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MSW-004: Social Work and Social Development

MSW-004: Social Work and Social Development

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

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Assignment Code: MSW-004/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: MSW-004

Assignment Name: Social Work and Social Development

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Answer all the five questions. All questions carry equal marks. Answers to question number 1 and 2 should not exceed 600 words each.


Q1) Define sustainable development. Discuss the impact of globalization on sustainable development.

Ans) The definition of sustainable development is development that satisfies current demands without compromising the capacity of future generations to satisfy their own needs. Two fundamental ideas are contained in it: the idea of requirements, particularly the basic needs of the world's poor, to which top priority should be given; and the notion of environmental restrictions brought about by the current state of technology and societal structure.


This definition focuses on two things: first, addressing the needs of the underprivileged through development, and second, the detrimental effects of current technology and development on the planet's resources, which jeopardise the survival of future generations. It makes an effort to bring together the seemingly opposing concepts of environment and development. It acknowledges that humankind must rely on nature to meet its requirements and that development must continue to address the needs of the underprivileged who have not yet benefited from it.


Globalization and Sustainable Development

Five ways are cited by proponents of economic globalisation as ways in which it lessens resource use:

  1. It ends state monopolies on resources in closed economies because natural resources are used more frequently because they are viewed as being free.

  2. Trade and investment broaden access to technology, which is better at utilising resources, especially in industries like mining, energy, transportation, and industry.

  3. Technology is often advanced standardised across nations by transnational firms.

  4. Because their exports to developed countries must comply with the stringent environmental regulations there, the rapidly developing countries are efficient in terms of resources thanks to the open marketplaces.

  5. The globalised economy also enables production to utilise energy and raw materials more effectively on a global scale.


Direct Foreign Investment and the Expansion Effect

The fossil model of development, which is very resource-intensive, has also been heavily distributed to the growing markets of East Asia and South America by the trio of the USA, EU, and Japan. Extraction of raw materials, energy production, and transportation infrastructure are investment priorities since they all increase energy consumption. Thus, the developing world's sharp increase in carbon dioxide emissions while the industrialised world only saw a slight increase as a result of the removal of state obstacles to foreign investment.


Deregulation and the Competitive Effect

In order to subject market laws to international competition, globalisation aims to free them from the web of national norms and standards. Like all other regulated industries, environmental protection is under assault in many nations that place a higher priority on gaining competitive advantage than on safeguarding their environment or natural resources. The process of economic globalisation has mostly prevented most nations from making any significant advancements in national environmental policy.


Currency Crisis and the Sell-Out Effect

When there is a currency crisis, the afflicted nations are frequently pressured to export their natural resources more quickly and widely in order to increase exports and generate foreign currency, allowing them to pay back loans and import the bare minimal amount of capital, products, and food. The massive export of oil, gas, metals, timber, animal feed, and agricultural products from nations of the south affected by financial crisis is proof that nature has transformed into a source of revenue.


Colonization of Nature

According to Sachs, economic globalisation encourages a fresh colonisation of the natural world. The patent system gives corporations monopoly rights over biotic organisms like seeds and plants, preventing other people from using them. Agriculture in developing nations uses a lot of biodiversity, which genetic engineering might ruin.


Q2) Analyze how Indian judicial system is organized and functions at different levels..

Ans) Under British rule, independent India's legal system was established, and Anglo-Saxon ideals and practises are present throughout. The Indian justice system is a unitary one both at the state and federal levels, although being run separately by the Union and the States.


National Judiciary

Today, judges preside over practically all trials; juries are no longer used. In India, the judiciary is separate from the executive. Although the Parliament has the authority to remove a Supreme Court or High Court judge, this is a power that is rarely used in reality. During their terms, Supreme Court and High Court judges are incredibly free from political and other meddling.


The Supreme Court has authority over initial cases, appeals, and advisory matters. The Supreme Court of India serves as the country's final court of appeals and the ultimate interpreter of both the Constitution and the laws of the land. It serves as a court of review for lower tribunals and considers appeals from the High Courts. All civil and criminal cases involving significant constitutional interpretation disputes are subject to its appellate jurisdiction.


