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BANC-105: Tribes and Peasants in India

BANC-105: Tribes and Peasants in India

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

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Assignment Code: BANC-105/ASST/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: BANC-105

Assignment Name: Tribes and Peasants in India

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


There are three Sections in the Assignment. You have to answer all questions in all the Sections.


Assignment – I


Answer the following in about 500 words each. 20X2= 40


a. Discuss the concept of tribes and peasantry. Define the characteristics of a tribe and Indian village

Ans) The concept of tribes and peasantry are:


Tribes and Peasants in India

Understanding people and their institutionalised behaviour in various situations and contexts is a key component of the subject of anthropology. The anthropological names for different human groups are tribe and peasant. These groups together make up the greatest share of the Indian population. Conceptualizing these categories has many challenges. Due to overlapping traits, there are issues with definitions and typical characteristics. Anthropologists identified the "Tribe-Peasant continuum" processes and the peasantization of tribal people as a result of the transition away from their traditional means of survival.


Indian society is categorised into tribal, rural, and urban societies according to geographical context and sociocultural traits. An essential component of Indian society is the tribal communities. There are tribes in practically every region of the planet. India has the second-largest population of tribal people after Africa. The diverse tribal population of India, which has a diversity of environments, shows a complex cultural mosaic. The tribal population is largely isolated and inhabits steep woodlands or clearly defined regions with its own distinct culture, language, religion, and strong sense of morality.


Demography and Distribution of Tribes in India

Except for the states of Punjab and Haryana and the Union Territories of Chandigarh, Delhi, and Puducherry, tribes can be found across India. There were 4,635 groups in India recognised by the Anthropological Survey of India as part of the "People of India Project," of which 461 communities belonged to scheduled tribes. The Indian government listed 698 tribal communities in its draught National Tribal Policy for Scheduled Tribes, which was released for the first time in February 2004. There are more than 700 tribes in India, according to the second draught of the document that was distributed in July 2006.


According to the 2011 Indian Census, there were 705 scheduled tribes, including both "major tribes" and their "sub-tribes." As additional tribal communities are added throughout time to the list of scheduled tribes, as is evident from the growing number of tribal communities. According to the Census of 2011, there were 10,42,81,034 scheduled tribal members in India, making up 8.6% of the total population.


Problems of Nomenclature


Scheduled Tribe

The phrase "backward tribe" was used in the Government of India Act of 1935. Later, the Indian Constitution kept the nomenclature but changed the word "backward" to "Scheduled Tribe." However, the term "tribe" is not specifically defined in the Constitution. There were 212 recognised scheduled tribes in India at the time of the 1951 first census since the country became independent. The Indian Constitution's Article 366 (25) refers to Scheduled Tribe as individuals who have been designated in accordance with Article 342.


According to Article 342, the Indian President may identify the tribes or tribal groupings through public notification after conferring with the relevant Governors of State or Union territory. Who falls within the definition of a Scheduled Tribe is still not clearly defined. A commission chaired by Shri U.N. Dhebar was established by the government in 1959 to examine the welfare of the scheduled tribes. This commission also couldn't come up with a definition that was sufficient.


b. Write a note on the history of tribal administration in India.

Ans) Tribes were never completely conquered by the Muslim invaders prior to the arrival of the British because they chose to reach agreements with the regional non-tribal princes or tribal chieftains. They did not interfere with the economic structure, way of life, or customary rules of the tribe. Tribal life was thus unaffected by political changes brought about by Muslim control.


The tribal people ruled the woodlands and their native grounds until the British arrived. Due to the tribal people's generally inaccessible environments, such as distant hills, marshy or malaria-infested jungles, and hostile areas, contact between British officials and the tribal people remained challenging during the period of British control. The British relied on information from Christian missionaries and had a "leave them alone" approach. Instead of concentrating their authority on smaller tribal groups, they aimed to control the majority of the Indian population that was easily accessible.


