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ACC-01: Organising Child Care Services

ACC-01: Organising Child Care Services

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2020-21

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Assignment Code: ACC-1/Assignt-1/TMA-1/2020-21

Course Code: ACC-1

Assignment Name: Organising Child Care Services

Year: 2020-2021

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Valid Until: December 31, 2021


All Three Sections – A, B and C of this assignment are compulsory.


60 Marks

Answer all questions of Section A.


Q 1. Explain the following terms with examples :( 200 words each)


Q 1. i. Critical Periods

Ans)  Critical or sensitive period is that time period in life when an environmental influence: has its greatest impact on the development of the child. During this period, specific experiences affect the development of the child more than they do at other times. Such periods are critical for development because during these periods the child is ready to leam a particular skill.

For example, a child begins to speak only when she is able to control the movements of the tongue, lips and vocal chords and the brain has developed further. That is, the child must be. biologically ready to speak. This biological readiness refers to maturation.


Critical period is one when the child is mature rationally ready to acquire a skill. During this period the child must have favourable experiences (in the above example, opportunities to hear and practise speech), which will help her to acquire the skill.


Let us consider an example. German measles may cause blindness, deafness, heart defects, brain damage or limb deformity in a child developing in the mother's womb. depending upon the particular time in the developmental sequence when the mother contracts the disease. While considerable damage is caused in the first three months of pregnancy, the disease does not harm the foetus in any significant way if the mother contracts it in later months of pregnancy.


Q ii. Egocentrism

Ans). Egocentrism is the inability to differentiate between self and other. More specifically, it is the inability to accurately assume or understand any perspective other than one's own.

Being able to look at things from another person's perspective is an important ability and is, the basis of most of our social interactions. If we are unable to consider the perspective of others,wewillnotbeabletounderstandhowpeoplearethinkingandfeeling. A meaningful exchange will not be possible.

Piaget traced the development of this ability in children. He stated that preschool children look at things entirely from their own perspective, from their own frame of reference. Preschoolersfeelthatotherpeoplesee,understandandinterpreteventsandactions just as they do. They assume that others see, hear and feel about things just as they do. They think that whatever they can do, the others can. If they are feeling unhappy, so must be the others. If they close their eyes and cannot see something, they assume that others in the toom cannot see it as well. Piaget called this quality of the child's thought egocentrism. He stated that preschoolers do not understand that another person can look at the same things in a different way and can arrive at different conclusions.


Q iii. Autonomy

Ans). Autonomy means being able to act independently, to be able to make one's choices. The toddler develops autonomy when the parents encourage her efforts to do things on her own.

The toddler’s curiosity and ability to do things makes the world an enchanting place for her. There is always something new to discover and something new to try out. When the toddler is allowed to explore freely, she develops self-confidence. Such explorations give her a sense of self-worth and of being in control. She develops autonomy. Autonomy means being able to make one's own choices-to do something or to refrain from doing it, to choose a particular activity, to go where one wants.


Developing autonomy is important as it determines the extent to which one feels that the situation in life and the events that happen to one are under one's influence or control. IF one doubts one's ability to handle situations, one will go through life in a way very different from another person who has belief in her capabilities. Just as developing a sense of trust in the first year is crucial for relationships in later in life, in the same way it is necessary to develop a sense of autonomy in the years of toddlerhood as this influences one's attitudes towards oneself and situation throughout life.


Q iv. Conservation

Ans). Conservation means being able to understand that the quantity or the amount of a certain substance remains the same, even if its shape is changed or if it is transferred from one container to another, so long as nothing is added to or subtracted from it. On the face of it, there seems nothing difficult about understanding this and it is hard to imagine how anybody could think otherwise. Piaget found that pre-schoolers were notable to conserve. He found that the ability to conserve developed after the preschool years.


Finally at six and seven years of age, i.e., towards the end of the pre-operational period, the child acquires a stable concept of conservation of number. She will not be confused even if you shift the arrangement and will be able to hand you the exact number of objects %ked. By this time she has acquired a concept of number.


