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AOM-01: Office Organisation and Management

AOM-01: Office Organisation and Management

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for AOM-01 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Office Organisation and Management, you have come to the right place. AOM-01 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in BDP, BTS courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: AOM - 01/TMA/2021-22

Course Code: AOM-01

Assignment Name: Office Organisation and Management

Year: 2021-2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Maximum Marks: 100

Attempt all the questions:


Q1. What do you understand by office layout? Discuss the principles of office layout.

What objectives should be kept in view while planning for office layout? Explain

clearly the steps to be taken in layout planning. (20)

Ans) The organisation and placement of men, machines, furniture, and equipment inside each department of the office in order to maximise the use of available space is referred to as office layout. The goal is to make the most of available space in the office in order to save money and time. The layout of a scientific office requires a methodical arrangement of departments and sections, employees, and equipment in line with a well-defined and well-considered art plan. The most effective use of space is one that caters to the organization's unique requirements.


The modern trend is to have wide open floor spaces with few partitions so that the layout can be adjusted to meet changing needs. In any event, the office manager must arrange the departments in such a way that the activities conducted are effectively coordinated. Despite the fact that the office is divided into a variety of departments and sections in order to reap the benefits of specialisation, the work done by employees in different departments is interconnected and interdependent. Similarly, different employees' actions within a department are interconnected. It goes without saying that the physical layout of the workplace should be neat and striking, as the first impression a visitor receives has an impact on his interactions with the business.


The ideas listed below have been created to assist office managers in developing office layouts:

Principle of interdepartmental relationship

Some of the office's departments have activities that are closely related. These departments must be in close proximity to one another. The general office should be centrally located so that common services may be given to multiple departments with ease. Partitions and sound-proof barriers should be erected to separate departments that use loud machines such as duplicators and typewriters. Public dealings, such as responding to inquiries, accepting and paying cash, receiving mail, and so on, should take place at the office's entrance. Individuals and departments involved should be assigned to the appropriate positions.

Principle of flow of work

It is vital to evaluate the flow of work in the office before drafting the layout plan. The systems and procedures in place for specific operations must also be thoroughly scrutinised. The flow of work will determine whether the layout should be straight-line or U-shaped. Work should flow in a continuous, smooth, straight, and backward-free manner as much as feasible.


Principle of maximum utilisation

The available area should be utilised to the fullest extent possible. Each member of staff should be given sufficient room. Each individual clerk in a department requires about 30 square feet of space. Equipment and filing cabinets should be arranged in such a way that employees may access them without wasting time or causing hardship.


Principle of flexibility

The office layout should be designed in such a way that future staff and equipment additions to cope with rising workloads can be made with little changes.


Principle of service facilities

When designing an office layout, be sure to include amenities for staff such as a phone, cafeteria, washrooms, elevators, and drinking water. These facilities are necessary for job effectiveness as well as employee comfort and well-being.


Principle of supervision

When there are a high number of clerical employees on the job, the layout should be planned to allow for effective supervision and control.


Principle of environment

The importance of proper lighting and ventilation in the workplace cannot be overstated. The beauty of the interior and outside contributes to mental stability and morale.


 Principle of least cost

The cost of rearranging and arranging an office layout should be kept to a minimal. The cost of office services is automatically decreased because proper layout attempts to make the most efficient and effective use of available space.


Objectives of Office Lay-out

The primary goal of office layout is to ensure that office work is both economical and efficient.

The more specific objectives of office layout are:

  1. To provide maximum scope for supervision.

  2. To ensure maximum utilisation of space.

  3. To provide adequate privacy and safety to persons with confidential work.

  4. To leave sufficient space for movement of men and use of machines.

  5. To permit smooth flow of work.

  6. To keep operational cost at a minimum.

Steps in Lay-out Planning

The following preliminary actions may be important to take before the layout plan is really implemented:

  1. Get a drawing or blueprint prepared showing the area available.

  2. Secure flow charts for different departments.

  3. Determine the departments with heavy traffic movements.

  4. Analyse the functional relationship between departments.

  5. Make a preliminary block of assignment of space.

  6. Determine the requirements of electrical fittings, water supply, and safety measures to be provided.

  7. Refine the block by making templets to scale of all physical units like table, chair, file box, etc.

  8. Check the entire layout design and adjust before submitting a final design for approval by management.


Q2. (a) Define work measurement and enumerate the difficulties involved in the measurement of office work. (10+10)

Ans) Work measurement is the process of calculating the output in numerical terms. It entails calculating the amount of work performed as well as the time it took to complete it. As a result, it entails a study of the time required to complete each component of an office function. As a result, work measurement entails analysing each operation, identifying its pieces, and calculating the time an employee spends doing each element of the operation.


