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MPYE-006: Dalit Philosophy

MPYE-006: Dalit Philosophy

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for MPYE-006 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Dalit Philosophy, you have come to the right place. MPYE-006 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in MAPY courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: MPYE-006/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: MPYE-006

Assignment Name: Dalit Philosophy

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor




i) Give answer of all five questions.

ii) All five questions carry equal marks.

iii) The answer of questions no. 1 and 2 should be in about 500 words.


1. Discuss the role of Bhakti movement in shaping the Dalit worldview. 10+10= 20

Ans) The term "worldview" or "lifeworld" does not refer to a static collection of notions. It is a cognitive process and the structural underpinnings of human subjectivity. The full range of perception, behaviour, decision-making, and choices are under the control of latent and active complexes of values and rules of knowing that are ingrained in both collective and individual consciousness. In a specific living environment of nature and nurture, any human community could have a predominance of nomadic, agrarian, or IT life orientations. The lifeworld of human communities, including Dalit communities, appears to be a mash-up of nomadic, agrarian, and IT components in the globalised context of the modern age. In the depths of their collective consciousness, along with the effects of their historical successes and failures, is the entire complex web of oral wisdom, written discourses, movie stories, or television serials from the native Dalit soil's religions, cultures, or literature.


Caste conflicts tear apart human society vertically and horizontally. The philosophical exploration of the following Dalit conflict consciousness manifestations and aspects at the level of their inner worldviews is necessary: assertive obedience, chaotic harmony, polytheistic monotheism, disorderly order, noisy contemplation, oral memory, revolting consensus, and restless composure. Therefore, philosophising from a Dalit perspective is very difficult due to the conflicting dimensions of the Dalit worldview. It could be done by critically examining the historical and practical dehumanisation process that Dalit life has undergone in its cultural, social, and psychological context. It is also necessary to recognise the complex intertextuality that is inherent in the Dalit worldview. When we are highly sensitive with openness towards the fabric of Dalit roots and resources, we realise that the perspectives of liberal and modernist values of solidarity, identification, oneness, or liberation in general are too inadequate.


The Bhakti movements in India changed not only peoples' religious beliefs but also their social outlook and way of life. (1994, 8; Chinnathambi). The mediaeval bhakti movement is a widespread uprising of local knowledge. Most of those who support these come from the so-called lower strata of society. The Dalit existence itself, with its historical struggles, is fervently tuned to move its present wounded history toward a new possibility of establishing a new human community. The clear and ambiguous agenda of this change is to move away from the condition of forced exclusion and humiliation and toward the possibility of conscious inclusion of others as fellow humans deserving of respect and equality. In other words, Dalits are working to change the current deplorable conditions while creating a new moral order that ensures that personal dignity can be celebrated alongside all other people as sisters and brothers.


The bhakti movement fell short in one crucial area: although it attempted to live up to a vision of freedom and equality, it was unable to provide a sociological or historical explanation for why inequality existed. It opposed Brahmanism but was unable to analyse its roots or sources of support. This had to wait for a more thorough analysis, which started to take shape when colonialism brought India into contact with the modern world, industry, and scientific thinking.




Write an essay on the relation between Spirituality and aesthetic experience in Dalit Worldview. 20



2. Write an essay on the metaphysical position of Philosopher Tolkappiyar. 20

Ans) The Tamil grammar book Tolkappiyam was written by Tolkappiyar. Tolkappiyar claimed that the natural world is divided into categories based on word and substance. The categories for natural objects are uyir, mei, and uyir-mei. The substance includes time, space, the soul, the body, God, action, the elements, the sun, the moon, and the written word (porul). The Tolkappiyam affirms that both matter and the soul are real. The grouping of the alphabets reveals a particular relationship between matter and the soul or spirit. The vowel and consonant-based Uyir and Mey alphabets are used in Tamil. They have the same etymological meaning as the soul and body. The consonants combine with the twelve of these "soul" letters to create meaning and life. The body is given life by the spirit, who gives matter life. Any existence, including words in languages and all life on Earth, derives its meaning from the union of soul and matter, or uyir and mey. The vowels retain their original characteristics when they join with the consonants. Vowel only makes an appearance through the body of a consonant. Tolkappiyar is well aware of the distinctions between the two realities of matter and soul. Analysis of the metaphysical concepts of soul and matter found in Tolkappiyam reveals that the spirit and matter continuum is crucial for meaningful linguistic expression and for ordinary human existence on earth.


