top of page
BANS-183: Tourism Anthropology

BANS-183: Tourism Anthropology

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for BANS-183 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Tourism Anthropology, you have come to the right place. BANS-183 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in BAG, BSCG, BAHIH, BAPSH, BAPCH, BASOH, BAEGH, BAPFHMH, BAPAH, BAECH, BSCANH, BAHDH courses of IGNOU.

Looking to download all solved assignment PDFs for your course together?

BANS-183 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity

Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BANS 183/ASST/TMA/2021-22

Course Code: BANS-183

Assignment Name: Tourism Anthropology

Year: 2021-22

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


There are two Sections in the Assignment. You have to answer all questions in all the Sections.


Assignment – I


Answer the following in about 500 words each. 20X2= 40


Q a. Discuss the role of physical, social, and archaeological anthropology in studying tourism.

Ans) Initially, tourism anthropology focused on the manner of life and behaviour of the locals of a tourist destination, sometimes known as "hosts." The introduction of tourism as an anthropological topic does provide a new foundation for anthropological knowledge advancement.


Physical Anthropology

Physical Anthropology is also active in researching various tourism-related sectors. Design Anthropometry, for example, is a popular discipline of physical anthropology that employs anthropometric measurements to develop ideas for improved tourist services. The development of seats for vehicles used on land, air, or sea that provide better comfort to tourists travelling long distances can be aided by body measurements of various humankinds. Physical anthropologists can also help with the analysis of sexually transmitted illnesses like AIDS that affect visitors in locations like Thailand, where sex tourism is encouraged.


Social Anthropology

The interests of anthropologists researching tourism have widened over time. The focus was expanded to include other pressing issues of the day, such as (1) how individuals and society change as a result of tourism; (2) how tourists and hosts interact and what they share; (3) the mobility that occurs as a result of tourist and host contact; (4) the creation of new identity and self-characterisation; and (5) finally, new meaning emerging as a result of combining all of these factors.


When it comes to researching tourism, ethnography, which is a popular and significant type of research used by social scientists such as anthropologists, has several challenges. This is due to the fact that the tourist space, the tourists (guests), and the locals (hosts) all have unique yet convoluted placement, making tourism research difficult.


Archaeological Anthropology

It's worth noting that all of anthropology's major areas are involved in some way or another in the study of tourism. Though socio-cultural anthropologists undertake the majority of the work in tourism, the other disciplines are not far behind. These include social organisations, history, cultural transitions, migration, environment, gender, stratification, rituals, and identities. Tourists prefer to visit heritage sites and museums when visiting historical locations. Archaeologists and archaeological anthropologists collaborate to conserve important historical structures, monuments, and museums in good working order for the public. They are also in charge of collecting museum objects and showing them to the public. This has resulted in the formation of an "archaeo-tourism" collaboration or partnership, which combines tourism and archaeology.


Contemporary linguistic anthropologists are interested in the communication that occurs between visitors and hosts through language and symbols. The outsider and the insider create trust for one other through these exchanges of language and gestures for the days that they are in contact with each other. These provide conceptual space for linguistic anthropologists to analyse ongoing verbal and metaphorical transmissions.


Q b. Describe tangible and intangible heritage with suitable examples.

Ans) Physical artefacts produced, preserved, and transferred intergenerationally in a society are referred to as tangible cultural heritage. It encompasses artistic achievements, constructed heritage such as buildings and monuments, and other physical or tangible manifestations of human ingenuity that have cultural significance in a culture. The term "intangible cultural heritage" refers to "practises, representations, expressions, knowledge, skills – as well as the instruments, objects, artefacts, and cultural spaces associated with them – that communities, groups, and, in some cases, individuals recognise as part of their Cultural Heritage" (UNESCO, 2003). Oral traditions, performing arts, local knowledge, and traditional skills are examples of intangible heritage.


