If you are looking for BANC-109 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Human Growth and Development, you have come to the right place. BANC-109 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in BSCANH courses of IGNOU.
BANC-109 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: BANC-109/ASST/TMA/2022-23
Course Code: BANC-109
Assignment Name: Human Growth and Development
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
Total Marks: 100
There are three Sections in the Assignment. Answer all the questions in all the three sections.
Answer the following questions in about 500 words each. 20x2
a) Discuss normal growth variations.
Ans) Variations in normal growth are different ways for people to reach their full growth potential. The general growth curve explains how the body as a whole and the majority of its systems, including the circulatory system, which includes the heart and blood vessels, the respiratory system, the digestive system, and the urinary system, grow.
The complex process of human growth and development is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. An individual receives a genetic blueprint at conception that determines their likelihood of growing to be the size and shape they will be as adults. Individuals would exhibit a growth pattern or example that is fairly similar to or corresponding to the genetically predetermined trajectory in an unrestricted or neutral environment. British geneticist C.H. Waddington called this phenomenon "canalization" or "homeorrhesis". Despite this, none of us have ever lived, grown up, or been brought up in an entirely unrestricted environment.
We are exposed to a variety of harmful environmental factors (like diseases, malnutrition, etc.) during the prenatal and postnatal periods of our lives, which have an impact on the rate of growth. Growth either slows down, a phenomenon known as catch-down growth, or, in a more extreme case, stops. The frequency, length, and seriousness of exposure to environmental factors determine how much of the predetermined pathway is deviated from. While significant exposure for a long time will change the velocity, slight exposure for a short time will only produce minor changes. Age and gender of the person also affect how much influence they have.
When circumstances improve, there is a possibility for stabilising and returning to a predetermined growth curve even after being knocked off the trajectories. Initial growth rates during such a recovery phase are higher than those typically anticipated for children his/her age, or even of his/her skeletal maturity, and they gradually decline as the child recovers. Catch-up growth was described by Prader et al. as the rapid increase or quick expansion in growth velocity following a brief period or momentary time of starvation or illness.
When an infant is born with low birth weight due to intrauterine growth restriction, the "catch-up" phenomenon also refers to the relatively quick postnatal growth that is seen in those babies. It's common to think of catch-up growth in terms of weight or height, but it's also crucial to take into account the kind of tissue that is deposited in the body. For instance, several prospective studies have noted that after a period of catch-up growth during infancy, more body fat gradually accumulates during childhood and adulthood.
As a result, there are differences in body composition compared to infants who do not show catch-up growth. Catch-up growth may be completely necessary to return things to normal, or it may not be enough. If it's lacking, the person won't grow to the same adult height they would have attained in the absence of the growth impairment. This is dependent on how well recovery conditions are optimised.
b) Describe in brief Sheldon’s method of somatotyping.
Ans) There are many things that need to be taken into account when examining the various facets of life. These include the foundations of our beliefs, what is thought to be true, and what is thought to be untrue. This constitutional theory focuses on the evidence and conclusions underlying criminal behaviour as well as how the two are related to crime and criminology. Let's examine this approach in greater detail. Somatotyping is a technique for analysing and measuring human body shape that was developed by American physician William Herbert Sheldon (1898–1977). Sheldon was a pioneer in the field of research.
The Varieties of Human Physique, written by Sheldon in 1940 with contributions from S.S. Stevens and W.B. Tucker, introduced the idea of somatotype. They came up with the term "somatotype" and its explanation. Sheldon focused on the intestines, which are produced from embryological endomorphy, the bones and muscles that develop from mesomorphy, the skin, sensual organs, and nervous system that develop from ectomorphy, and then they are combined to be categorised into a few groups. Sheldon also suggested that each person was a combination of the three fundamental physical characteristics, which are:
Sheldon defines endomorphy as a virtually overwhelming soft roundedness in the human body. The term "endomorphy" describes a physical characteristic of the body that originates from the endoderm, the innermost layer of the embryo. The endomorphs' distinctive fatty deposition and soft, rounded features are thought to be caused by the predominance of digestive viscera. Overeating tendencies cause the body to assimilate more than is necessary.
Bones, muscles, and connective tissues are formed by the mesoderm, or middle embryonic layer. These elements are found in the mesomorphy, or second part, of the physique. Muscle, bone, and connective tissue make up the majority of the human body, a condition known as mesomorphy. A mesomorphic body typically has a heavy, hard, and rectangular shape.