You may have noticed that achieving number conservation also evolves through three stages

no conservation, transitional stage and then finally, conservation. In conclusion, one can say that three and four years old are beginning to acquire a concept of years. Conservation involves the understanding that things remain the same even though they have changed externally in some manner. The same is involved in gender constancy. Thus, a complete understanding of gender develops around five or six years of age, when the child is a little less influenced by what she sees, be it the length of hair or the kind of clothes worn.

Q 2. a. Identify four cognitive abilities that you want 5 years old children to acquire after they have

completed preschool education at your centre.

Ans)  Four Cognitive abilities that 5 years old children should acquire after completion of preschool education are as follows :

  1. To understand concepts such as heavy and light, fast and slow, colours and sizes;

  2. To explore of the surroundings and the questions regarding the 'why' and 'how' of things result in an increasing store of information. Her thought develops but she is still unable to see a situation from another person's point of view

  3. To reason and analyse but this ability is limited to real life concrete situations. She cannot usually think in abstract terms or predict future events.

  4. They be able to form stable relationships based on give and take. This is also the time when children make friends and can even identify a best friend.


Q 2 b. Plan one activity each (total 4 activities), for 5 year olds, for fostering the cognitive abilities you have identified in part a) of this question. (2x4=8 marks)

Ans) Given below are some activities for fostering cognitive abilities:

  1. Overview: Students will learn how to determine the dimensions of different objects. Then, students will work in teams to create a custom design and determine its dimensions.

  2. Learning Objectives & NGSS Alignment: Define length, depth, and height. Understand what objects look like from different perspectives. Determine an object's dimensions. Create a simple pencil-holding device and determine its dimensions.

  3. Add multiple choice quizzes, questions and browse hundreds of approved, video lesson ideas for  Clips. Make YouTube one of your teaching aids - Works perfectly with lesson micro-teaching plans

  4. An effective lesson gets students thinking and allows them to interact and ask questions, tap into their background knowledge, and build new skills. Effective lesson planning requires the teacher to determine three essential components: the objective, the body, and a reflection.

  5. Ways to Build Relationships With Students:

Say Hello and Good-bye to Every Student Every Day. ...

Student Letters and Questionnaires. ...

Appeal to Their Interests. ...

Speak to Students With Respect. ...

Attend Outside Activities. ...

Let Students Inside Your World. ...

Let Students Have a Voice.


Q 3. a. Describe in detail the factors you will keep in mind while formulating the weekly schedule of

activities for pre-schoolers. (500 words) (5 marks)

Ans). When you plan to set up a child care centre, you will need to think about what you will do with children as they come to you each day throughout the year, what activities you will plan from one day to the next, why you should plan them and how you will plan them. In other words, how you will string together the play activities you have read about into daily and weekly schedules and monthly and yearly plans. These are the aspects that are involved in planning the curriculum.

The schedule will depend upon the number of hours the children are at the centre. Most preschools operate for half-a-day-usually for 3-4 hours in the morning. It is also possible that some children stay on till the evening,  since their parents are working. In these cases you will have to devise activities for these children for the entire day.

One of the ways you can structure the day is to identify the activities that are generally carried out at a specific time each day. Children like a routine. Carrying out the same activities at a certain fixed period gives them a sense of security. The arrival and departure of children are routine. The first 15-20 minutes of the day will be taken up in greeting the children and the last 15-20 minutes in preparing them for departure. Whether it is a half-day or a full day centre, children will have the mid-morning snack. You schedule the snack time from 11 a.m.-11.30 a.m. In a full-day centre, children will have lunch and a nap as well. Thus the time between 1.00 p.m. and 3.30 p.m. will be taken up for having lunch and resting. These the are the constant features from day-to-day. Thus in a half day centre, you have about two hours before the snack time and one to one-and-a-half hours after it, to organize the play activities. In the full-day centre you have an additional one-and-a-half to two hours in the afternoon.

Snack Time : Either the children will be getting the snacks from home or you will be preparing them in the centre. If you prepare the snack, you must see to it that the snack is nutritious and wholesome. Preschoolers like to lay out the plates and the glasses and serve the food. As you ask the children, "Have you laid a plate for each child?", you will be fostering number concept and one-to-one correspondence. Involve the children in cleaning up after they have finished eating. This will encourage independence. Through these tasks, children will also learn the value of sharing and cooperation.

