoma-paiccasamuppda, "against the grain," reverse conditionality). The most well-known list of dependently originated phenomena, the twelve links or nidnas, expresses these processes. These lists are traditionally understood to describe the process of a sentient being's rebirth in sasra and the ensuing dukha (suffering, pain, and unsatisfactoriness), and they offer an analysis of rebirth and suffering that avoids positing an atman (unchanging self or eternal soul). It is explained that the cessation of rebirth results from the causal chain being reversed (and thus, the cessation of suffering).


Another interpretation views the lists as describing the emergence of mental processes and the subsequent notion of "I" and "mine" that results in grasping and suffering. The list of twelve links, according to some contemporary western scholars, contains contradictions and was created as a later synthesis of a number of earlier lists and elements, some of which can be linked back to the Vedas.


All of the early Buddhist texts contain references to the dependent origination doctrine. The Nidana Samyutta of the Theravada school's Sayuttanikya's main topic is it (henceforth SN). The Chinese Sayuktgama contains a parallel collection of discourses.


The concept of dependent origination is philosophically intricate and open to numerous interpretations. They are not necessarily mutually exclusive to one another because the interpretations frequently focus on particular dependent origination elements.


3. Answer any two questions in about 250 words each. 2*10= 20


c) Discuss the idea of Dravya, Guna, and Paryaya in Jainism. 10

Ans) Dravya refers to a thing or an entity. The universe is composed of six eternal substances, according to Jain philosophy: sentient beings or souls, non-sentient substance, or matter (pudgala), the principle of motion (dharma), the principle of rest (adharma), space (ka), and time (kla). The ajiva is made up of the last five (the non-living). Dravya denotes substances or entities according to Sanskrit etymology, but it can also denote real or fundamental categories.


A substance is distinguished from a body, or thing, by Jain philosophers who claim that the former is a simple element or reality, and the latter is a combination of one or more substances or atoms. They assert that while a body or object may be partially or completely destroyed, a dravya cannot ever be destroyed.


Astikaya, which translates to "collection that exists," are the fundamental entities in Jainism that are known as the dravya. The ontological building blocks that make up and explain all existence, whether or not it is perceived, are thought to be eternal and eternally present. There are six eternal substances in existence, according to the vtmbara and Digambara traditions of Jainism: the soul (jiva), matter (pudgala), space (akasha), motion (Dharma), and rest (Adharma), as well as "Time" (kala). Both traditions conceptualise "world space" (lokakasha) and "non-world space" as the essence of space (alokiakasha). Furthermore, the only active ontological substances are thought to be matter and the soul. Jiva and ajiva, the former being all dravya that is not a jiva, are another categorization found in Jain philosophy. Except for time, all six of the dravyas have been classified as astikayas, which are extensions or conglomerates. They are referred to as astikaya because, like conglomerates, they have a large number of space points. In the sentient substance, in the media of motion and rest, and infinite ones in space, there are countless space points; in matter, they are triangular (i.e., numerable, innumerable, and infinite).


d) Write a note on the categories in Vaishesika Philosophy.10

Ans) Dravya, or substance, is the fundamental element that underlies all other categories and is the source of all compound things that are created from it. Earth, water, fire, air, ether, time, space, spirit, and mind are the nine Dravyas.

  1. Guna, or quality, which in turn is subdivided into 24 species.

  2. Karma, or action. Both guna and karma inhere within dravya and cannot exist independently of it.

  3. Samanya, or genus, which denotes characteristic similarities that allow two or more objects to be classed together.

  4. Vishesha, or specific difference, which singles out an individual of that class.

  5. Samavaya, or inherence, which indicates things inseparably connected.


Later, abhava, which means nonexistence or absence, was added to these six. Despite having a negative tone, it creates a positive impression because it gives the impression that something is missing. A jar and a cloth that are not the same as each other are examples of reciprocal absence. Later absence is an example of a destroyed object. Total absence is an example of colour in the wind. According to the Vaisheshika system, an atom is the smallest, most fundamental, and indestructible unit of matter (anu). Earth, water, fire, and air atoms combine to form all physical objects. The atoms are inert and immobile by nature; God's will cause them to move through the invisible forces of moral merit and demerit.


4. Answer any four questions in about 150 words each. 4*5= 20


a) Mention some features of Tivalluvara’s moral philosophy. 5

Ans) Instead of focusing on empirical relationships, social philosophy examines issues relating to the moral foundations of social institutions, social behaviour, and social interpretations. In addition to developing new theoretical frameworks, such as cosmopolitan theories of democracy, natural law, human rights, gender equity, and international justice, social philosophers place a strong emphasis on comprehending the social contexts of political, legal, moral, and cultural questions.


The issues that social philosophy and ethics or value theory address frequently overlap significantly. Political philosophy and legal theory are two other subfields of social philosophy that are primarily focused on the structure and operation of state and governmental societies.


Political philosophy, ethical philosophy, and social philosophy all have close ties to other social science fields. The philosophy of social science is primarily interested in the social sciences themselves. Social philosophy and the subfields of social epistemology and philosophy of language share a lot of ground.


b) Write a short note on the concept of sat and asat found in the Veda. 5

Ans) Finding the root of this enormously diverse creation is the fundamental goal of any thinking mind. The Vedic seers sought solutions and provided them in a cryptic manner. The terms Sat (existing principle) and Asat (non-existent principle) are discussed in this context. The Veda contains statements that say, "There was Sat before creation," and another that says, "There was Asat before creation." Such claims have sparked a variety of theories about the origin of the universe. For instance, some believe that there had to be an existent principle before creation because nothing can come into being except through an existing thing. Others believe that if there had been something present before creation, it would be difficult to determine its origin, which is why it is said that "nothing" (asat) was there. Now, these two fundamental ideas, "Sat" and "Asat," gave rise to differing viewpoints that later served as the basis for Indian philosophical systems.