Ectomorphy means that something prefers linearity and fragility over other qualities. As a result, his bodily economy is dominated by tissues that come from the ectodermal embryonic layer.
The interaction of the three factors mentioned above contributes to a person's somatotype. Or, to put it another way, Sheldon discovered that each individual was a blend of all three physical characteristics rather than belonging to a single form, and that the characteristics varied in intensity among individuals. Sheldon examined the physical variations of 4000 male college students to determine the range of those variations.
Other criteria used by Sheldon include weight, height, and three uniformly formatted photographs of the participants' front, side, and back. Special consideration was given to the type of camera, lens, camera distance, and lighting when taking pictures of the students to prevent deformation. Visual observations were made using the student's naked pictures in the three poses for somatotyping. He was able to recognise as many as 79 different types of physiques from the aforementioned survey.
Answer any two of the following questions in about 250 words each. 10x2
a) Write short notes on any two of the following
i. General Principles of deriving RDA(ICMR)
Ans) The RDA for a population and the multinational requirements of an individual have both been determined using a variety of methods. The fundamental guidelines are:
Dietary Intakes: The energy needs of children have been determined using this method. The energy intakes of healthy children who are typically growing are taken into account for this purpose.
Growth: Early infancy stage, the requirement of any specific nutrients or the intake of breast milk has been used to define requirements for satisfactory growth.
Nutrient balance: Nutrient balance in adults and nutrient retention that is consistent with satisfactory growth in children have both been widely used to determine the protein requirements. A minimum nutrient intake must be maintained to maintain equilibrium (intake + output). Factorial approach: In the factorial approach, the needs for the body's various functions are measured separately and added together to determine the total daily needs. Earlier, this method of determining the protein requirement was widely used, but it is now less frequently used.
Nutrient Turnover: Utilizing information on the metabolic turnover of nutrients in healthy individuals, the requirements for vitamins A, C, iron, and B12 have been determined. While radio isotopic labelled compounds were previously used to measure the nutrient turnover in the body, stable isotope labelled compounds are now more frequently used. Stable isotopes are especially helpful for pregnant and lactating women, infants, and children because radioisotopes should not be used on them.
ii. Physiological adaptation to heat stress
Ans) Because humans are homoeothermic, or warm-blooded, they must consistently maintain a body temperature of 98.6°F (37°C), regardless of the weather. The body can withstand temperatures outside of 35° C, but if they rise above that, heat stroke can result. Humans undergo a complex mechanism of producing heat as little as possible (heat gain) and releasing heat as much as possible as a means of adaptation to such extreme heat stress (heat loss). The three levels of this type of heat adaptation—physiological, genetic, and cultural—are discussed below.
As homoeothermic (warm-blooded) creatures, humans must consistently maintain a body temperature of 98.6°F (37°C) regardless of the weather. A temperature outside of 35° C that is too high for the human body could result in fatal heat stroke. Humans go through a complicated process of generating heat as little as possible (heat gain) and releasing heat as much as possible in order to adapt to such extreme heat stress (heat loss). This type of heat adaptation occurs on three levels, including the physiological, genetic, and cultural levels, which are discussed below:
In hot places with high level of humidity like the tropical forests, shores of Red sea, etc., sweating is of little or no use in cooling. Here, body size and shape play a vital role. Firstly, the small size of the body produces less metabolic heat and secondly has large surface area. Therefore, it can dissipate more heat from the body as compared to a larger body.
The body is protected from the environment by culture because physiological reactions there are frequently insufficient for survival. To deal with heat stress, humans make some behavioural changes and cultural practises. These include their eating habits, clothing preferences, housing design, activity schedules, etc.
Answer any two of the following questions in about 150 words each. 5x2
a) Application of Body composition study
Ans) Nutritional status is assessed in relation to the World Health Organization's recommended cut-off value and is divided into three categories: underweight (> 18.50), normal (18.50 - 25.00), and overweight (> 25.00). These days, obesity is a worldwide epidemic that is linked to other communicable diseases and has taken the place of other diseases as a cause of death and morbidity. Body Mass Index (BMI) is primarily used to identify levels of obesity in people, but it cannot distinguish between lean and fat mass in body composition, and more and more studies are finding that there are population-specific differences in the relationship between BMI and percent body fat.