Going Home : About 15 to 20 minutes before the time for departure, you must begin to prepare the children for going home. Ask them to wind up the activity they are doing. They may need to wash their hands and put things away, which will take time. As each child puts the things away, you can talk to her about tier experiences during the day.

Play Activities : Before the snack time you have about 90 minutes to carry out play activities. Each activity, from the time when it is begun to the time it is wound up will, on an average, take 25-30 minutes. Therefore, in the morning session you can carry out two or, at the most, three different activities with children.


Q 3. b. What points you would keep in mind while organizing outdoor space in a child care centre?

(400 words) (4 marks)

Ans)   If there is provision for a playground in your centre, organizing the outdoor space is as important as organizing indoor space. Several considerations have to be kept in mind when planning the outdoor area. A major one is the climate. In hot, humid ,you need to protect children from heat and direct sunlight. Shady places outdoors can be provided for by planting trees and growing creepers on structures made of wood or metal. A thatched roof can also be made, using locally available material. Children can use such structures for doll play also. The important consideration is that it is advantageous to have in the playground some areas that are covered and others kept open for different types of activities, and also to enable children to play outside in most weathers.


Outdoor play emphasis exercise, particularly of the large muscles. Children need space to release their energy. Thus, there should be ample space in the playground for the activities like running,

jumping, digging, climbing, exploring, sliding, swinging, crawling through a tunnel and riding a tricycle. The playground should allow for these Old tyres make interesting swings. They may even be left on the ground for the children to jump from one to another. Smooth wooden boards can be used as slides. Large concrete sewer pipes or drums make good tunnels for crawling lhrough. A tree trunk may be placed on the ground for children lo balance upon or jump from. A sand pit should also be constructed, under a shady tree. Rope and rope ladders can be provided for climbing to make the play area safe, the caregiver should keep the following points in mind:

Have a fence around the playground so that children are protected form traffic and other risks.

Do not overcrowd the space with play equipment, as doing so will reduce space and lead to accidents.

If space is limited, plan the schedule so that children go outside by turn and the playing area does not get crowded.

Maintain the area and equipment. Rubbish lying around or broken equipment can cause accidents. Fences should be given extra attention. If not mended immediately, children can go out even through small gaps.

4. a. Create a 5 point checklist consisting of abilities and skills that you will observe for assessing

language development of 3 year olds. (5 marks)

Ans).  Given below are some of the abilities and skills a toddler develops in language development:

  1. Between two and three years of age, toddlers are able to use a few prepositions like 'in', - 'on' and 'under' so that you have sentences like: "I sit on chair, and "Toy in box". Using these prepositions toddlers are able to talk about the location of objects.

  2. Then come plurals formed by adding 's' to nouns such as cats and books. By the second birthday the toddler begins to use personal pronouns like 'I, 'me', 'you', and sometimes 'mine'.

  3. The use of these pronouns shows that the toddler sees herself as separate from others -she differentiates between herself and other people. She uses these pronouns to indicate h& possession of some object and to refer to her actions, such as "Me eat", "Me do myself'. However, the toddler does not always use these pronouns in grammatically correct ways. The usage of pronouns improves during the preschool period. Towards the third birthday, the toddler begins to use the words 'this’ and 'that' appropriately as in "This book" and "That book".

  4. The toddlers' sentences become longer over the two to three year period. She forms sentences according to the rules as he has understood them. Let us understand this once again by seeing the development of sentences. At the two- word stage the toddler focus a sentence by combining a verb and an object. She says, for example, "Hit ball". Then she adds the agent  and says: "Radha hit ball" or "I hit ball" as the case may be. This sentence is more like adult speech and states who performed the action, what the action was and on what the action was done. In the next stage when she adds the location of the object to her sentence you will hear sentences like: "Radha put book chair". Then as prepositions and tense endings are added, the sentences begin to resemble adult speech more and more. Some examples of sentences hat children can make by the end of toddlerhood am: "I see you", "I am drinking milk", ”Mala is going to school”. This is a cycle.