State Judiciary

For each State, there are high courts and lower courts that make up the state judiciary. The High Court is in charge of a State's judicial system. Various state high courts have authority over the Union Territories. Each high court has a Chief Justice as well as any additional justices that the President may occasionally appoint. Each high court has jurisprudential authority over all lower courts under its purview, including the district and sessions courts.



Written prayers request specific relief. Supreme and High Courts issue writs to do or not do something. This could include an order to quash a verdict, a direction to produce a detained individual, or a direction to a government authority. Any State act or omission that infringes basic rights can be challenged in the Supreme Court under Article 32. Articles 226 and 227 of the Indian Constitution allow a writ petition to challenge an order's legality and propriety or to supervise lower courts. A party shouldn't submit a writ if they may appeal or use another remedy.


Lower Judiciary

Subordinate courts are criminal and civil. District and session courts are the top civil and criminal tribunals in a district. A session judge oversees criminal proceedings and a district judge civil cases. The governor appoints these justices with the state supreme court's approval. Below the district level, public service commission’s choose judicial officials through a competitive exam. The federal Criminal Procedure Code and state Civil Procedure Codes regulate criminal court terminology, jurisdiction, and structure.


Civil Courts

Each district has a district court presided over by a district judge who acts as the chief of the judiciary and has unrestricted original civil jurisdiction over the district. Different states name lesser courts differently. Subdistrict or Munsif courts hear civil cases. Civil courts are Munsif courts and subordinate courts. These courts appeal to the district court, which appeals to the supreme court. A litigant can appeal on facts and law and law alone.


Criminal Courts

Magistrates of first or second class and the court of session make up the criminal courts. The court of session and the High Court both hear appeals. Less serious criminal cases are given to magistrate courts that work under the sessions judge. The Courts of Metropolitan Magistrates, presided over by the Chief Metropolitan Magistrates, have original jurisdiction in metropolitan regions. Disputes are commonly settled at the village level by Panchayats, which can be appealed to the District and Sessions Court.


Q3) Answer any two of the following questions in about 300 words each: 10x2


a) Explain the constitutional provisions for protecting the rights of SCs and STs.

Ans) Article 15(1) of the Indian Constitution prohibits discrimination against any group of people based on their place of birth, race, religion, or national origin. This principle is upheld by the constitution, which does away with religiously based legislative or other public office reservations as well as communal representation.


The state is required to take special care to advance the economic and educational interests of the weaker segments of society, particularly the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, and to protect them from social injustice, according to Article 46 of the directive principles. Any such state regulation that is made cannot be contested on the grounds that it is discriminatory. Similar to Part III of the constitution, Part III guarantees fundamental rights and has numerous provisions that safeguard the rights of minorities.


Constitutional Provisions

  1. Special Protection under Fundamental Rights: According to the concept of "positive discrimination," Part III's article 15(4) allowed the state to create special accommodations for SCs, STs, women, children, and other underprivileged sections.

  2. Abolition of Untouchability: According to article 17, the elimination of untouchability is one of the essential rights. The Protection of Civil Rights Act of 1955 adds to this.

  3. Directive Principles: Article 46 of the DPSP states that the state must take all reasonable steps to safeguard and advance the economic and educational interests of SCs and STs.

  4. Minister of Tribal Welfare: According to Article 164, there must be a minister in charge of tribal welfare who is also in charge of the welfare of the SC and other backward classes in the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Orissa.

  5. Grants in Aid to States Promoting Welfare of STs: Grants-in-aid to the states for improving the welfare of scheduled tribes are provided by Article 275.

  6. Lowering Standards of Evaluation: Provisions for lowering the criteria of evaluation or relaxing the requirements for passing any exam, as well as for reserving certain positions or promotions for SCs and STs. According to Article 335, claims made by SC and ST members must be taken into account while maintaining the effectiveness of the union's and the states' administrative processes for making appointments.

  7. Separate National Commissions for SC and ST: National commissions for STs and SCs are provided for in articles 338 and 338A, respectively. All of a civil court's investigative authority has been granted to these committees. All significant issues impacting SCs and STs must be discussed with the commissions by the federal and state governments.


b) Discuss the salient features of rural and tribal communities.

