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AOM-01: Office Organisation and Management

AOM-01: Office Organisation and Management

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2020-21

If you are looking for AOM-01 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Office Organisation and Management, you have come to the right place. AOM-01 solution on this page applies to 2020-21 session students studying in BDP, BTS courses of IGNOU.

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AOM-01 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity

Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: AOM-01/TMA/2020-2021

Course Code: AOM-01

Assignment Name: Office Organization and Management

Year: 2020-2021

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Valid Until: December 31, 2021


Attempt all the questions:


Q1) Who is an office supervisor? What are the essential qualifications and qualities of an effective office supervisor?         


Ans) The office supervisor is a first level manager at the actual work spot. He is responsible for issuing 'orders', directing, guiding, motivating and leading higher subordinates in the day-to-day performance of office tasks. In other words, he is a key figure in managing office work. Most of the problems arising on the office floor are resolved instantly by the supervisor himself/ herself. He is also responsible for creating a conducive office environment to achieve the desired objectives efficiently.


The supervisor's role is sometimes a difficult one to manage. On the one hand, being a first level manager, he is separated from the men he supervises. They do not consider the supervisor to be one of them. He may even face resentment if he is too strict.  He is recognised as a source of work-knowledge to the worker and the work-group. Viewed from this angle, it becomes quite clear that a supervisor has an important role to play in the present day set up of an organisation unit.


The essential qualifications of an effective supervisor include sound knowledge mainly of various office activities, awareness of rules, regulations, authority and responsibility, ability to communicate effectively, and leadership qualities. A good supervisor is also expected to have certain personal qualities like punctuality, self-discipline, alertness, decision making ability, human approach, integrity of character, sympathy and understanding in relation to the subordinates.


To perform his functions efficiently and shoulder his responsibilities, the office supervisor must possess the basic knowledge and skills, as well as the requisite abilities. The knowledge and skills required for proper supervision of work differ from organisation to organisation. However, ability to perform the supervisory job well requires the minimum education, training, and experience.


The office supervisor must have the following educational and general qualifications to be

effective: Must have sound knowledge of office functions: Sound knowledge does not only

mean knowledge that goes with a university degree but also in-depth knowledge of various office activities, acquaintance with the types of machines and materials used, and the methods and procedures laid down for performing specific jobs. He will be able to direct and guide the members of the workgroup properly only if he is fully acquainted with the methods and procedures laid down for various jobs.


Leadership qualities: A supervisor should possess leadership qualities which include ability to get along with the subordinates and securing their co-operation. As a leader of his work-group, the supervisor has to guide the subordinates and promote harmonious relationship among them. The ability to treat his subordinates as human beings, to generate mutual respect and understanding, to secure trust and cooperation without any coercion, are some of the essential qualities that the supervisor should possess to be effective as a leader.


Q2) (a) Discuss the various types of calculating machines used to modern organizations for the computation work. What are their common advantages?

Ans) Calculating machines contribute greatly to efficiency by eliminating routine and repetitive arithmetical calculations. They perform all basic arithmetical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Calculations involving integer or decimal fractions of various units of measurement can be made accurately with these machines. Calculating machines can compute percentages, squares, square roots, logarithms, etc. They are particularly suited to calculate rates and amounts of interest, discount, commission, etc.


The calculating machines may be used for the following purposes:

  1. Interest calculation

  2. Discount and commission calculation

  3. Invoicing

  4. Inventory checking

  5. Freight bill preparation

  6. Costing of products

  7. Payroll calculations


The main advantages of various calculating machines:  Their long life, dependability, simplicity of operation and portability. The ease with which they can be moved from one desk to another enhances their utility in office considerably. Such machines bring about efficiency in operation and rather than monotony in repetitive work. It should be noted that some of these machines are very

costly. The choice of any machine for office use will depend upon the types of calculations to be done speed required, volume and frequency of calculations, degree of accuracy required, etc.

Types of Calculators


Several types of calculating machines are available in the market. Given below are some of them.

  1. Key-driven Calculator: It has a full-bank keyboard. When keys are pressed, the numbers are shown on the dial. Multiplications are made by repeated additions and similarly divisions are made by repeated subtractions.