One of the key motives behind the creation and adoption of the 2003 UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Assets was to differentiate between tangible and intangible heritage in terms of preservation and safeguarding. The Convention recognises the interconnectedness of intangible Cultural Assets with tangible cultural and natural heritage, as well as the importance of intangible Cultural Heritage as a source of cultural diversity and a driver of long-term development. Recognizing the importance of people in the expression and transmission of intangible Cultural Heritage, UNESCO pioneered the recognition and promotion of living human treasures, or "people who have a high level of knowledge and skills required for performing or recreating specific elements of the intangible."

For example, the presence of heritage sites such as the Taj Mahal and the Konarak temple in India instils pride and a sense of belonging through shared legacy, linking the past and present. Such heritage sites foster a sense of national ownership and responsibility for their preservation and promotion.


Cultural Heritage Festivals

Holi: Intangible Cultural Heritage: A Case Study The Hindu epic account of the demon King, Hrinyakashyap, who, having acquired near immortality and drunk on this new power, asked that he be worshipped as God, represents the connectivity of this world and the other world. Lord Shiva's demon king's son, Prahald, refused to recognise his father as a God and was severely tortured as a result. Nothing, however, could sway the young man's resolve. Enraged by his inability to convert Prahlad's devotion to him, the king enlisted the help of his sister, Holika (for whom the festival is named), to rid him of the son while also setting an example for non-devotees. Holika planned to assassinate Prahlad in order to send a strong message to the people and create an example for anyone who dared to resist the King. She made him sit on a fire in her lap. However, when the gods of the other world saw Prahlad's dedication to them, they came to his aid, whereas Holika was burned to ashes, despite the fact that she was meant to be fireproof. Holi celebrations traditionally begin with the lighting of a pyre on the festival's eve, representing the triumph of good over evil.



Assignment – II


Answer the following in about 250 words each. (Write Short Notes) 10X3=30


Q a. What is authenticity in tourism? Explain with suitable examples.

Ans) Anthropologists have been interested in and concerned about the concept of authenticity in tourism. Objectivism, Constructivism, and Postmodernism are three theoretical methods that have been used to study it.


The Objectivist Theory:

This view claims that authenticity is inherent in the object being visited and is unrelated to the visitor or tourist's perceptions, implying that authenticity is a factual quality. In actuality, according to Boorstin, tourists seek out inauthenticity. MacCanell, on the other hand, disagreed, claiming that “the alienated modern tourist in search of authenticity thus seeks out the pristine, the natural, that which has yet to be touched by modernity.” He refers to such visitors as "religious pilgrims." They do agree on one issue, however: what tourists see in the end is unauthentic.


The Constructivism Theory

Authenticity, according to this notion, is not physically observable and is "a socially constructed, negotiated concept, not a permanent quality of the touring item." As a result, depending on their philosophy or way of thinking, different people can see an object with varying degrees of authenticity. Cohen coined the phrase emergent authenticity to describe how, as culture evolves, a manufactured or fraudulent experience becomes recognised as genuine. According to Urry, the tourist conviction in authenticity is fostered through the use of "contemporary mass media" and "time-space compression."


The Post-modern theory

This approach is focused with the traveller’s experience at the tourist attraction rather than the goal of their visit. “Existential authenticity refers to a potential existential state of Being that is activated by tourist activities,” explains Wand. Authentic tourism experiences, on the other hand, aim to attain this awakened existential state of Being within the liminal tourism process. For example, hotels and resorts, as well as group tours that offer to provide a genuine taste of the tourist destination's culture.


Q b. Discuss preservation and conservation of heritage sites with suitable examples.

Ans) For the sake of scientific and academic activity, heritage site conservation and preservation are critical.


Preservation and Conservation of the Taj Mahal

The Taj Mahal, which is a World Heritage site, is currently a national property of India and is maintained by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), which is part of the Ministry of Culture. The ASI is responsible for maintaining and conserving the monument. In order to protect the nearly 350-year-old monument, the ASI has set a code of conduct. Due to the discoloration of the marbles caused by high pollution levels in recent decades, a buffer zone was established within a 2-kilometer radius of the Taj, in which no cars are permitted.