  5. The next step is forming complex sentences. There is a great variation in the age at which children make such sentences, with a few children forming these sentences before they are three years old. Examples of such complex sentences are: "I see you sit down", "I hope I don't hurt it", "When I get big, I can drive a bus." Such sentences show that the child is developing an awareness that events are sometimes related to one another. In other words, she is understanding cause and effect relationships. Thus you can see how the child's use of language reflects the level of her cognitive development. The child's speech acts as a mirror for her thinking. The use of 'because', 'so', 'before' and 'after' comes later-during the preschoolyears.


If a child has acquired a grammatical form, it does not mean that she will use it consistently. For example, having learnt the use of plurals, she may not use them each time. The child is still learning its usage and, therefore, uses it in some instances and not in others. The child's use of language improves over the preschool years.


Q 4. b. Suggest 5 strategies for parents using which they can help their infant to acquire language during the first year. Explain how these will help in language development. (500 words) (5 marks)

Ans). Here are some strategies Parents can use with kids from birth all the way up to five years old, depending upon their language level. How you do these things may look different during infancy compared to when kids are starting to use words, but the basic idea will remain the same.


1. Imitate: If your daughter is making noises (babbling), making another sound in play, or even banging a spoon, you can do that too. Imitating children’s sounds, words, and actions shows them that they’re being heard and that you approve of what they’re doing or saying. It also promotes turn taking and, best of all, encourages them to imitate you and your more complex language utterances.

2. Interpret: If your son is pointing to the apple juice that he wants to drink, he is communicating with you. Take this to the next level by interpreting what he is trying to say. Respond with, “Apple juice! You want apple juice!”


3. Commenting and describing: Instead of telling kids what to do during playtime, be a sports caster and give a play-by-play of what they’re doing. Say, “You’re driving the red car around in circles,” or, “You’re putting the cow into the barn. The cow is going to sleep.” This models good vocabulary and grammar and helps kids organize their thoughts. Maybe they weren’t actually putting the cow to sleep — maybe they were just putting it inside the barn—but by suggesting that you’ve given them a new concept to consider.


4. Eliminate negative talk: Try not to say things like, “That’s not where the cow goes,” or, when they’re coloring, “The sky isn’t pink.” Remember we want to encourage all attempts to communicate and validate those attempts so that kids do more of it. We all respond better to more positive phrasing.


5. Label things: Even when kids aren’t ready to use words yet, you can prepare them by labeling things in their environment. During bubble baths keep referring to the bubbles; during snack time you can label the apple juice.


Labeled praise: Instead of just saying “good job,” put a label on that praise. If you’re child isn’t yet using words, (or even if they are) you could say, “Good job putting all the blocks back,” because it reinforces their good behavior even more. For a child who is using some words to communicate, you could say, “Nice job telling me that you want apple juice,” or “Nice job saying more juice please.” This will help create positive feelings around communication and motivate them to continue to try and add new words.


Q 5. Write about the following: (200 words each)


Q 5. i. Importance of storytelling for young children

Ans) We can classify the many different types of children's stories but the importance of story telling is described below:


Listening to stories and engaging in dramatic play provides for social development. Children learn to share, to take turns, to play co-operatively and to play within the rules defined by their roles. Friendships formed as children discover themes of mutual interest. Since they are an excellent means of expressing emotions, dramatic play and story telling sessions add to children's feelings of well being. It is good to express one's fears, anxieties, joys and happiness with others who feel the same. And in the reassuring setting of dramatic play, the fears and anxieties of children gradually decrease.

Language develops well in the relaxed atmosphere of the story telling session or pretend play. Children learn new words, they practise words they already know and combine them creatively.

Children learn new contents and. express in what they have learnt through their fantasy play, helps to clarify their concepts. To aid in this, the narrator can build a story around a particular concept. For example, the story can be about different colours, or how birds make their nests or about the creatures that live in water. Children learn to make decisions as they choose among roles, the play materials and the clothes they will wear.

Dramatic play also helps the caregiver to know more about the children. It gives her 'a glimpse of their thoughts and feelings and how they view the world. Knowing the children better, she can be more attuned to them.