  2. Rotary Calculator: This machine may be operated manually or electrically. It requires the number to be entered on the keyboard by pressing the key and operating the lever to record the number on the dial. The results are obtained by turning the respective crank-handle clockwise for addition or multiplication, and anti-clockwise for subtraction or division.

  3. Electronic Calculator: It is a miniature desk-size computer operated electronically with the aid of valves or transistors. It operates at a very fist speed and does not make any noise. An electronic calculator can be operated by electricity or battery and it may be a full-bank or ten-key type.

  4. Printing Calculator: It looks like an adding/listing machine and may have a full bank keyboard or ten-key board. It is very easy to operate. The keys are pressed to register the figures for calculation. Then the symbol key (for multiplication, addition, etc.) is pressed and the answer is obtained by a pressing device which stores the desired figures until required, and then it can be added or subtracted.


The following advantages may be derived by mechanising the office operations:


  1. Improves quality of work: Machines do the work neatly and systematically. Thus, mechanisation improves the quality of work done in the office.

  2.  Economy in operations: Operating costs per hour of work decline with the use of machines. With the help of machines, employees can do their work with greater speed. These aids to saving in salaries paid to employees. Moreover, some machines can perform several operations simultaneously which may also reduce the cost.

  3. increases efficiency: The speed of work is greatly increased with the help of machines. The work that may take hours to finish with manual labour may be completed in no time with the help of machines. Improved efficiency leads to greater profitability and at the same time creates a good image in the minds of the people who deal with the organisation.

  4. Greater accuracy: Machines ensure greater accuracy. Chances of errors are almost eliminated. Thus. bottlenecks and delays are minimised, and the work goes on smoothly.

  5. Standardisation of routines: Mechanisation helps to facilitate standardisation of office routines and procedures. Ultimately it results in better coordination of work.

  6. Facilitates control: Machines help the managers in exercising greater degree to control over their subordinates. For instance. time recording machines ensure presence of staff. Accounting machines minimise fraud and fix responsibility for various accounting operations.

  7. Relieves monotony: Repetitive work is normally boring and time consuming. Mechanisation employees engaged in performing repetitive jobs are somewhat more contented than they would be if machines were not used.



Q2 (b) Discuss various factors to be kept in mind while deciding office mechanisation.                                                                                                   

Ans) It is neither possible nor desirable to replace all manual operations by machines. The basic purpose of using machines is to save time and labour of office staff, increase office efficiency and reduce the cost of office administration. Office mechanisation requires due consideration of several factors.

Now let us understand the basic principles which should be kept in mind while deciding about the introduction of office machines and equipment:


  1. Usefulness: The basic consideration in deciding on office mechanisation should be its usefulness in terms of the benefits expected from it, a machine is really useful, It may be purchased even if it is little costly.  Here, both the present and the future utility of the machine should be considered.

  2.  Accuracy: Sometimes accuracy is the major purpose of mechanisation. The machine which gives accuracy and saves time in checking as well as minimises the possible annoyance caused by errors should be introduced in the office.


3) Choice of machine: Once mechanisation is decided upon, the office manager should select those machines which are more suitable. Different types of machines for the same use are often available in the market.


Choice of machines ought to be made taking into account the following aspects:

  1. Durability:  The machine is used by different people hence it should be strong and durable.

  2. Adaptability and multiple use: A machine which is adaptable for various purposes than a single-purpose machine. A multipurpose machine may not remain idle as it may be used for more than one purpose.

  3. Portability: As far as possible. preference may be given to a machine which can be moved from one user to another user, or from one place to another, in the same work area. Compactness and ease of handling saves time and energy and increases the use of the machine.

  4. Standardisation: Standardisation can have a few different makes of machines as is consistent quality and quantity of work in the office.  It is desirable to use machines of branded quality and hence to sae cost one can buy in bulk.



Q3) Briefly comment on the following:

(a) Office systems, procedures, methods, and routines are interchangeable terms.

Ans) Generally, the terms 'systems', 'procedures' and 'methods' seem synonymous, yet there is a basic difference between these three terms. System consists of a group of inter-related and inter-dependent parts operating in a sequence, and according to a pre-determined plan to achieve certain goals. It is a planned way of performing office activities.