Example of Bhimbetka

The early man's houses in India were the Bhimbetka rock shelter in Madhya Pradesh. The prehistoric human lives are depicted in the rock shelters through the art and paintings etched on the cave walls. Thousands of people visit this site each year, making it one of the most popular tourist attractions in the area. The question now is whether it is necessary or important to retain these historical artefacts. These rock shelters now attract a large number of people, which might result in wear and tear. If people touch the art, it will fade out, resulting in the loss of valuable art that is currently a window into the past. The standards for cultural tourism management, which emerged as a result of an international agreement on criteria for World Heritage sites, must be followed in order to preserve the sacredness of the site and prevent the art from perishing.


Q c. Write about some of the new directions in the anthropology of tourism.

Ans) Tourism has exploded in popularity over the previous half-century, becoming the world's largest industry. When the dynamic and complex nature of this industry is combined with the globalisation experience, a new analysis is required.


The new technique highlights how anthropologists may use their theoretical knowledge and field expertise to help mitigate the negative consequences of tourism development projects without jeopardising the industry's potential. Applied anthropologists have brought out various opinions from local residents, tourists, travel agencies, and community planners. These new ideas not only provide a fresh perspective, but they also give tourism research and sustainable tourism practises a boost.


No applied project, according to applied anthropologists, can flourish without the engagement of the local community. Anthropologists speak about specificities, or customised assessments and analyses of local places, by allowing local individuals to play a significant part. They also assist planners in recognising the local population's distinctive history, political and social features, as well as focusing tourism planning and development projects toward cultural preservation.


Applied anthropologists serve as advisors to government agencies and have pioneered new kinds of alternative tourism that preserve the environment and culture while also benefiting the community economically. Alternative tourism is defined as "tourism that is congruent with natural, social, and communal values that allows both hosts and tourists to have positive and worthwhile interactions and shared experiences." Researchers interested in the objective of integrating conservation and development have taken notice of this new form of tourism.


Answer the following questions in about 150 words each. 5X6=30


Q a. Guest and the Host

Ans) For the long-term development of a tourism location, a positive relationship between local hosts and tourists (guests) is necessary. The socio-cultural repercussions of tourism development have a significant impact on the interaction between the host community and visitors. The degree to which the benefits of tourism are regarded to outweigh the expenses determines the diversity in the interaction between hosts and tourists. In other words, if the tourism business benefits the host town rather than costs it, the relationship between the two sides will be considerably stronger.


Mutual understanding between cultures can lead to increased understanding and tolerance, reducing prejudice, conflict, and tension between hosts and visitors. Visitors have this form of interaction when they travel from their home culture to the host culture, and hosts have this type of contact when they serve tourists from other cultures. That is, both tourists and members of the host community take part in learning about each other's cultures.


Q b. Culture and Tourism

Ans) Previously, tourism and culture were seen as largely independent entities. Cultural resources were considered as part of a destination's cultural history, linked to local population education and the underpinning of local or national cultural identities. Tourism, on the other hand, was mainly regarded as a leisure-related activity distinct from ordinary life and local culture. As the function of cultural attractions in driving tourists and separating locations from one another became more apparent toward the end of the century, this steadily changed. A variety of factors have aided the growing integration of culture and tourism.


Tourism has been integrated into cultural development initiatives as a means of supporting cultural heritage and cultural output, and culture has been increasingly used as a part of tourism product and destination imaging tactics. One of the most important reasons for supporting a more direct interaction between tourism and culture is the synergy that exists between the two. Given the growing importance of both tourism and culture for economies around the world, this relationship is even more important.


Q c. Ethnography

Ans) Ethnography investigates cultural phenomena from the perspective of the study's subject. Ethnography is a sort of social research that examines participants' behaviour in a given social environment and attempts to understand the group members' perception of that behaviour.