Q 5. ii. Disciplining techniques used by parents

Ans).  Some parents point out the consequences of the child's action to her, reason with her and appeal to her sense of responsibility and concern for others in order to prevent her from doing the same thing again. When disciplining the chid they are likely to say, "Don't hit Pinkoo. It hurts her! ' ' or ''If you don't pick up your toys, I will have to do this later' ' . Such statements draw the child's attention to the feelings and motives of other people, encourage her to reflect on her own behaviour, help her to understand the rules and know the reasons for these rules. These parents are firm in their disciplining, yet they are affection are and gentle with the child. They convey to the child that a came action behaviour is wrong without condemning the child. They say, ''What you did was bad'' instead of saying, "You are a bad girl". Such a method of disciplining is affection-oriented and is very effective in socializing the child.

On the other hand, some parents mainly use commands to stop the child from a particular behaviour. They say, "Don't do that!", "I tell you stop that at once!", without giving the child areas on for why  they want her to stop that behaviour. In this case, the parents use This technique is the power-oriented technique of disciplining.

Most of us use both the abovementioned styles while disciplining children, as you will be able to say from your personal experience. When the child is doing something which may hurt her or others, most of us would resort to power-oriented disciplining, for there is no time to be lost in reasoning with the child. Sometimes mother method but power-oriented technique works. Even after repeated explanations when the child does not stop the undesirable behaviour, parents will resort to threats and, reprimands. The age of the child also makes a difference. It is easier to reason with older children, while with the younger pre-schoolers parents may need to use power-assertion more situations. Thus, the type of disciplining technique the parent employees is determined by the situation, the temperament of parent and the child's own personality. But despite these, one can see that some parents. Primarily use affection-oriented disciplining, while others rely mainly on power-assertion to socialize the child.


The affection-oriented way of disciplining is more effective in socializing the child. It enhances the child's sense of moral values and behaviour and promotes a sense of personal responsibility. The child accepts the parents' rules as her own and they become a part of her. The child feels guilt and shame when she does something undesirable. Such disciplining style fosters an attitude of being responsible for-one's actions.


Q 5. iii. Importance of attachment during Infancy

Ans) The period from birth to two years of age is referred to as the period of Infancy. In

this period the child is totally dependent on the caregiver for the fulfilment of her needs. After birth, this is the period of most rapid growth and development. The child's skills and abilities increase. By the end of infancy she is able to walk, run, communicate her needs verbally, feed herself, identify family members, recognize herself and venture confidently in familiar surroundings.


Stimulation is essential for cognitive development. During infancy the caregiver and other adults talk to the child, tickle her, sing with her and play games such as hide and seek. Such playful interactions are the basis for learning. A stimulating environment during the preschool years, where the child has a variety of experiences and opportunities to explore and adults who help her understand her experiences and answer her queries, promote the child's development.


Love and nurturance lay the foundation for social and emotional development. As you know, the infant develops an attachment to the person who looks after her. This attachment forms the basis for all later relationships. If the infant finds the experience rewarding, she feels it is worthwhile to form relationships and begins to relate to other people. Every new relationship adds to the child's experience and influences her attitude towards others.


Q 5. iv. Impact of media on children’s play ( 2.5 x 4=10 marks)

Ans) After birth the environment influences the development of the child in many ways. Physical environment refers to the ecological conditions: the type of food eaten, the occupation of the people, the amount of living space, the surroundings, facilities and media (television, radio, newspapers, etc.).


The print media, ie. books and magazines, as well as the audio-visual media, i.e. radio and television, have a strong influence on children's play. There are many illustrated books and magazines and there is a variety of programmes for children on radio and television. Children eagerly act out a story they have read, sing a tune heard on the radio and enthusiastically watch the programmes on the television and imitate the characters. The media often support the stereotypes of the society. These are reflected in children's play. The media bring the world closer to children and provide them' with information. The vast amount of information that children get through the media can prove useful if guided by adults.


The print and the audio-visual media differ greatly with regard to the type of stimulation they provide to children. Books require children to read and find out for themselves. This process of learning requires active participation of children and thus fosters a spirit of enquiry and curiosity. The television and radio programmes, on the other hand, usually require children to sit passively, listen and watch. Generally, the programmes tell them what they should know instead of allowing them an opportunity for discovery. Thus the guidance of adults becomes essential.