It is crucial to remember that the dichotomy between the soul and the body does not serve our interests when talking about personhood. The human being is a holistic being, with both the body and the soul given equal status and importance. Tolkappiyam's personality emphasises the value of having a healthy body. Only a physically fit body is capable of responding to its environment and expressing its thoughts and emotions. The importance of the body and appearance to a persona cannot be understated because externalisation (meyppatu) is an essential component of a persona. Tolkappiyam makes the importance of a person's physical appearance abundantly clear. Ancient Tamils had a pragmatic existential philosophical tradition. Tolkappiyam gives us the understanding that proper recognition of spirit and matter is necessary for meaningful existence. It is impossible to undervalue and dismiss the existence of either spirit or matter. Uyir and mei combine to create existence and meaningful words. In contrast to other combinations of uyir and mei, uyir-mei has spirit and matter as its fundamental components. According to Tamil tradition, human nature is a harmonious fusion of spirit and matter, not just the body or the soul. Human nature is a materialised spirit as well as spirited matter.


Naturalism was a distinctive trait of the Tamils. The outcome is Bhuatavada. Speaking about how letters were created from a sound called "pirappin akam" in the air, Tolkappiyar makes reference to this. The ancient Tamil philosophers began their philosophical journey by going "from external to internal." There were both nila theivam and kula teivam, or clan and land gods. Nila Theivam must be understood in light of the development of the Bhutavada, which produced a consensus viewpoint on how people interact with nature.




Write a note on the Ambedkar’s idea of Annihilation of Caste. 20



1. Answer any two questions in about 250 words each. 2*10= 20


a) Explain the materialist features of Dalit eschatology. 10

Ans) Since there is no such thing as a Dalit religion today, one might argue that there cannot, strictly speaking, be a Dalit eschatology. One might also contend that Dalits are present in all major religions, including Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Sikhism, and many others. The initial uprising against the imposed philosophical and theological systems is what we need to derive as Dalit eschatology. Given this context, it is possible to categorise Hinduism, Christianity, and Islam as anti-Dalit today, and their understanding of the end times conflicts with that of the Dalits. The core of Dalit eschatology, on the other hand, can be defined as the system (Materialism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism) that opposed the invasion of the Dalit way of life and worldview. From that vantage point, it is necessary to consider these schools' significant eschatological understandings and claims. It is a philosophical system that only takes into account facts provided by the nature of the subject. It has a faith in the real world. It gives the individual and his comforts top priority. It rejects both the supernatural and the existence of God. Following what could be described as Dalit eschatology, Kamat Jyotsna draws from a variety of anti-Brahminic and philosophical traditions, including Carvaka philosophy, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, and other forms of Naturalism.


Carvaka asserts that there is no such thing as God, who is supposed to have created the universe. The universe was created by natural phenomena and has existed for all of recorded time. As a result, there is no God who created the universe.