When it comes to researching tourism, ethnography, which is a popular and significant type of research used by social scientists such as anthropologists, has several challenges. This is due to the fact that the tourist space, the tourists (guests), and the locals (hosts) all have unique yet convoluted placement, making tourism research difficult.


Ethnography is an essential component of anthropological research. It's a methodology that has the credibility to establish itself as a method first, then as a product. It entails long-term direct contact with people, especially through the use of local language, in order to obtain “authentic” cultural information. This methodology, when used to tourism studies, reveals some difficulties that need to be addressed.


Q d. Commodification of culture in tourism

Ans) The concept of authenticity is inextricably tied to the monetization of the host society's culture, and it has sparked heated controversy in tourist studies. On the one hand, tourism is believed to encourage authentic experiences, but it is also stated that it commodifies cultural treasures into consumable items that may be marketed as authentic. Local cultural objects, such as costumes, folk and ethnic art, and jewellery, are frequently created particularly for tourist consumption and are often quite different from the original item in use.


The demand for Indian handicrafts created by the country's diverse local populations. The state has taken a keen interest in the revival and promotion of indigenous handicrafts, and a number of state emporiums as well as specialised marketplaces have been established to this end. Artisans, craftspeople, and small business owners are encouraged to create, develop, and promote regionally unique items. Wood, brass, terracotta, and embroidered works have endured in India for centuries and are in high demand in other nations.

Q e. Sustainable development and tourism

Ans) Sustainable tourism (or responsible tourism) addresses the demands of visitors, the industry, the environment, and host communities while taking full account of current and future economic, social, and environmental repercussions. Primary transit to the general site, local transportation, accommodations, entertainment, recreation, food, and shopping are all examples of tourism. It can be related to vacations, work trips, and visits to friends and relatives. There is now widespread agreement that tourist development should be long-term. In reality, if properly planned, developed, and managed, all forms of tourism have the potential to be sustainable.


Transnational and non-governmental organisations, particularly in developing nations, are increasingly focusing on sustainable development. Sustainable development, according to the Brundtland Report, is "development that meets current demands without jeopardising future generations' ability to satisfy their own needs." The report's instructions for marginalised indigenous communities are not clear enough to implement sustainable development plans. While environmental protection and poverty alleviation remain key aspects of sustainable development, an increasing focus has been placed on local community participation and control in such endeavours.


Ecotourism, according to Subramaniam, is critical to India's long-term growth. It also plays a critical role in defining an agenda for non-urban communities, who are largely excluded and marginalised in most development efforts.


f. Heritage sites and tourism

Ans) Cultural heritage tourism (or simply heritage tourism) is a kind of tourism that focuses on the cultural legacy of the destination. Heritage tourism is defined as "travelling to experience places, artefacts, and activities that authentically represent the stories and people of the past," according to the National Trust for Historic Preservation in the United States, and "heritage tourism can include cultural, historic, and natural resources."


Much research on tourism and heritage sites have focused on the fact that UNESCO's definition of heritage sites has resulted in substantial challenges with conservation and preservation of both natural and heritage monuments.


Understanding the heritage of our cultures, as well as that of others, is fundamental to tourism. As a result, tourism necessitates heritage preservation and conservation. In this regard, UNESCO is working to recognise and conserve some of the world's most well-known and even lesser-known heritage sites. When it comes to tourism, however, heritage places are frequently jeopardised

100% Verified solved assignments from ₹ 40  written in our own words so that you get the best marks!
Learn More

Don't have time to write your assignment neatly? Get it written by experts and get free home delivery

Learn More

Get Guidebooks and Help books to pass your exams easily. Get home delivery or download instantly!

Learn More

Download IGNOU's official study material combined into a single PDF file absolutely free!

Learn More

Download latest Assignment Question Papers for free in PDF format at the click of a button!

Learn More

Download Previous year Question Papers for reference and Exam Preparation for free!

Learn More

Download Premium PDF

Assignment Question Papers

Which Year / Session to Write?

Get Handwritten Assignments

bottom of page