Ans) The earliest human societies were likely loosely organised groups of a few facilities that engaged in mutually reliant activities such as food collecting and self-defence. Scheduled tribes are described as "those tribes or tribal communities or parts of groups within such tribes or tribal communities as are deemed under Article 342 to be scheduled tribe for the purposes of this constitution" under Article 366(25) of the Indian constitution. The accepted standards for designating a group as a scheduled tribe include signs of primitive characteristics, distinctive cultural qualities, geographic isolation, reluctance to interact with the general population, and backwardness.


Features of Urban Community

  1. Namelessness: According to Bogardus' observations, namelessness is a common attribute of metropolitan societies. Because of its size and population, a primacy group is impossible. A resident of a city may be there for a number of years without knowing the names of one-third of its residents.

  2. Homelessness: Another distinctive aspect of city life is homelessness. Many people in cities experience homelessness and are compelled to live in slums since the issue of shelter is so prevalent.

  3. Class Extremes: Extremes of class define urban life. In a city, one can find both the richest and the poorest individuals, those who live in lavish mansions and are surrounded by luxury as well as others who scavenge for food on the streets.

  4. Social Heterogeneity: In comparison to rural areas, urban environments are more diversified. We can observe a multicultural culture that is a mingling of many races, people, and cultures and is an ideal environment for the development of new biological and cultural hybrids.


Features of Tribal Community

  1. There should be a minimum level of functional interdependence among tribes.

  2. It ought to have a poor economy.

  3. The population should be relatively geographically isolated.

  4. They ought to speak a same dialect.

  5. Politically active tribes and powerful communal panchayats are both desirable.

  6. Customary laws should exist within a tribe.


Q4) Answer any four of the following questions in about 150 words each: 5x4


a) What are the basic linkages between social work and human rights.

Ans) In an effort to value social justice and social change in their small-scale interactions, social workers have made an effort to work with clients in ways that are ameliorative and appreciative of their diversity and distinctions. These issues have been the cornerstone for the development of human rights-based social work. The National Association of Social Workers supports the Universal Declaration, conventions, and treaties in its policy statement International Policy on Human Rights because, in their opinion, they serve as a model for upholding human rights in social work.


The social work profession's beliefs, ethics, and principles which are unavoidably expected of social workers in their practical settings can be analysed through the lens of the human rights framework. As was stated, when social workers fail to put these concepts into practise, they victimise and disempower their clients. By adopting a humanitarian strategy based on the realisation of human rights and citizenship, social workers could engage in ways that respect the interdependence between various societal groups and assist the implementation of reciprocity in their contacts with them.


b) Explain the role of social worker in providing assistance to vulnerable sections of the society.

Ans) Workers Untouchability can be solved only by changing India's socioeconomic and political framework. Legislation is insufficient. Vital to legislative success is a robust public opinion. It's commonly stated that not invoking or following the Act's provisions is due to a lack of awareness. Social workers can address this problem, but before spreading awareness, they must understand the problem, its effects, and relevant legal channels. Social workers must make it apparent in their awareness campaigns that untouchability is illegal. They might organise programmes with lawyers to inform SC/ST about legal schemes and provisions.


They can travel rural and tribal regions and attend paralegal camps and seminars. They can be forums for discussion, planning, and addressing atrocities and social inequality with authorities. They can educate, enlighten, and lobby for favourable laws. Social workers can bring high caste lawyers' cases to court if they won't. This is especially important because most states offer insignificant legal aid to untouchables. Untouchability will persist without punishment. In the lack of supportive resources, untouchability victims may not find the Act helpful.


c) What do you understand by industrial society?

Ans) A pre-industrial society is transformed into an industrial society by the process of industrialization, which involves changes in technology, the economy, and society. This is made possible by the mass manufacture of things using machine technology and inanimate power sources. Large-scale industry is the distinctive aspect of production in an industrial society. Pre-industrial societies include agrarian, pastoral, and tribal communities because they predated the Industrial Revolution in England, which gave rise to this sort of society.


Production technique is merely one aspect of the difference between industrial and pre-industrial society; there are many other areas as well. The pre-industrial civilization is conventional, focused on basic pursuits, and employs a straightforward system of labour division. The industrial society, in comparison, is contemporary and has a high level of occupational specialisation. The pre-industrial culture was characterised by close family networks, primary interactions, and strong familial ties. Secondary relations and goal-oriented associations are more common in industrial society. Beliefs and attitudes are becoming more secular, and there is a great degree of mobility in the society.

d) Differentiate between growth and development.