Although the prevailing consensus is that most office work is repetitive in nature and can be quantified in terms of quality and quantity, others disagree. Measurement of office work, they claim, is not always useful for the following reasons:

  1. In most organisations, the number of employees in the office is too small and is no need for using techniques of work measurement to reduce the cost of office services.

  2. Office work is both varied and complex. It consists mainly of paperwork and varies from organisation to organisation depending on the nature of business activities. Hence, it does not call for the use of work measurement techniques.

  3. Because of the close proximity of office employees to management and administration, work measurement becomes superfluous.

  4. By and large, work measurement is possible only in the case of production activities involving physical output.


Office work is now deemed productive since it provides important services to other departments. Besides, roughly three-quarters of all office work is quantifiable. Actually, office work that can be assessed comprises activities such as filing and indexing, invoicing, typing, duplicating, mailing, electronic data processing, and so on, with some alterations in the job measuring approaches.

The primary goal of work measurement in an office, as previously stated, is to assist office management in planning and controlling office services. Work measurement can also help with a variety of other goals, such as defining a standard workload for each employee, identifying the number of employees needed in each sector, streamlining office systems and procedures, evaluating employee performance, and regulating office expenditures.


Q2. (b) What are the objectives of records management? Discuss the functions of records management.

Ans) The main objectives of records management are the following :

  1. To keep an orderly account of progress: The purpose of preparing and preserving records of business transaction is to enable management to check on the progress of business. It is referred to as the historical function of records.

  2. TG facilitate preparation of statements regarding the current business position: At any point of time, the business position can be known only by means of up-to-date records. This is of vital importance in business planning particularly in the context of changing conditions both within and outside the organisation.

  3. To facilitate comparison: Records facilitate comparison of the results of business activities between one period of time and another, between one line of product and another and also between the firm and its competitors. This is known as the analytical function of records.

  4. To detect inefficiency and wastage of resources: Inefficiency of operations and waste of resources can be detected and controlled only with the help of record data made available to managers. It may be regarded as the control function of records.

  5. Legal formalities: Certain records are necessary to be preserved for the specified periods of time under the provision of various laws, e.g., sales records as per the Tax Act, Books of Accounts as per the Income Tax Act, etc.

  6. To establish the genuineness of facts in dispute: Records serve as proof of transactions and can be wed as evidence the support of arguments in disputes or lawsuits.

  7. To ensure availability of information speedily and in form: Records to be useful must be promptly located and made available when required.


The functions of records management are as follows:

  1. Creation of records: It refers to development and design of new forms and records and their control. It should be noted that the new forms are developed only when the deficit need for such arises. This stage is also concerned with the development of efficient methods of entering data in the documents.

  2. Storage of records: This stage is concerned with the storage of records at a place which is accessible to the persons from using them and protection of records against theft, fire, unauthorised use and deterioration.

  3. Retrieval of records: It involves locating the desired records for information and when the purpose is accomplished, they should be kept in their files within a reasonable time. All the documents taken out from the files should be signed.

  4. Utilisation of records: This stage refers to the development of efficient procedure through which the records move. Efficient utilisation of records depends largely on the quality with which the information is entered into records. The point is that the desired records may be retrieved and delivered to the desired place in time.

  5. Disposition stage: This stage particularly deals with preserving important and necessary documents and disposition of these records which are unnecessary and are no longer required by the organisation. This stage also deals with the shifting of the records from high-cost storage areas to low-cost storage areas.


Q3. Briefly comment on the following: (4X5)


Q3. (a) One of the common faults of office management is unwanted mechanization.

Ans) For proper performance of assigned task in today's office, several machines and equipment are required. On the open market, a significant variety of machines and equipment are available. In a workplace, these are utilised for a variety of tasks. The use of machines and equipment is essential in today's rapidly evolving multinational corporate world.