6 a. Explain how various areas of development influence each other, giving examples from infancy

and toddlerhood (i.e., birth to 3 years). (500 words) (5 marks)

Ans). The periods of infancy and early childhood have been acknowledged as the most significant in the life of an individual. What are the reasons for this? Firstly, research has shown that the fist few years of life influence later behaviour to a large extent. Many of the ways of thinking and behaviour of adults can be traced to early childhood experiences.


Secondly, as you have read in the earlier part of the Unit, the rate of development in all areas -physical, cognitive, language, social and emotional-is the most rapid during these years. In this period it is possible to learn skills which become difficult, and at times impossible, to acquire at a later age. A considerable amount of learning takes place in this period. This learning prepares the child for adulthood. Children see adults in various relationships such as father, mober, sister, brother, grandfather and in roles such as weaver, doctor or postman. The preparation for adult roles which begins in childhood is partly a result of direct teaching by the parents and partly a result of observation and imitation of adults by children. Learning and acquiring skills continue throughout life but never again will the person acquire such a diverse range of skills in such a short period.


The third reason for the significance of the periods of infancy and early childhood arises from the second. Since development is proceeding at a very fast rate, unfavourable experiences such as lack of adequate food, nurturance and care, unhealthy living conditions, sickness, lack of interaction with adults or exploitative working conditions will hinder development to a considerable extent. In the same way, favourable experiences will foster development. Thus both favourable and unfavourable experiences will have a strong impact during this period. It is, therefore, important that the child has a minimum of harmful experiences. Love, nurturance and care are central to development in all areas. Development is not a result of the mechanical act of feeding, bathing and physical care but rather of a feeling of total well being that arises from growing up in an atmosphere of love and warmth with opportunities for learning.


The need for love, nurturance and secure relationships continues throughout life but it is of utmost importance in the early years because this is the time when the child is developing self esteem. foundations of the feelings of security and confidence rue laid in early years. Why are these feelings important? They are important because they influence the attitude with which a person approaches a task, whether it is learning to ride a cycle, doing well in school, making new friends or 1c:uniog to cast a net. If one is not confident about oneself, one does not expect to succeed.


The study of Child Development gives us an insight into human behaviour and describes universal patterns of development. The average age ranges at which individuals acquire specific skills help us to identify norms. ,These norms help us to evaluate the children's progress and plan and devise play activities for them. Individual  differences among children help us to appreciate that every child is unique. This knowledge helps in day- to-day interaction with children.


Q 6. b. Briefly describe two activities that a crèche worker can carry out with 6-12 month old

infants to enhance their motor and sensory skills. (200 words each) (2+2= 4 marks)

Ans)  The two activities that a creche worker can carry out with an infant to enhance his motor and sensory skills are described below:

Vision: The new born's eyes art sensitive to light. If placed in a dark room, her eyes search actively for light and if she finds a source of light, she continue^ to look at it. The light, however, should be bright. This means that she can differentiate between light and dark. Immediately after birth, the baby can follow a moving object with her eyes. The object should be moderately bright and should move slowly. The new born is attracted by things that move, produce sound and those which have a light and dark contrast. The human face has all these characteristics and it greatly attract? the new born. When the caregivers interact with the child, their eyes and mouth move frequently. The eyes, in addition, have a light and dark contrast. In fact, the new born baby continuously scans her surroundings and when she sees an object she gives it a good deal of attention. The child thus seems predisposed to look around and examine the world. She may not understand all that he sees, but she is building up a store of experience which will help her in leaping later.


The neonate can see objects and people clearly when they are at a distance of eight to ten inches from her face. This is usually the distance between the adult's and the baby's-face as the baby is held in the arms. Thus during these interactions the baby can clearly see the caregiver's face and gets an opportunity to examine it. This is the way in which the baby learns to recognize the people around her. This mutual gazing also helps to establish an emotional bond between the child and the caregivers.