Procedures refers to a series of sequential steps or operations needed for completing a major phase of office work uniformly and consistently. Thus, within the system there may be procedures set for each of the different phases of office work. For example, in the sales system, definite procedures exist for processing an order, shipment of goods sold, handling claims, making adjustments etc.


The procedures are planned in such a way that every time a particular job has to be performed,

the same operations may be carried out in the same sequence and in the same way. Office procedures (also called office routines) involve a number of operations. An operation is the smallest step in a procedure. For instance, the procedure for sorting of papers before filing may require several operations like examining the papers as to their code numbers under which they are to be filed, putting them in the sorting tray, arranging them date-wise, etc. Thus, a procedure lays down the sequence of steps to be followed usually by more than one-person while performing a recurring type of work, If well-designed, a procedure tells who does what, how and when.

Q3) (b) Mechanisation of a modern office is necessary to improve work efficiency and reduce the office costs.

Ans) The office may be defined as any place where records are prepared, handled, and preserved for future references and making them available as and when required. The functions of a modern office may be broadly classified as:

  1. Primary or Basic functions and

  2. Administrative management functions.

The primary functions are:

  1. receiving and collecting information from interna1 and external sources,

  2. organising information,

  3. supplying information.


Administrative management functions include communication, safety and security, coordination, planning systematisation and cost reduction, office personnel administration and public relations. A well organised office is an indispensable aid to management as the policies and programmes formulated by the management are based on the information supplied by the office. The office organisation is governed by unity of function, simplicity, flexibility, efficiency, initiative, continuity, and coordination. The design of office organisation may be based on either the geographical location of offices, or the services rendered by the office.


The types of common services rendered by the office to other departments are typing and duplication, stenography, stationery, mailing, filing, and supplies, communication, public relations, filing maintenance, library estate, security, and hospitality.


If office activities relating to the services required by the functional departments are carried out at one place or performed under one roof, the services are said to be centralised. On the other hand, when office activities are performed in the respective functional departments, the services are said to be decentralised. Both centralisation and decentralisation have certain merits as well as demerits. Office management is concerned with the application of the principles and practices

of management for getting office work performed by the office personnel. The main elements of office management are objectives, means and methods, personnel and environment.


Q3) (c) Machines and equipment’s are introduced in the office just to give it a modern look.

Ans) Over the year’s information technology has advanced at a relentless pace. This brought about a sweeping change in the office environment. The offices soon will be linked with the rest of the world via a modern link plugged into the telecommunication network. Furthermore, the most recent trend points toward the 'mobile office' which will be portable and battery-operated. The mobile office will run from a van equipped with telephones, hand free intercoms, a mobile fax

machine, a remote-control television, a video-recorder and so on.


It is also expected that a new generation of portable computers, printers and copies will further revolutionise the office operations. There will be frequent use of electronic computers to collect, arrange and process data. Computers will also help application of quantitative technique to resolve management problems.


Q3) (d) Indexing is an integral part of filing and records management.

Ans) Record Management refers to management control of records. Thus, it involves preparation, classification, and storage of records and making records available as and When required. A sound system of records management is one in which proper methods and procedures are applied, and in which records are

protected, are easy to find) not unduly space consuming, and are not retained beyond their usefulness. In short, management is concerned with the creation, distribution, maintenance, preservation, utilisation and disposal of records.


Objectives of Records Management

The main objectives of records management are the following:

  1. To keep the orderly account of progress: The purpose of preparing and preserving records of business transaction is to enable management to check on the progress of business.

    To facilitate preparation of statements regarding the current business

  2. position: At any point of time, the business position can be known only by means of up to date records. This is of vital importance in business planning particularly in the context of changing conditions both within and outside the organisation.

  3. To facilitate comparison: Records facilitate comparison of the results of business activities between one period of time and another, between one line of product and another and also between the firm and its competitors. This is known as the analytical function of records.

  4. To detect indecency and wastage of resources: Inefficiency of operations and waste of resources can be detected and controlled only with the help of record data made available to managers. It may be regarded as the control function of records.