The deployment of various types of machines and equipment allows for the most efficient use of human resources. In general, mechanisation of office work guarantees that everything runs smoothly and efficiently. As a result, the office manager must decide how machines will be used and which machinery and equipment will be appropriate for the business.


According to J.C.Denyer, the use of machines in the office necessitates some level of human operation, supervision, and routine maintenance, and machine operators typically require special training before they can operate the equipment. As a result, office work cannot simply be mechanised.


Q3. (b) Informal communication may be helpful in achieving organizational goals.

Ans) With the passage of time, many informal relationships develop among people in any organisation, hidden below the cover of formal partnerships. Managers and supervisors, as well as other employees who come into daily touch with one another in the course of their work, or who otherwise build informal ties that cross the lines of formal relationships, develop informal relationships. Management in many firms strives to develop formal partnerships by leveraging informal relationships. Informal communication, sometimes known as the grapevine, develops as a result of informal contacts. This type of communication occurs between individuals or groups at the same or different levels of the hierarchy. Such individuals or groups exchange information informally when they meet in the course of their work or during informal meetings to address their respective difficulties.


Apart from meeting the social requirements of those involved, informal communication can also aid in the achievement of organisational objectives. Managers and supervisors can use the grapevine as a helpful tool in resolving specific issues. Grapevine, on the other hand, cannot always be depended upon to relay true information; as a result, information may be influenced by gossip, rumour, or the unfavourable perspectives of those who are interested. Despite the fact that it is not formally recognised by management, it continues to play an important role in many organisations.


Q3. (c) Suggestion systems are used in many offices as a means to promote upward communication between the employees and the management.

Ans) Suggestion systems are motivating because they provide employees a sense of accomplishment for contributing something meaningful to the office's success. They encourage management and staff to communicate with one other on a higher level. They provide a wonderful opportunity while performing a certain task and bring it to the attention of the office management. In turn, management could benefit from the knowledge and experience of employees who are prepared to offer suggestions for increasing work performance. As a result, suggestion systems may be just as useful in the office as they are in the factory.


Q3. (d) Employees in modern organizations are called 'knowledge workers.

Ans) Peter Drucker developed the phrase "knowledge worker" in his book The Landmarks of Tomorrow. Information workers, according to Drucker, are high-level employees who use theoretical and analytical knowledge gained via formal education to produce products and services. Because of their high level of productivity and inventiveness, he believes that knowledge employees will be the most important assets in a 21st-century firm.


Programmers, web designers, system analysts, technical writers, and researchers are among those who work in the information technology area. Pharmacists, public accountants, engineers, architects, lawyers, physicians, scientists, financial analysts, and design thinkers are among the knowledge professionals.


4. Write short notes on the following: (4X5)


Q4. (a) Organisation chart

Ans) An organizational chart is a diagram that visually conveys a company's internal structure by detailing the roles, responsibilities, and relationships between individuals within an entity. Organizational charts are alternatively referred to as "org charts" or "organization charts."


Main Points

  1. An organizational chart graphically represents an organization's structure, highlighting the different jobs, departments, and responsibilities that connect the company's employees to each other and to the management team.

  2. Organizational charts can be broad-based, depicting the overall company, or can be department- or unit-specific, focusing on one spoke on the wheel.

  3. Most org charts are structured by using the "hierarchical" model, which shows management or other high-ranking officials on top, and lower-level employees beneath them.

  4. Other types of charts include the flat org chart, the matrix chart, and the divisional org chart.


Q4. (b) Departmental Mail Service

Ans) The term "departmental mail service" refers to arrangements in which all incoming and outgoing mail for each functional department is handled by departmental workers within the department. The specific layout will be determined by the size of the company as well as the amount and nature of mail received.


The advantages of departmental service may be outlined as follows:

  1. It is less expensive than centralised mail service and thus suitable for small and medium businesses with low mail volumes.

  2. Incoming mail is delivered directly to the department in question, allowing it to be processed more quickly than in a centralised system. Special arrangements might be made to expedite the delivery of critical outgoing mail.

  3. The departmental arrangement can better ensure the confidentiality and secrecy of correspondence.

  4. Employees that handle mail for the department develop a sense of devotion to the department, which increases the quality of their work. This improves the organization's reputation and image.


