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MSW-013: Introduction to Psychological Basis of Counselling

MSW-013: Introduction to Psychological Basis of Counselling

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

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Assignment Code: MSW-013/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: MSW-013

Assignment Name: Introduction to Psychological Basis of Counselling

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Answer all the five questions. All questions carry equal marks. Answers to question no. 1 and 2 should not exceed 600 words each.


Q1) Explain the Origin of Psychology and its Current Nature.

Ans) Psychology has philosophical roots, and although it did not become a distinct field of study until the late 1800s, its earliest records date back to the early Greeks. The concept of dualism was first put forth during the 17th century by the French philosopher Rene Descartes, who claimed that the mind and body are two distinct entities that interact to create the human experience. Conversely, some philosophers advocated interactionism, the idea that the body and the mind are interconnected.


Physiology then came into play. Many discoveries made between 1860 and 1880 gave rise to the notion that psychology would one day be a legitimate scientific science. This incident is typically seen as marking the official beginning of psychology as a separate and distinct branch of science. Early debates regarding the subject matter of psychology were frequent. This gave rise to three distinct schools of thought, which were:


  1. Structuralism, which advocated that psychology should concentrate on identifying the fundamental mental structures. Finding the components that make up the mind was the structuralists' aim. They believed that, similar to chemistry, the description of the fundamental, or elementary, units of sensation, image, and emotion that make up the mind should be the first step in studying it. Introspection was the key technique the structuralists employed to identify these fundamental mental building blocks.

  2. Gestalt Psychology: Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, and Wolfgang Kohler created this school of psychology in Germany in 1912. These early psychologists disagreed with structuralists' view that the mind is composed of various components. They argued that the mind is not a collection of basic components. Gestalt is a German word that meaning shape or configuration, and according to Gestalt psychologists, the mind should be seen as coming from the relationships and organisational structures within the entire pattern of sensory activity.

  3. Functionalism argued that the field should concentrate on how consciousness functions. At the University of Chicago, functionalists like John Dewey, James R. Angell, and Harvey Carr suggested that psychology should focus on "what thought, and behaviour do." They were particularly interested in the idea that the mind and behaviour are adaptable, allowing a person to change with their environment.

  4. Behaviourism made the argument that psychology should only research observable, overt behaviour that can be assessed objectively. John B. Watson, who spent a lot of time at John Hopkins University, founded this institution. Watson rejected psychology's study of the mind in favour of limiting it to the study of behaviour, or the observable behaviours of people and animals. Behaviourism also possessed three other crucial traits regarding behaviour as the proper area of psychology. The first was a focus on conditioned reactions. The focus on learnt behaviour over unlearned behaviour was a second closely related trait of behaviourism. It disregarded the idea that people had innate or inborn behavioural patterns. The focus on animal behaviour was behaviourism’s third defining feature.


Psychologists had been quietly researching memory, reasoning, problem-solving, and other cognitive processes while this revolution had been simmering for some time. With the introduction of computers, these scientific fields advanced. These improvements in study methodology were quickly followed by ways for monitoring brain activity in conscious individuals while they conducted various cognitive tasks. As a result, the early behaviourists' belief that certain processes were impenetrable and their opposition to investigating them vanished. One of the most active research fields in psychology nowadays is the study of cognitive processes.


Q2) Discuss about Panic and Phobic Disorders.


Panic Disorders

Panic is acute and extreme anxiety with accompanying physiological symptoms. Panic attacks may occur in any anxiety disorder, usually in response to a specific situation tied to the main characteristic of the disorder.



Panic attacks are common, occurring in more than a third of adults each year. Women are two to three times more likely than men to have panic attacks. Panic disorder is uncommon and is diagnosed in slightly less than 1 percent of the population. Panic disorder usually begins in late adolescence and early adulthood.



At least four of the following symptoms must suddenly arise in order for there to be a panic attack:

  1. Breathlessness or a feeling of being choked

  2. Faintness, shakiness, or dizziness

  3. Heart palpitations or a faster heartbeat

  4. Shaking or trembling

  5. Sweating

  6. Choking

  7. Stomach discomfort, diarrhoea, or nausea

  8. Feelings of disconnection from the surroundings, strangeness, or unreality 

  9. Feelings of numbness or tingling

  10. Chills or flushing

  11. Chest discomfort or agony

  12. Fear of death

  13. Fear of 'losing it' or 'becoming insane'


Symptoms will vary from person to person, but the common ones are palpitations, shortness of breath, sweating, choking sensation, tremors, dizziness, and fear that he is going to die.