Furthermore, performing a body composition assessment is the best way to determine the body's nutritional and health status. The most helpful anthropometric measurements for identifying obesity are the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-stature ratio (WSR), which are superior to simply calculating the BMI. Still, there are very few anthropometric evaluations, body composition measurements, and their associated benefits in Indonesia.
b) Hawthorne effect
Ans) This effect is a novel idea, but it is not a frequent occurrence in terms of human growth. A longitudinal study's main drawbacks are the length of time required to complete the study and the relatively small number of participants who could be generally followed up. One of the best ways to maintain a sample size in these studies is to encourage a sizable number of participations from the study's participating children and their parents. Unfortunately, as the involvements rise, the likelihood that they will have an impact on the study participants' children's development rises.
In the case of longitudinal methods, the process of significant parental involvement leads to the Hawthorne effect (Blalock, 1970), which achieves that subjects should be aware that they are included in or a part of their study. According to Johnston in 1980, continuous and persistent health care advice should be given so that the parents of the children who are enrolled in the longitudinal study are aware of the connection between development and the requirement for a suitable environment.
Answer the following questions in the about 250 words 10x3=30
a) Discuss in brief obesity assessment
Ans) In many nations, overweight and obesity have reached epidemic levels, with serious health and socioeconomic repercussions. Additionally, obesity reduces life expectancy, depletes all available health resources, and has detrimental effects on psychological well-being, health, and quality of life. Numerous weight-related diseases, including obesity, overweight, and underweight, coexist in different parts of the populations of various developing nations. The body mass index (BMI) and skin fold calliper, which are used to calculate the body fat percentage, are two methods that help identify obesity. These are all easy and efficient techniques.
General – Body Mass Index Practical Manual
As was previously mentioned, BMI is calculated by dividing a person's weight (in kg) by their height (in metres squared). Although BMI predicts clinical conditions like type 2 diabetes in adults, it does not predict these conditions as well in children and adolescents. In addition to psychological criteria, the BMI is a universal index that assesses a person's nutritional status and is used to classify people according to their levels of overweight/obesity and eating disorders. BMI has the flaw of not distinguishing between lean and fat mass.
BMI = Weight(kg)/ Height (Meters)2
Body Fat %
The total mass of fat in a human or other living thing is divided by the total mass of the body, and the result is multiplied by 100.
b) Describe in brief Dietary methods
Ans) By observing the changes in body growth and maturation, it is critical to determine the energy and nutrient requirements. From infancy to old age, dietary habits and nutrition play a significant role in how an individual develops. As we all know, normal growth depends on getting enough food and nutrients (basic nutrients like proteins, fats, vitamins, carbohydrates, and minerals). At any stage of life, taking inadequate and improper nutrition has a negative impact on the body.
Numerous communities are afflicted by a number of diseases as a result of inadequate diets, including overnutrition in adults (primarily in the elderly) and undernutrition in infants, children, and women. Because it is simple compared to other methods, reproducible, and easy to obtain standards based on a normal population for comparison and forming associations between clinical illnesses and abnormal measurements, anthropometric assessment is one of the most popular approaches to determining the nutritional status of a population.
The dietary intake is influenced by genetic and environmental factors that affect height. The cumulative effects of past malnutrition are reflected in stunting. Always analyse past or present food intakes, or the amount of nutrients consumed by an individual or a population group, when evaluating dietary methods for assessing nutritional status. A questionnaire is created where you can inquire about the family's dietary history, including what the mother or the child have eaten in the previous 24 hours. Then, once all the information has been recorded, determine the dietary diversity score.
c) Explain the procedure with precautions on measuring biceps skinfold and chest circumference.
Biceps Skinfold Circumference
At the level designated for taking the upper arm circumference, the skinfold thickness is measured at the front of the upper arm. When the skinfold is grasped with your thumb and index finger directly above the cubical fossa, the landmark is 183.
The subject is standing with his arms hanging freely by his sides. You lift the vertical fold one centimetre above the upper arm circumference using your thumb and index finger. The calibre’s jaws are positioned on the folds, and the measurement in mm is noted. The reading is recorded when the needle has been stationary for a few seconds after applying the calliper.
Be careful not to extend the time the calliper is applied to the skin because doing so results in the displacement of fat and an inaccurate reading.
While taking the measurements, the pinch above the skinfold shouldn't be released.
When using the calliper, muscle and subcutaneous fat are pinched together to cause pain in the subject.
It is the chest circumference measured at the level of the third and fourth sternebrae's union. At the conclusion of a typical expiration, the measurement should be taken. Tape should surround the above-mentioned landmark as the subject stands straight. The tape is kept horizontal with care. 189 Chest circumference measurements are extremely useful for predicting growth in the second and third years of life.
Tape used for measuring shouldn't be too loose or tight.
Tape must remain horizontal.
The body must be touched by the tape.
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