Q4. (c) Data life processing

Ans) The data processing life cycle begins even before the data is collected. For you to be able to compile it, you must first have access to the information.


Data processing is often a multi-faceted operation which can include stages such as:

  1. Data wrangling is the process of converting raw data into a more usable format (e.g., graphs, spreadsheets, etc.).

  2. Data compression is the process of shrinking data in order to store it more efficiently.

  3. The process of converting data into another form of code in order to keep it secret and secure is known as data encryption.

  4. However, not all data is digital. Personal data can be found on paper, and The General Data Protection Regulation covers non-automated, non-digital processing as well (GDPR). Ensure that you only use personal data for the purposes specified in EU directives, regardless of how you acquire, handle, or keep it.


Q4. (d) Re-ordering level

Ans) Another important principle to follow is to purchase stationery and supplies on time to ensure continual availability. Stock minimum and maximum values are usually fixed in practise. As soon as the existing supply reaches the minimal level, an order for new supplies is placed. When a new supply order is placed, some organisations set the stock level (known as the re-ordering level). The ordering level is set to account for the time it may take suppliers to deliver the things ordered as well as the rate at which they are consumed.


Both over- and under-buying are bad habits to have. Overbuying can result in a lack of storage space, deterioration in quality, funds being blocked, and loss due to abuse or theft. Carbon paper, typewriting ribbons, ball-point pen refills, erasing fluids, and other products are known to dry after a given amount of time.


5. Distinguish between the following: (4X5)


Q5. (a) Internal and External Noise

Ans) Any sound, whether continuous or intermittent, disrupts office productivity. Noise is a source of interruption in the workplace, and it refers to any sound that is produced without any response. External and internal noise are the two types of noise.


External noise is noise that originates from outside the office building. Noise from running automobiles and machineries, noise from street sounds, and noise from air conditioners are all examples of external noise. The office should be in a calm and noise-free environment.


Internal noise is noise that originates from within the workplace space. Internal noise includes noise created by workplace conversations, rustling of papers, scraping of chairs, and rattling of papers. The use of sound absorbing materials and the separation of noisy equipment can help to reduce internal noise.


Q5. (b) Bound-book Index and Loose-Leaf Index

Ans) Bound Book Index

This type of index is a bound book or register separated into alphabetical parts where the names of people or documents are entered. The leaves of each part are cut out on the right side so that the starting letters of all the sections may be seen at a glance. All entries relevant to a certain letter of the alphabet are grouped together in the same section or page.


Loose Leaf Index

The index is prepared using loose sheets in this form of index. The loose (sheets are attached into metal hinges with screws, allowing pages to be removed or extra pages to be inserted as needed. A lock could be added to the binder. The book is unscrewed, and the correct leaf is inserted or withdrawn when a leaf or page is inserted or deleted.


Q5. (c) Computer Hardware and Software

Ans) Computer Hardware:

The physical components of a computer are referred to as hardware. Any portion of the computer that humans can touch is considered computer hardware. These are the main electronic components that make up a computer. The Processor, Memory Devices, Monitor, Printer, Keyboard, Mouse, and the Central Processing Unit are all examples of hardware in a computer.


Computer Software:

Software is a collection of instructions, procedures, and documentation that allows a computer system to do various activities. Computer software is also a programming code that is performed on a computer processor. Code written for an operating system or machine-level code are both acceptable options. Microsoft Word, Excel, Power Point, Google Chrome, Photoshop, MySQL, and more programmes are examples of software.


Q5. (d) Centralised and decentralised system of purchasing stationery.

b) The two sorts of structures that can be found in organisations, governance, administration, and even purchasing are centralization and decentralisation.


Centralised Purchasing

The office purchases all stationery and supplies under the guidance and supervision of a single official, which is known as centralisation. The central office, led by the office manager, selects, orders, and procures stationery goods for the entire organisation under this structure. Stationery is distributed to various user departments based on requisitions submitted by departmental supervisors. The number and quality of things to be acquired are planned based on estimates and requirements for stationary provided by the various departments to the Central Office.


Decentralised Purchasing

Decentralised buying refers to a system in which each department, branch, or division of a company purchases its own stationery. For the selection and procurement of essential stationery, purchasing power is entrusted to the branch office manager or departmental head.

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