b) Write an essay on Gandhi-Ambedkar debate on the caste system in India. 10

Ans) Ambedkarian philosophy seeks to grant liberty, equality, and justice to all people without regard to caste, creed, or gender. It also seeks to give life to those who are rejected, elevate those who are oppressed, and ennoble those who are downtrodden. Ambedkar always has the oppressed and the downtrodden as his main concerns. Ambedkar understood that the only way to advance in society, particularly in a society where religion (Hinduism) controls every aspect of societal cohesion, is through a proper education. He developed into a fierce opponent of the caste system. He was adamant that all crimes against the Dalits in India were a result of the caste system that exists in Indian society. He believed that the wounded psyche of the oppressed Dalits could only be healed by education. Ambedkar rose to prominence as a champion of the oppressed. He inspired the oppressed to fight for their own uplift. Ambedkar is one of the few Indians who worked hard to reform Indian society according to humanitarian ideals. He supported social and financial freedom. He fought against the economic exploitation and social discrimination that the oppressed community had to endure. Ambedkar believed that the caste system's abolition would foster unity in the divided Indian society. Untouchables, Dalits, and tribal people should be seen as distinct from the Hindu community, according to Ambedkar. Ambedkar views religion as an ambiguous term with no clear definition. He also recognised that for religion to endure, it must be compatible with logic. Liberty, equality, and fraternity are essential tenants of true religion.


c) Compare the Vaidic idea of death and transition with the Dalit idea of death and transition. 10



d) Discuss the role of Narayan Guru and Jyotiba Phule in the development of the idea of equality. 10



4. Answer any four questions in about 150 words each. 4*5= 20


a) Discuss the role of myth and memory in Dalit philosophy. 5



b) Write a short note on the idea of body in Dalit worldview. 5

Ans) Vemula's note leaves us with some ideas about two ways to transcend the 'untouchable', stigmatised Dalit body: by treating every human being as a ‘mind' without reference to his or her socially marked body; or, alternatively, by thinking beyond the 'individual' body of the Dalit person and considering the substance that connects all bodies to the substance that makes up our universe—the ancient atomic and sub-atomic particles, the ‘stardust,' in Vemul

In the depths of their collective consciousness, along with the effects of their historical successes and failures, is the entire complex web of oral wisdom, written discourses, movie stories, or television serials from the native Dalit soil's religions, cultures, and literature. The full range of perception, behaviour, decision-making, and choices are under the control of latent and active complexes of values and rules of knowing that are ingrained in both collective and individual consciousness.


c) Write a note on subaltern religion. 5

Ans) Iyothee Thass developed a new discourse on God while examining the texts that were written about God and the soul critically. God is a term used to describe those men and women who, through their own morally upright behaviour toward other people and society, have been immortalised in history and served as an example for succeeding generations. The word "God" is the perfect invitation for everyone to elevate their moral standing to that of the Divine. Venerating these deities is a joyful reminder to fortify one's resolve to emulate them, not out of fear or out of desire for their favour. For him, religion is living the kind of life the Buddha taught. The three core ethical precepts of Buddha are: refrain from sin (Kanma Bhaagai); act morally righteously (Artha Bhaagai); and purify your heart (Gnana Bhaagai). The four (Bhedas)—Aram, Porul, Inbam, and Veedu—further explain these fundamental doctrines. Each Bhaagai possesses eight upanidams, or deeper understandings.


d) Write a short note on tantric philosophy. 5

Ans) In India, Sakti worship is a very old custom that is largely indigenous. Although it appears that the mother goddess was revered in the Indus valley civilization, goddesses are not given much attention in the Vedic literature. From the beginning, people have worshipped female deities on a widespread scale. She is regarded as Siva's consort. Sakti, Devi, Chandi, Chamunda, Durga, Uma, Amman, and Mahamaya are some of the names she goes by. Sakti derives its name from the Sanskrit words for power, knowledge, and bliss. She is the Mayan force that gives Siva his determination and endows him with knowledge, will, and action. A number of local goddesses go by the name Sakti. Sakti worship is the worship of the consort of the deity. This has been done in a variety of ways, from simply depicting the deity and his spouse to making her the main focus of worship. The idea behind Sakti worship is that because the eternal Siva is dormant, Sakti is active.