c) Briefly explain Gandhi’s idea of Svaraj. 5

Ans) Swarj, which can also mean "self-rule" or "general self-governance," was a term that Mahatma Gandhi later used to refer to his idea of India's independence from foreign rule. Maharishi Dayanand Saraswati first used it to mean "home rule." Swaraj places emphasis on self-governance through individuals and community building rather than governance by a hierarchical government. The decentralisation of politics is the main topic. Gandhi's concept of Swaraj advocated India abandoning British political, economic, bureaucratic, legal, military, and educational institutions because this is contrary to the political and social systems used by Britain. A diverse group of Swarajists, including S. Satyamurti, Chittaranjan Das, and Motilal Nehru, laid the groundwork for India's parliamentary democracy.


Although Gandhi's goal of fully implementing the principles of Swaraj in India was not realised, the volunteer organisations he founded for this purpose did serve as forerunners and role models for some of the non-governmental organisations that were later launched in different parts of India.


e) What arguments Samkhya give for the existence of Purusha? 5

Ans) Because an intelligent principle cannot transform itself into the unconscious world, Samkhya holds that the purua cannot be regarded as the origin of the inanimate world. It is an uncompromising dualism, an atheistic realist, and a pluralistic spiritualism.


Purusha, the witness-consciousness, and prakti, "matter," the activities of the mind and perception, are two "irreducible, innate and independent realities" that are distinguished by Samkhya. As stated by Dan Lusthaus


In Skhya, purua refers to the observer or "witness." Prakti encompasses all of reality's mental, ethical, emotional, sensory, and physical components. In non-Skhyan usage, it does mean "essential nature," but that detracts from the heavy Skhyan emphasis on the cognitive, mental, psychological, and sensorial activities of prakti. It is frequently mistranslated as "matter" or "nature." Furthermore, rather than being its core, subtle and gross matter are its most derivate by products. Prakti alone has action.


Samkhya considers ignorance (avidy) to be the primary source of pain and servitude (Samsara). Samkhya asserts that knowledge is the only way to end this suffering (viveka). According to Samkhya School, understanding the distinction between prakti (avyakta-vyakta) and purua (ja) leads to moksha (liberation).


5. Write short notes on any five in about 100 words each. 5*4= 20


a) Upanishad 4

Ans) The Upanishads are also known as Vedanta. Both the "object, the highest purpose of the Veda" and the "last chapters, parts of the Veda" have been used to describe Vedanta. All Upanishads have the same goal of "directing the enquirer toward it" and exploring the nature of tman (oneself). There are many different theories about the relationship between Atman and Brahman, and later commentators tried to reconcile this diversity. The mukhya Upanishads, also known as the Prasthanatrayi, together with the Bhagavad Gita and the Brahma sutra, serve as the foundation for several later schools of Vedanta, such as Adi Shankar’s Advaita Vedanta (monistic or nondualistic), Ramanuja's Vishishtadvaita (qualified monism), and Madhvacharya's Dvaita (1 (dualism).


b) Sankara’s idea of avidya 4

Ans) Advaita Vedanta, a school of classical Indian philosophy, articulates a radical nondualist worldview that it derives from the earliest Upanisadic texts. The Upaniads reveal a fundamental nonduality principle known as "brahman," which is the reality of everything, according to Advaita Vedantins. The brahman according to advaitins is transcendent of individuality and empirical plurality. They aim to prove that brahman is the true essence of the self (tman). The central tenet of Advaita Vedanta is that the tman is unadulterated consciousness that exists independently of will. It is numerically identical to brahman and is one without a second, non-dual, and infinite existence. This endeavour entails connecting the brahman metaphysics to the philosophy of consciousness.


c) Relation between God and soul in Vishishtadvaita 4

Ans) Visnupuranam has long been regarded as one of the greatest Puranas because it describes the magnificence of Visnu's gracious deeds in great detail. This purana has served as a number of sources of inspiration for the Vaisnava religion and philosophy. This work serves as an example of the five different ways that Visnu can exist, including Para, Vyuha, Vibhava, Antaryamin, and Arca. The word "para" stands for "Vyapaka," the all-pervasive and extending grace of existence. It is comparable to rain pouring down everywhere in the world. He resides in the Holy Land of Paramapada and wears the regalia of a king. Vyuha is the Sanskrit word for "surmounting in the universe," specifically "surmounting in the form of yogic sleep at the ocean of milk."


d) Vivekananda’s concept of Universal Religion 4

Ans) Although religions differ in many ways, in his opinion, they do not conflict with one another but rather serve as complements. He asserts that all religions' main objective is to realise this divinity, and that this realisation is what he refers to as the "one universal religion," which he defines as the realisation of divinity within us. According to Vivekananda, man has been seeking out spiritual beings such as destiny, soul, God, etc., and this quest is represented by the conflicting claims of various world religions to have the "exclusive right to live" and to establish absolute dominance in the religious sphere. Hatred, conflict, tension, and other negative outcomes are the result of this mindset.


e) Concept of Democracy in Ambedkar’s Philosophy 4

Ans) Democracy, in Ambedkar's opinion, is more than just a type of government; it is also primarily a way of living together and communicating with one another. He views the equal participation in the existence of human rights as the essence of democracy. He recognised the limitations of the Western model of democracy and gave the word democracy a new meaning. Democracy to him is the absence of caste, slavery, and coercion. It is important to look for the origins of democracy in social interactions and the associated aspects of human life. Freedom is viewed very differently by Ambedkar than it is by Gandhi and Nehru. These two national heroes were more concerned with political freedom. However, Ambedkar prioritised social and political freedom.

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