Patients respond more favourably to treatment when they are aware that panic disorder involves both biological and psychological processes. If panic attacks return after a medication is stopped, it could take a long time for it to work again. Fear is usually reduced with the help of exposure treatment, a type of behaviour therapy in which the patient is repeatedly exposed to whatever triggers a panic episode. Exposure treatment is used until the patient is completely at ease in the situation that causes their fear. People who fear passing out during a panic attack may practise spinning on a chair or taking deep breaths until they get lightheaded.


Phobic Disorders

A phobia is a chronic, irrational, severe anxiety disorder that is triggered by a particular external circumstance, such as looking down from a height or approaching a little puppy. People who suffer from phobias either avoid the events that make them anxious, or they put up with them while suffering greatly.



Agoraphobia, which is defined as a dread of markets, was once only used to refer to fears of being alone in open spaces, but it is now applied more broadly. It describes a feeling of being trapped and a morbid fear of locations and circumstances from which the patient feels he cannot simply escape to a safer place, typically home. People with agoraphobia frequently find it difficult to ride a bus, train, or aeroplane, stand in line at a bank or supermarket, or sit in the middle of a long row in a theatre or classroom.



During any 6-month period, 3.8 percent of women and 1.8 percent of men are diagnosed with agoraphobia. It is unusual for the illness to make its initial appearance after age 40; it typically starts in the early 20s.



  1. Anxiety about being in locations or circumstances from where escape may be challenging or where assistance may not be available in the event of an unplanned or situation-related panic attack or symptoms similar to a panic attack.

  2. Fears frequently involve familiar groups of circumstances, such as leaving the house alone, being around people or in a queue, being on a bridge, or riding in a bus, train, or car.

  3. The events are avoided or else endured with notable difficulty, worry about having a panic attack or other signs of a panic attack, or with the need for a partner.



Exposure therapy, a type of behaviour therapy, is the most effective treatment for agoraphobia. The individual seeks out, confronts, and maintains contact with what they fear until their anxiety is gradually reduced through familiarity with the circumstance. This is done with the aid of a therapist. More than 90% of those who use exposure therapy consistently benefit from it.


Q3) Answer any two of the following questions in about 300 words each: 10x2


a) Explain the Psycho analytical theory of personality by Sigmund Freud.

Ans) By far, Sigmund Freud is the most well-known person in psychology history. Despite the fact that Freud was a physician and not a psychologist, his ideas on personality had a significant and long-lasting impact on the study of personality. Freud started working as a doctor shortly after finishing medical school. In Vienna, he collaborated with Joseph Breuer, a colleague who used hypnosis to treat hysteria, a condition in which sufferers experienced physical symptoms including blindness, deafness, or paralysis of the arms or legs without apparent physical cause. Anatomy discusses the numerous systems and pieces that make up a person, whereas physiology discusses the individual body sections.


  1. Functional/Dynamic: The id, ego, and superego are three systems that make up human personality, according to the functional or dynamic concept. These are the names of psychological structures, and because personality acts as a whole, they do not operate separately. The biological, psychological, and social components of personality can be represented as the id, ego, and superego, respectively.

  2. Structural/Topographical: Freud compared personality to an iceberg and believed that the majority of personality existed below our level of consciousness, just as the bulk of an iceberg is below the water's surface. The conscious, the preconscious/subconscious, and the unconscious, in his view, are the three levels or layers of consciousness/awareness that make up personality. Our personality's conscious aspect is linked to awareness.

  3. Anxiety: The ego has a challenging job in its never-ending battle against the hazardous id urges that threaten to explode.

  4. Ego-Defence Mechanisms: To ensure that our ego is not harmed by emotionally upsetting experiences and that we can continue to operate and interact with reality, these unconscious processes serve as a barrier. All of them are intended to suppress the undesirable’s urges and prevent their outright expression.

  5. Psychosexual Stages Of Development: This section includes the theories on the origins or growth of personalities. In this perspective, Freud's views can be grouped under the heading "psychosexual stages of development."

b) Define social diversity and types of social diversity.

Ans) The partition of society into groups is what is meant by the term "social diversity," which describes the coexistence of many social groupings within a certain geographical framework. The Indian social system as a whole is basically cohesive despite distinctions in caste, class, gender, tribe, and other features of religion. The main factors influencing social and cultural variety are ethnic origins, religions, and languages.