Ans) What are the points of contrast between growth and development? Let us look at some crucial points.

Q5) Write short notes on any five of the following questions in about 100 words each: 4x5


a) Domestic Violence Act, 2005

Ans) To effectively protect the rights of women as granted by the Constitution, the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005, was passed.


  1. Domestic violence is defined in Section 3 of the Act as abuse that is either actual or threatened to be physical, sexual, verbal, emotional, or economic. The issue of harassing a woman or her family by making illegitimate dowry demands is also covered.

  2. Not simply the victim, but "any individual who has reason to believe" domestic violence has or is being committed, may file a report. The victim can get assistance from neighbours, social workers, relatives, etc.

  3. Many ladies were terrified of being evicted. By virtue of this new Act, the court may order a woman to live in the same home and possess a portion of it for her own use, even if she has no legal interest in or claim to the property.

  4. The Act safeguards the woman from present and potential acts of violence and forbids the aggressor from displacing her, causing damage to her property, or entering her place of employment.

  5. Additionally, the accused may be prohibited from contacting the harmed party in any way, including through personal, oral, writing, electronic, or telephonic contact.

b) Malthusian Theory of Growth

Ans) The English clergyman Rev. Thomas Robert Malthus was the first academic to relate population growth and its impact on development. In order to design a strategy to curb population growth, he attempted to understand its causes and effects. Malthus suggested using both positive checks and negative checks to manage this issue. Positive checks are natural disasters like starvation, pestilence, and epidemics that eliminate "excess" population in order for society to survive.


Nature places these "positive checks" on the lower classes since they tend to reproduce more. Negative checks are a type of "preventive" strategy that includes vices as well as forced moral restraints on the cohabitation of the poor. Other examples include celibacy and postponing marriages to prevent rapid reproduction. Malthus was adamantly opposed to providing organised aid or charity to the poor because he believed that if their living conditions improved, it would encourage them to have more children, which would lead to additional population growth.


c) Fundamental Duties

Ans) The table below lists the eleven Fundamental Duties under Article 51-A that every Indian citizen must uphold:

  1. Respect the Indian Constitution, its goals, and its institutions, as well as the National Anthem and Flag

  2. Respect and uphold the great principles that motivated the nation's fight for freedom.

  3. uphold and defend India's independence, unity, and integrity.

  4. When required, defend the nation, and perform national service.

  5. Promote harmony and a sense of common brotherhood among all Indians, notwithstanding their differences in religion, language, geography, or social class, and condemn traditions that are offensive to women's dignity.

  6. Value and safeguard the rich history of the nation's diverse culture.

  7. To preserve and enhance the natural world, including its woods, lakes, rivers, and wildlife, as well as to show compassion for all living things

  8. Develop a humanistic outlook, a scientific mindset, and a spirit of reformation.

  9. Protecting public property and avoiding violence

  10. Strive for excellence in all areas of personal and societal endeavour so that the country is always striving for greater levels of endeavour and success.

  11. To his ward or child between the ages of six and fourteen, provide educational possibilities. The 86th Constitutional Amendment Act of 2002 added this duty.


d) Universal declaration of human rights

Ans) A key document in the development of human rights is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The Declaration, which was written by representatives from all around the world with varying legal and cultural backgrounds, was adopted as a common benchmark of accomplishments by the United Nations General Assembly in Paris on December 10, 1948. It has been translated into more than 500 languages and for the first time lays out the need for all people to have access to basic human rights protections. More than 70 human rights treaties are currently in force at both the global and regional levels thanks in large part to the UDHR, which is widely acknowledged as having cleared the path for their approval.


e) Women and Development

Ans) Ghosh claims that traditional conceptions of development have emphasised growth as seen from the standpoint of males. Most often, especially in developing nations, women's relationships with economic, social, and environmental challenges of development have been disregarded. Women were partially included in development programmes as a result of the women's movement in the 1970s and the United Nations Decade for Women, which recognised the notions of feminism, women, and development. The focus of policy relating to women and development has shifted from welfare to concerns with equity, poverty eradication, income generation, and empowerment. These theories all take a distinct approach to how women contribute to development.

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