As a result, they continued to keep the indigenous people apart from the rest of the nation. They showed no interest in rescuing people from the grasp of creditors, landowners, contractors, or the sway of missionaries. However, the British quickly ran into significant opposition from the hill tribes of Bengal's Rajmahal Hills, the Mal Pahariya. Local landlords, or feudal zamindars, had been gradually encroaching on the holdings of nearby tribal groups while working with dishonest government officials to coerce the tribal members into becoming slaves. Due to the exploitation of tribal people by local dealers, businesspeople, and moneylenders, their status deteriorated. It greatly inflamed the hill people's anger, and in 1772 they eventually rose up in rebellion against the Hindu zamindars, engaging in violent conflict in some regions.


Following independence, the Indian government continued its isolationist stance with a few minor modifications. They implemented welfare measures in the areas that were just partially excluded. Verrier Elwin suggested establishing "national parks" where indigenous people may dwell in seclusion. A.V. Thakkar backed up this notion by emphasising the need to safeguard native people from being exploited by outside tribes.


It was suggested by the Constituent Assembly to designate some places as tribal and scheduled areas. Tribals residing outside of the scheduled zones were not properly safeguarded, and the government apparatus remained restricted to those areas. There is a divide between the general population and the tribes as a result of constitutional protections and the Fifth Schedule's inclusion of tribes. Tribal development also received financial independence in the five-year plans. But the decision to isolate the indigenous people was roundly criticised. The government then worked to assimilate them into the general population. The tribes' lives underwent numerous alterations as a result of the constant contact with the general population.


These ideas gave tribal government a fresh start as they helped to establish a new India. The spirit of development took the place of the missionaries' renowned charitable principle. In accordance with Article 342 of the Constitution Order of 1950, 212 tribes spread over 14 states were designated as Scheduled Tribes. Additionally, it is emphasised in the guiding principles of state policy on tribal welfare that "state will support with special care the educational and economic interests of the impoverished groups including Scheduled Tribes." According to Article 244 (Part IV), the President has the authority to designate any place as a Scheduled Area if there is a significant tribal population there. The governor of a state with scheduled areas is given extraordinary powers of governance under the Fifth Schedule.


Assignment – II


Answer the following in about 250 words each. (Write Short Notes) 10X2=20


a. Deliberate on the approaches to the study of peasants.

Ans) For pre-industrial agricultural labourers or farmers with little land ownership, the term "peasant" is frequently used; historically, they have been considered the lower class in agricultural communities. The Old French term "paisant" (from the 15th century), which meaning "one from the country," is the origin of the English word "peasant." Pays signified "outlaying administrative district" or "countryside." In late mediaeval and early modern English, the term "peasant" was used to describe the rural underprivileged, rural dwellers, serfs, agricultural labourers, and the "common" or "simple" people. In that time, the verb "to peasant" meant to oppress someone in the same way that a peasant is subjugated.


As far back as the sixth century, earlier Latin and Latinate forms (French, Castilian, Catalan, Occitan, etc.) defined a rural resident, whether or not they were engaged in agriculture. Early on, the phrases "peasant" and "paysan" in both English and French might denote a variety of negative adjectives, including "rustic," "ignorant," "dumb," "crass," and "rude." As in Germany in the fourteenth century, where the term "peasant" denoted a "villain, rustic, devil, robber, brigand, and looter."

For pre-industrial agricultural labourers or farmers with little land ownership, the term "peasant" is frequently used; historically, they have been considered the lower class in agricultural communities. The Old French term "paisant" (from the 15th century), which meaning "one from the country," is the origin of the English word "peasant." Pays signified "outlaying administrative district" or "countryside." In late mediaeval and early modern English, the term "peasant" was used to describe the rural underprivileged, rural dwellers, serfs, agricultural labourers, and the "common" or "simple" people.


b. Write a note on the problems faced by tribes.