  1. Religious Diversity: India does not have a recognised or official state religion. The majority of neighbouring states assert a religious identity: Nepal is a Hindu state, Pakistan and Bangladesh are Islamic states, and Sri Lanka accords particular significance to Buddhism. The clauses in the constitution that safeguard religious freedom serve as a supplement to this.

  2. Linguistic Diversity: One of the primary indicators of social cohesion in any community is language. Languages are a lot more powerful social classifier than social categories like religion, class, caste, tribe, etc. When language identities are mixed with other sorts, group identities are articulated in greater terms. In terms of languages, India is very diverse.

  3. Cast: A system of social interactions is called caste. Based on endogamy, hierarchy, occupational affiliation, purity and pollution, and inscriptive status, it is a significant aspect of Indian civilization.

  4. Tribe: India devoted some attention to the diversity represented in tribal ways of life in addition to religious and linguistic diversity. The constitution designated some locations as being excluded or partially excluded when tribal tribes lived there under some type of protective segregation.

  5. Gender: The term sex is used to describe the biological differences between men and women. The term gender refers to those distinctive characteristics that are socially produced. Gender affects how much control men and women have over their social and economic status as well as their access to resources.

  6. Ethnic Diversity: Indians use a variety of indicators to distinguish themselves from one another. Each region in India has its own distinct local costume and traditional clothing, and Indian society has a rich and diverse textile legacy. The main distinguishing features include male and female clothing, shawls, turbans, and headpieces for both sexes.


Q4) Answer any four of the following questions in about 150 words each: 5x4


a) What are the Psychosexual Stages of Development?


1) The Oral Stage (Birth to 18 months): According to Freud's idea, during this phase, libidinal energy is concentrated in the mouth cavity. Two main activities take place during this time.

a) People in adulthood resort to excessive eating, chewing, chatting, smoking, and drinking, a condition known as "oral fixation."

b) In this stage, fixation leads to an extremely antagonistic demeanour, notably through verbal sarcasm.


2) The anal stage (18 months to 3 years): The anal zone takes on the role of the pleasure centre throughout this period. The youngster must learn to regulate anal stimulation under the pressure of society, most notably from their parents. The psychological effects of an anal fixation during this stage can include an obsession with order, control, and perfection.

3) The Phallic Stage: The Pleasure Zone Shifts to the Genitals during the Phallic Stage (3-6 years). Freud thought that at this period, a boy begins to have unconscious sexual feelings for his mother.

4) Latency Stage (6–12 years): This stage is a dormant stage during which the child socialises, focuses on others, and develops relationships. Sexual impulses are suppressed throughout this time, and kids generally play and engage with their same-sex peers.

5) Genital Stage: Puberty marks the beginning of the genital stage, which lasts until old age. The sexual impulses are once more activated at this time. Teenagers focus their sexual impulses on opposite sex peers, with the primary emphasis of pleasure being the genitals, according to the lessons learnt throughout the earlier stages.


b) Definition and Meaning of Attitude.

Ans) The most important and distinguishing concept in modern social psychology is the notion of social attitude. According to social psychologists, attitude refers to how individuals judge just about any aspect of the social world. Positive or negative reactions can be had by people to problems, concepts, particular people, entire social groupings, and items. A person, item, event, or issue can all be attitude objects. An attitude is a collection of beliefs we have regarding those things. Positive or negative attitudes are possible, as well as ideas about certain topics that lack a strong emotional connection. And Allport offers one of the thorough definitions.


An attitude is a mental or neural state of preparedness that has been organised by experience and that directs or influences how someone will react to all things and circumstances that are relevant to it. According to Warren, attitude refers to a person's particular mental attitude toward an upcoming encounter that modifies the experience or state of preparedness for a particular type of action. Some sociologists and psychologists described attitudes as nothing more than the likelihood that a person will act in a certain way under a certain set of circumstances.


c) Describe mood episodes.

Ans)Major Depressive Episode: The essential feature of a Major Depressive Episode is a period of at least two weeks during which there is either depressed mood or the loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities. In children and adolescents, the mood may be irritable rather than sad. To count toward a Major Depressive Episode, a symptom must either be newly present or must have clearly worsened compared with the person’s pre-episode status.

  1. Mixed Episode: A mixed episode is characterized by a period of time in which the criteria are met both for a Manic Episode and for a Major Depressive Episode nearly every day. The individual experiences rapidly alternating moods  accompanied by symptoms of a Major Depressive Episode. The symptom presentation frequently includes agitation, insomnia, appetite dysregulation, psychotic features, and suicidal thinking

  2. Hypomanic Episode: Hypomania is a lesser degree of mania, in which abnormalities of mood and behaviour are too persistent and marked to be included under cyclothymia but are not accompanied by hallucinations or delusions. There is a persistent mild elevation of mood, increased energy, and activity, and usually marked feelings of well-being and both physical and mental efficiency.


d) Enlist the social Interaction and Social Processes.