  5. Legal formalities: Certain records are necessary to be preserved for the specified periods of time under the provision of various laws, e.g. sales records as per the Tax Act, Books of Accounts as per the Income Tax Act, etc.

  6. To establish the genuineness of facts in dispute: Records serve as proof of transactions and can be wed as evidence the support of arguments in disputes or lawsuits.

  7. To ensure availability of information speedily and in form: Records to be useful must be promptly located and made available when required.


Q4) Write short notes on the following:

(a) Simplification of office work

Ans) Work simplification may be defined as 'the organised use of common sense to eliminate waste of material, equipment, time, energy, and space in the performance of office work'. It relates to finding easier and better ways of carrying out office operations. However, doing a job better does not mean working faster, nor does it always mean adopting new methods of present tools and equipment to produce maximum efficiency with minimum cost. Work simplification is a

continuous process. There is no end point at which we can say that we have found out the ideal way of performing a task. There is always scope for effecting further improvements. It is small wonder that work simplification is also frequently referred to as 'work improvement'.


The basic objectives of any work simplification programme may be stated as follows:


  1. To eliminate waste of all kinds,

  2. To improve the flow of work,

  3. To devise efficient and elective procedures for paperwork,

  4. To improve work output, accuracy, and efficiency,

  5. To improve the quality of services rendered by the office employees,

  6. To make the office staff 'efficiency-conscious', and

  7. To reduce office costs to the extent possible.



Q4) (b) Office committees

AnsOne useful way of promoting two-way communication between the employees and

the office manager is through the office committee. The office committee consists of members representing clerical stail, office supervisors and the office manager. The main purpose behind the office committee is to provide a forum where the office manager can consult the staff on matters of policy and discuss the problems relating to work and working conditions.


Office committees are, usually, required to deal with the matters pertaining to work and working conditions, viz., prevention of accidents, ensuring safety measures, providing welfare amenities, like canteen, drinking water, rest rooms, recreational facilities, etc. improvement in the methods of work and work rules, avoidance of wastages, questions relating to the employee’s discipline, training facilities, redressal of grievances. However, matters relating to wages, hours of work, bonus, etc., are not within the purview of this committee as it is only an advisory body. The decisions arrived at in the meetings of the office committee are not binding on the management. However, the recommendations of such committees are, usually, accepted by the management as they are the result of joint consultation between representatives of the employees and the management.


The usefulness of the office committees depends on the attitude of the management and the employees. when the recommendations made by the office committees are accepted by the management, the employees automatically begin to view the committees as effective means to voice their viewpoint. Amicable solutions to the problems confronting the employees could be arrived at smoothly without any friction, in such atmosphere. On the other hand when the management tries to use these committees as devices to ward off threats of the unions, the deliberations serve no useful purpose. Discussions may continue for a painfully long time; recommendations may get diluted under pressure; some members could be effectively silenced and so on. The office committees, therefore, should have continued blessings and consistent support from the management.


Q4) (c) Pension and Retirement Benefits

Ans) Economic security after retirement is a major source of worry for a retiring employee. TO relieve the employee of such worries and to reward him for his long service, pension plans have come into existence. The employee covered by a pension plan, draws a monthly allowance (usually 40 to 50 per cent of the average pay during the last five or ten years) after the age of retirement till his death. The cost of such a plan is borne either wholly by the government, or the organisation and the by employees themselves. Sometimes, such plans also provide for family pensions, wherein the dependants of a retired person keep on getting pension even after his death.


Other Retirement Benefits include gratuity and contributory provident fund. The term gratuity refers to an ex-gratia payment of a few months’ salary (maximum generally, 15 months) to an employee in appreciation of his services. Under the scheme of contributory Provident fund, the employer and the employee contribute an equal amount every month. The total amount of provident fund contributions is deposited with the Provident Fund Commissioner regularly as per the rules of the Provident Fund Act. When the employee gets retirement from services, he gets the

total amount along with interest.



Q4) (d) Centralized Storage

Ans) Under this system, all the records to different departments in the organisation are filed at a central location, which may be called Filing or Record Section under a chief record keeper. This system implies that individual departments in the organization to undertake their own filing work independently. Necessary filing equipment’s and personnel are located at the central place, which is easily accessible to all other department.