e) “Caste is a division of laborer, not the division of labor.” Evaluate. 5



f) Write a note on Communitarian Aesthetics. 5

Ans) Anthropologists' interest in drawing conclusions about social structure, history, and cultural values can be seen as a motivation for studying the Dalit aesthetic. A classification of societies may be reflected in the classification of art forms. (1963, Sparshott). Dalit aesthetics is a communitarian aesthetic. They communicate their own perceptions of Beauty as it is represented in local works of art. The community is made up of those who appreciate the artwork. When a single person creates an artwork, it is sporadic, having its own time and place. A community's artistic output and an aesthetic object transcend time and space. Any viewer can feel the same emotions as the society once the art product has expressed the experiences of that society through the proper understanding and appreciation of that art form. Dalit art forms allow one to both enter into the experiences of others and to have their own experiences become more intense and well-rounded. Dalit art is communal in nature.


5. Write short notes on any five in about 100 words each. 5*4= 20


a) Idea of Diety in Dalit worldview 4



b) Karagattam 4

Ans) Karagaattam Karagam is a traditional dance that is performed while holding a pot aloft. The villagers used to perform this dance in honour of the river goddess Gangai Amman and the rain goddess Mari Amman while carrying water pots on their heads (Samy 2006). An old Tamil Nadu folk dance called karakaattam is performed in honour of Mariamman, the rain goddess. According to an old Tamil epic, this style of dance evolved from Bharatham and was a combination of various Tamil dance styles, including Bharatanatyam mudras and postures. This dance is an offering made to the goddess to request rain. The dance is performed to songs like folk Carnatic music (Amrithavarshini).


c) Veedu 4

Ans) Life is an adventure. It is an ascent to destinies. Humans dedicate their lives to seeking out their destiny and working hard to do so. Different thinkers have different perspectives on human destiny and ways to fulfil it. Thiruvalluvar discusses aram, porul, and inbam in great detail. He does not, however, make his opinions about Veedu clear. Veedu translates as freedom. His philosophy is based on ethics as a universal principle. By demonstrating how one lives with the common good as one's ultimate goal, he gives meaning to family life. The instructions of Thiruvalluvar would guide society and each person toward holistic development.


d) Democracy 4

Ans) The degree of equality demanded by the definition of democracy can vary. In an election for representatives to an assembly where there is competition for the position, it might just be the formal equality of one person, one vote. Or it might be stronger, incorporating equality in the decision-making and coalition-building processes. Any of these political systems may be referred to as "democracy." Exercise of democracy requires respect for both equality and authority. It is assumed that disobeying a democratic assembly's decisions equates to treating one's fellow citizens with deference. And this strategy establishes the legitimacy of democracy by asserting that the most significant form of inequality is the inequality involved in disobeying the democratic assembly.


e) Myth 4

Ans) The well-known Purusa-Sukta myth, found in Hymn 10.90 of the Rgveda, is the primary etiological text on the development of the caste system. Purusa is the Brahmanical representation of the enormous primordial man from whose body everything that is exists. According to legend, Purusa had a thousand heads and feet in addition to emanating Viraj, the female creative principle. The Vedic chants began as Purusha was sacrificed, and from him the four castes or varnas were born: the Brahmins (the educated men who would become the priestly sages and religious leaders of the people), the Kshatriyas (the powerful men who would be the warriors who would defend the nation), and the Vaishyas (men of business acumen who would ensure the prosperity and econom) from his thighs (humble toilers, who lacked the governing graces of the other three varnas).


f) Buffalo Nationalism 4

Ans) He vigorously supports the Dalitization of Indian society in Buffalo Nationalism, which would destroy spiritual fascism. He suggests using the buffalo as an example of a productive animal that exemplifies Dalit-Bahujan virtues. the right to convert, the OBCs' support of Hindu nationalism, the spread of the English language and education, reservation quotas in employment and education, globalisation, and gender are all addressed in the. His writings demonstrate intellectual rigour as they outline his ideal society. Lack of trustworthy leaders who could guide the Dalits toward liberation and freedom is one of the reasons why there haven't been coordinated efforts on their part to create a casteless society.


g) Idea of Four Margas in Saiva Bhakti Tradition 4



h) Pratityasamutpada 4


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