Ans) The process of two or more people engaging in meaningful communication and touch with one another, which ultimately results in a slight shift in behaviour, is referred to as social interaction. According to Park and Burgess's perspective, the two most important preconditions for having social contact are Communication and Contact. The first step in any interaction is making touch with one another. The term contact refers to the simple act of distinct social units coming into close proximity with one another. It requires a response that is reciprocal as well as an inward alteration of behaviour in response to the actions of other individuals. Communication is the medium via which interaction takes happen. Interactions with one's neighbours are necessary to the proper operation of a community. They are making a reference to the way people interact with one another in their speech. The majority of men's interactions and the formation of new connections take place within the context of social processes.


Q5) Write short notes on any five of the following questions in about 100 words each: 4x5


a) Ego Psychology

Ans) A branch of psychoanalysis known as ego psychology is founded on Sigmund Freud's structural id, ego, and superego model of the mind. Heinz Hartmann, Erik Erikson, and Anna Freud were some of the most well-known ego psychologists who contributed to the psychoanalytical theoretical framework. They contend that personality development occurs throughout the lifespan. They affirm that the ego aspires to adaptation, competency, and mastery while accepting the conventional Freudian concept that certain conflicts reflect id drives seeking instant fulfilment. Here, ego and connections are given more weight. Ego psychology incorporates and expands on Freud's classical psychoanalysis. By focusing on early, formative relationships, it changes Freud's traditional id drive model.


b) Classical Conditioning

Ans) Ivan Pavlov, a scientist, made the first demonstration of classical conditioning in 1900. When a dog sees a piece of meat, it will naturally start to salivate. Salivation is referred to as an unconditioned reaction because it occurs naturally. The meat portion that serves as the trigger is an "unconditioned stimulus." If you were to present the meat piece repeatedly while wearing a bell, the dog would eventually start to salivate merely from the sound of the bell. The sound of the bell is now a conditioned stimulus and salivating in reaction to it is a conditioned response. It's referred to as classical conditioning.


c) Pharmacotherapy

Ans) The most common kind of treatment for depressed episodes is antidepressants.

Imipramine, Citalopram, Fluoxetine, Venlafaxine, and others are among of the often-prescribed anti-presents with their typical therapeutic dosage range. Antipsychotics have a crucial supporting role in the management of mood disorders. Drugs including risperidone, olanzapine, and haloperidol are frequently utilised. The medication of choice for the management of manic episodes has historically been lithium. It is a stabiliser of mood. Other alternatives to stabilisers include benzodiazepines, carbamazepine, and oxcarbazepine. When someone is psychotic, making suicidal threats, or refusing to eat, electroconvulsive therapy is often used to treat severe depression. As opposed to the majority of antidepressants, which can take up to several weeks to work, this sort of therapy is typically quite successful and can instantly relieve depression.


d) Dissociative Disorders

Ans) Contradictory self-representations that clash with one another are preserved in separate mental compartments throughout most dissociative states. Four categories exist:

  1. Dissociative amnesia is defined by an inability to recall details, typically connected to traumatic or stressful events, which cannot be accounted for by regular forgetfulness, substance consumption, or a general medical condition.

  2. Dissociative fugue is marked by abrupt and unforeseen departures from one's usual place of residence or employment, coupled with a loss of memory for the past, uncertainty about one's own identity, or the adoption of a new identity.

  3. The presence of two or more separate personas within one individual is a defining feature of dissociative identity disorder, which is typically regarded as the most severe and persistent of the dissociative disorders.

  4. Recurrent or chronic sensations of detachment from the body or mind are symptoms of depersonalised disease.


e) Stereotypes

Ans) Stereotypes are generally held notions that members of a group exhibit particular characteristics. Stereotypes are generally untrue and frequently depict people who belong to weaker, less-controlling groups negatively relative to people who belong to stronger, more-controlling organisations. Stereotypes are preconceived notions and ideas about the traits, traits, and behaviours of people who belong to different groups. A stereotype is a presumption that all members of a social group have a particular characteristic. It is presumed that everyone falls under that category, regardless of the attribute. Although each person may adjust stereotypes to their own tastes, there is usually group agreement on the substance of those views.

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