Ans) Tribes are typically underdeveloped economically and educationally. Not every region of India is experiencing the same conditions. While the north-east has experienced unrest for some time, central India's difficulties with poverty, unemployment, indebtedness, backwardness, and ignorance remain severe. In comparison to their counterparts in other regions, the tribes of the northeast enjoy a high level of politicisation, literacy, and a good standard of living. The tribes were forced to leave their own grounds. The tribal proprietors were eventually displaced by the landlords and moneylenders of the plains. According to a survey conducted by B. K. Roy Burman in 1972, tribal people are the most economically and literately disadvantaged. Tribal people have various social, political, economic, and ecological levels than other people, hence their issues also vary in severity.


Indian tribes vary from one another in terms of racial characteristics, language, social structure, cultural practises, etc. The proto-Australoid racial type predominates among tribes. The Mongoloid variety is the most common in the sub-Himalayan region. There is social stratification among the members of a certain tribe, according to several anthropologists. Today, nonetheless, a contradictory circumstance exists. Protective discrimination separates tribal males from non-tribal men, but over time, this practise would put tribal men on an equal footing with non-tribal men. The prevailing viewpoint today is in favour of peaceful assimilation of tribal people into the national mainstream. The simultaneous occurrence of absorption and dissolution is challenging.


Answer the following questions in about 75 words each. 2X5=10


a. Ethno-political movements

Ans) The world's second-largest tribal population, after Africa, is found in India. In its ideal form, a tribe is a self-sufficient group. It has linguistic, political, cultural, and territorial boundaries and is a society unto itself. The mode of life in tribal cultures differs significantly from that in caste societies and other extremely stratified non-tribal communities. Kinship is the foundation of tribal culture, and tribal life is founded on a lack of specialisation and differentiation in socioeconomic pursuits. Various historical documents show that Indian tribes have had ongoing interactions with the non-tribal populace.


b. Singur Project in West-Bengal

Ans) Although the then state government provided a price greater than the market rate, it did not entice the farmers in the case of the Singur Nano vehicle project in West Bengal. Perhaps they believed that the cash offered would not be sufficient to make up their loss or buy such holdings elsewhere. Due to the state's disregard for the rights and concerns of the farmers and its arbitrary actions, the farmers engaged in a violent conflict that resulted in the deaths of twelve of them from police shooting.


c. Polavaram Project

Ans) The Polavaram project's first phase of relocation and restoration applies to the villages that were inundated near the dam building site. Five such villages existed. The bulk of the displaced individuals were reportedly dissatisfied with the compensation, rehabilitation, and resettlement. Many issues have reportedly been encountered by the majority of displaced people at rehabilitation and relocation facilities, which are located distant from their original homes. Lack of adequate infrastructure, including roads, drinking water, electricity, schools, and healthcare facilities, in the centres for rehabilitation and resettlement.


d. Planning Commission and NITI Aayog

Ans) A Council of Ministers resolution from 1950 formed the Planning Commission. The Prime Minister of India has served as the Commission's Chairman since its creation. A full-time Deputy Chairman with the position of a Cabinet Minister oversees the Commission's daily operations. (Page 35 of Shodhganga). "The Commission has four full-time employees. The Finance Minister is the Ex-Officio Member, and other Cabinet Ministers are part-time members. A Secretary and an Additional Secretary are also employed by the Commission.


e. Migration

Ans) In a society, migration can have both beneficial and detrimental impacts. The rural and tribal peasant populations might benefit from new advances brought about by migration. It might simultaneously result in changes in behaviour and culture. However, distressed migration is a mirror of the state's passivity, which was fostered by neo-liberalism and capitalism. Today, migration in quest of a living is a harsh reality. Agrarian disaster has compelled many to move to metropolitan areas in search of work, especially in hilly, drought-prone, desert, and flood-prone areas.