Hearing: From the time of birth babies respond to sound. This is evident from the fact that they turn their head towards the direction of the sound source. However, they cannot hear as well as, for example, a one year old child. They can hear only moderate sounds. Different levels of sounds have different effects on the child. Loud noises distress the babies and they get startled and begin to cry. Soft sounds soothe them. They are most responsive to human voice as compared to any other sound and are said to respond more to high-pitched voices (female) compared to low pitched voices (male). The new born's preference for human speech is reflected in the, fact that they move their arms, legs and body in rhythm to the care giver's speech as early as twelve hours after birth. If the pace of the adult's speech is fast, the movements of the neonate become fast. If the rhythm of the speech slows down, so do the child's movements. While it will take the infant another three months to distinguish the mother's face from other people's faces, she can discriminate the mother's voice from other female voices in the very first week of birth. This is probably because the baby has been hearing the mother's voice while in the womb and is already familiar with it.



20 Marks


In this Section you have to do any one of the Practical Exercises related to observing children.

Choose any exercise out of Exercises 4, 6 and 7 described in the Practical Manual of this Course

i.e., DECE-1 and submit it to the counselor for evaluation.

It would be useful for you if you were to do all the three exercises. This would give you practice in

observing children, recording your observations and interpreting them. You can then choose the

exercise which you feel you have done the best and submit it for evaluation.

The marking instructions for the exercises are as follows

Exercise 6Total marks: 20

Break-up of marks:

  1. Observing the child and recording the observations 10

  2. Analysis of observations and conclusions 10


Ans) To observe the mother's/father's/ caregiver's language behaviour with their infant who is

between 9 and 12 months of age by observing their interaction with the infant for 10 minutes.

Yo11 can observe the interaction as the caregiver plays with, bathes or feeds the infant or

talks to her/him.


Language is a system that consists of symbols (i.e. words) that stand for particular objects, relationships actions and feelings and through which we can transmit and understand a large variety of messages.


The mother in this practical is 30 years old. The child is 11 months old. The mother is a homemaker and spends a lot of time with the kid.



The 11 month old child is doing a fantastic job in picking up language cues. This is mainly due to the effort the mother has put in while reading books, interacting and speaking with the child throughout the day. The child is definitely ahead of the learning curve when compared to infants his own age. He can speak many words and babble even more words. This shows that he has a fair and comprehensive understanding of many English words. The mother also interacts with the child in Hindi. This has enabled the child to pick up two languages at the same time. The child responds and understands both English and Hindi.


The interesting thing was when the child responded to the mothers question with “hungry”. It showed that the kid understands the mother in day to day speech. This is a very good sign. What was even more interesting is how the child was interacting with an AI (Artificial Intelligence) called Alexa in spoken form. The parents use this device in the house to control things like the TV, Lights, Lock, etc. They need to say “Alexa” and then state their request to the AI for a specific task. They do this many times in a day. This has made the child aware of this device through the process of observation. He now understands that he can interact with the device.


Overall, the child and the mother are doing really well the the child is set on the right path in terms of language development.



20 Marks

In this Section you have to do any one of the Practical Exercises related to planning play activities

for children and conducting them. These are Practical Exercise numbers 5, 8 and 9, described in the

Practical Manual of this course i.e., DECE-1. Choose any one of the exercises and submit it to the

counselor for evaluation.


It would be useful for you if you were to do all the three exercises. This would give you practice in

planning and organizing play activities. You can then choose the exercise which you feel you have

done the best and submit it for evaluation.


The marking instructions for the exercises are as follows:

Exercise 5 Total marks: 20

Break-up of marks:

  1. Playing with the infant with the toy that has been made, and recording the observations 10

  2. Evaluating the play activity and writing the conclusions 10


The child was very interested in the toy. While I was constructing it, he was curious as to what I was trying to do with these bunch of materials. The more I built the toy, the more it made sense to the kid and the more happier he got. Once the toy was completed, the child was very happy which shows that the child is curious and wants to learn and interact with new things. When the toy was given in the hands of the child, the child tried to imitate what I was doing. This shows that the kids really mimic what the grown ups do. However, once I left the room and hung the toy, the child left and carried on to other things within a few minutes. This shows that children have short attention spans and get distracted very soon.


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