Advantages : Centralised filing system offers the following advantages to the organisation :


  1. Specification: Since filing is centralized the filing staff are trained and specialised in handing the filing activities. It improves, the efficiency and reduce the operational cod apart from providing better services.

  2. Duplication of records and equipment: It eliminates the need for preparing a number of office copies of records. Also, it eliminates the duplication of filing equipment’s Like folders, cabinets, etc, with corresponding saving in costs.

  3. Utilization of Space:  It ensures optimum utilisation of office space, resulting maximum economy of space.

  4. Location of records: It facilitates easy and quick location of required papers, documents, letters etc.

  5. Cross-Referencing: Cross-referencing becomes easy because different records are kept at one central place. It is for efficient filing in the system.


Filing is the core of record-keeping and the most important aspect of records management. It is the process of arranging and storing records so that they can be easily and promptly located whenever required. It preserves office records safely as long time.  It aids managers in planning, directing, and controlling the activities of an organisation. The objectives of filing include ensuring systematic arrangement. safe storage, ready availability and efficient of operations.

There are different methods of classification, viz. Alphabetical, Numerical, Geographical, Subject-wise action.

Records and retention and disposal should be carried out in accordance to the storage capacity.


Q5) Distinguish between the following:

(a) Centralised and Decentralised purchase of stationery

Ans) In any organisation, the purchase function may be either centralised or decentralised.


Centralised Purchasing

It refers lo purchasing of all stationery and supplies by the office under the direction and supervision of a single officer. Under this system, stationery items for the whole organisation are selected, ordered and procured by the central office headed by the office manager. Different user departments are issued stationery since requisitions made by the departmental managers. The quantity and quality of items to be procured are planned on the basis of Central Office by the respective departments.


Centralisation of purchase offsets the following advantages:


  1. Efficiency of specialisation: Centralisation ensures efficiency of purchasing through specialisation of persons employed for the purpose. They acquire skill and ability due to exclusive handling of the necessary activities related wit! procurement.

  2. Economy in purchase: Under centralised purchasing, stationery is procured for all the departments of the organisation. Hence, orders can be placed for bulk supply. Bulk orders not only enable higher rates discount to be earned but also mean lesser handling costs. For bulk supplies, orders can be placed directly with manufacturers, thereby obtaining lower rates and uninterrupted supply.

  3. Better control on stationery: Under centralised purchasing, maintenance of record and control over procurement and issue of stationery can be carried out more efficiently. Storage of various types of stationery can also be planned so as to make better use of available space and facilities.

  4. Sav

    ing time and effort of departmental personnel: With centralised purchasing of stationery, personnel of other operating departments can be engaged only in departmental functions for which they may be better equipped. Departmental head can also concentrate on managing the main acclivities of the departments.



Following are the major disadvantages of centralisation:

  1. Delay: Quite often central purchasing involves delay in procurement of stationery. Requisitions from different departments sent to the central office may by procured and purchases made in due course of time. The urgency of departmental needs may not receive due attention.

  2. Impracticable if departments are dispersed: If different units or branch offices of the organisation are in distant places away from the head office centralised purchasing may not be practicable because of problem of delay and transportation costs involved.

  3. Delay in issuance: If stationery is purchased centrally, it has got to be issued from a central place for use in different departments which may take quite some time even if the user departments are housed in the same building complex.

  4. Errors in purchasing: Despite the best efforts. stationery procured by the central office may not exactly conform to the requirements of the departments concerned.




Q5) (b) Inward mail and Outward mail

Ans) An important phase of planning a mailing service is the establishment of definite routines for handling inward and outward mail. Inward mail is the logical starting point of the work of the mail service of an organisation. Planning and establishment of proper inward mail routine is very important.


The routine stages for handling inward mail follow the following pattern in most large organisations.

  1. Receiving the mail;

  2. Opening the mail;

  3. Scrutiny of the mail;

  4. Date stamping of mail;


Handling outward mail is a much more complex affair than handling inward mail. requires a thorough understanding of postal regulations and rates. timings of postal clearance, postal facilities available for despatch of mail etc. Equally important is the setting up of well-planned system and routine for efficient and economical handling of outward mail.