Assignment – III


a. What is Fieldwork? Explain the methods, tools and techniques you would use to collect data in a tribal village. Describe what would be your universe and unit of study. 20

Ans) Fieldwork, field studies, or field research all refer to the gathering of unprocessed data outside of a formal context like a lab, library, or office. Various methodologies and approaches are utilised in field research depending on the discipline. In contrast to social scientists who interview subjects or study people in their natural settings to learn about their languages, folklore, and social structures, biologists may simply observe animals interacting with their habitats when performing field research.


A variety of well-defined, though variable, methods are used in field research, including informal interviews, direct observation, participation in group activities, group discussions, analysis of personal documents created by the group, self-analysis, outcomes from offline or online activities, and life histories. Although the approach is typically associated with qualitative research, it may—and frequently does—include quantitative components.


Data Collection



By definition, primary data collection is the gathering of unprocessed data gathered at the source. It is the process of gathering the unique data that a researcher has gathered for a particular research objective. It could be further broken down into two categories: quantitative data collection techniques and qualitative research techniques.


The qualitative research methods of data collecting are based on the non-quantifiable factors such as the feeling or emotion of the researcher and do not entail the collection of data that involves numbers or a need to be derived through a quantitative calculation. An open-ended questionnaire is a prime illustration of such a technique.


Quantitative approaches convey information as numbers that must be deduced through mathematical calculations. An illustration would be the usage of a survey using closed-ended questions to get mathematically calculable numbers. Moreover, regression and correlation techniques, as well as mean, mode, and median.



The term "data collecting tools" refers to the tools/devices used to gather data, such as a paper questionnaire or a system for computer-assisted interviews. Tools used to gather data include case studies, checklists, interviews, occasionally observation, surveys, and questionnaires.


Since research is conducted in various methods and for various goals, it is crucial to choose the tools for data collecting. The goal of data collecting is to gather reliable information that will enable analysis to result in the creation of answers to the questions that have been addressed that are believable and convincing. For collecting primary data, or raw data gathered from the source, the Formplus online data collection tool is ideal. Our online and offline data collecting tool makes it simple to obtain data using at least three different data collection techniques. Including focus groups, online surveys, and reporting.


Audio Recorder

Sound can be recorded on a disc, tape, or film using an audio recorder. Many different people's demands can be satisfied by audio information, which can also serve as an alternative to print data collection methods.


Digital Camera

The ability to transmit those photos to a monitor screen when necessary is one benefit of a digital camera.



To record interviews for data collection, utilise a camcorder. It offers a hybrid of a video camera and an audio recorder. The responders can fully respond to all queries because the data is qualitative in nature. Since you would need to protect your subject's privacy if you needed to gather critical information during the interview, a camcorder might not be the best option for you.


b. Discuss qualitative analysis of data and report writing. 10

Ans) In order to find relevant information, make recommendations, and aid decision-making, data analysis is the act of looking at, purifying, manipulating, and modelling data. While statistical methods can be used in data analysis for qualitative research, examination frequently turns into an ongoing iterative process where data is continuously gathered and examined at the same time. Actually, the entire data collecting stage is when researchers and analysts typically look for trends in findings. The precise qualitative approach used and the data's format are typically the determinants of the analysis's methodology. The right and appropriate investigation of study outcomes is a crucial component of ensuring data integrity.


The research analysts, researchers, and report writers on our team are knowledgeable, skilled, and experienced. Our team is well-balanced in that each committed member of the research team possesses a comprehensive understanding of the industry domain, rich experience in the market research industry, along with the desired skill and understanding of - application of statistical technique based on the data being evaluated. Together, these factors help us to give our international clients the most illuminating, comprehensive, and pertinent data for the study they are considering.


The Saldaa technique was used to analyse the interview data on the basis of systematic coding. This kind of analysis entails the systematic coding (breaking down) of data in accordance with a code list (or code system8) in order to spot (theoretically and practically) pertinent trends. The coded segments are then combined and organised "up" into (generic) categories, which are subsequently connected to (theoretical) themes and notions of a more general nature.

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