Before the outgoing mail reach the mail room for handling, they must pass through three preliminary stages which are performed departmentally.

These are:

  1. Production of the outgoing letters

  2. Signature on the letters and

  3. Referencing.


Q5) (c) Horizontal communication and Vertical communication

Ans) Communication is the process of transmitting information and understanding from

one person to another. It is a way of reaching others with ideas, facts, thoughts, and opinions. Communication always involves two persons, a sender, and a receiver. It helps the manager inform the staff about the policies, programmes, rules and regulations of the organisation from the appropriate properly. Good communication keeps the staff working in accordance with the plans and policies of the organisation.


Communication also provides the right type of information to the office manger and enables him to consider the pros and cons before arriving at a specific decision. He can consult his employees, seek their opinions and suggestions, and then take action in the light of responses. Without communication, it would be missing. however, such an atmosphere is not good for the impossible for the office manager to understand others and make them understand his views. Communication, thus, between the manager and the employees. In the absence of effective communication system, the employees feel either left out or ignored. They are unaware of the programmes initiated by the management.


Good Communication is, thus vital to improve the personnel relations in an office. For effective communication, certain guiding factors should be kept in view and acted upon by the office manager.


  1. Clarity of Thought:  Before communicating any message, the matter should be clearly thought of and exact purpose to be served by it must be kept in view.

  2. Clarity of Expression: The communication must be conveyed in a simple language and straight-forward manner.

  3. Employee Participation: If necessary, the employees should be invited to participate in planning a communication-so as to assemble and analyse facts based on which appropriate communication may be made.

  4. Supporting Action: Policies, programmes, and instructions which are communicated should be followed by supportive actions, assignment of task supervision and adequate rewards for superior efforts.

  5. Listening: Listening to the viewpoints of the employees is as important for managers as communicating orders and instructions by them to the subordinates.


Good communication is an important aspect of the office personnel relations. To improve understanding between the managers and the employees, several participative techniques have been suggested over time.


Q5) (d) Management and Administration

Ans) The following are the various works of Management and the Administration department:

  1. Communication: Making arrangement for communication between different Individuals within the organisation through intercom facility, meetings. etc. and between outsiders in the organisation through personal contact, telephones, letters, etc., is an important function performed by the office.

  2. Safety and Security: The office has to keep in safe custody the records of the organisation and also make arrangements for security of properties and assets of the enterprise e.g., buildings, office machines, furniture, equipment’s, etc. The office is not only responsible for the safety of assets but also for their upkeep and maintenance. Adequate insurance cover should be provided for protecting the assets of the organisation against hazards of fire and theft.

  3. Coordination: Coordination implies an orderly arrangement of group efforts to ensure unity of action in the realisation of common objectives. Office has to synchronise the efforts of individuals and departmental staff to ensure proper timing and sequence of activities so that the organisation objectives are fully realised. Office as a storehouse of information, has to co-ordinate the activities

    of different departments so as to get the best results at a minimum cost.

  4. Planning: Planning involves consideration of the factors influencing a situation and laying down a course of action leading to a particular goal. Effective performance of all office functions requires advance planning. It has to be decided before hand, what is to be done, who is to do, how it will be done and when. Planning is necessary to avoid wastage and delay, and to reduce cost of operations.

  5. Systematisation and Cost Reduction: With the adoption of scientific method in office administration, office must lay down systems, procedures and methods of performing various activities. Besides designing the systems and methods,

  6. Office Personnel Administration: An efficient office is an invaluable asset to any organisation. Personnel employed in the office bring about efficiency of operation by the quality of their work. Office activities expand with the growth

    and development of business. To cope with the additional work in office more people are employed. To maintain efficiency and effectiveness it is necessary to select the right type of office personnel for various jobs and arrange for their training.

  7. Public Relations: In its dealings with members of the public, the office projects the image of the organisation. Steps are required to be taken to build a good image of the organisation in the minds of the public. Office should not only respond to all public enquiries promptly but also keep the management informed if there is a change in public opinion about the enterprise. On the other hand, the public must also be kept informed about the policies, programmes of the organisation with respect to matter of public interest

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