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BAP-002: Basic Horticulture

BAP-002: Basic Horticulture

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for BAP-002 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Basic Horticulture, you have come to the right place. BAP-002 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in DHORT courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BAP-002/ASST/TMA/2021-22

Course Code: BAP-002

Assignment Name: Introduction to Horticulture

Year: 2021-22

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Marks: 50


Instruction: All question carry equal marks and are compulsory


Q1) What is horticulture and how it is suitable for the improvement of the farmers? Please explain with your experiences. Also enlist major constraints in the development of this sector in India.

Ans) Horticulture is the study and practise of growing fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants. It is now an industry that includes horticultural product processing and value addition for export and domestic markets.


Horticulture Resulting in Improvement of the Farmers

Horticulture has aided farmers in a variety of ways including an improvement in their economic situation. Himachal Pradesh's economy is largely based on the cultivation of apples and flowers. In Punjab, Delhi, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu, grapes have thrived. Mango production in the plains and temperate fruits in the hills has increased dramatically in Uttar Pradesh over the last few decades.


Due to new plantations in Orissa and the north-eastern states, as well as the rejuvenation of old ones in Kerala, coconut and cashew nut production is on the rise. Fruit farming is very profitable because the net return per unit area of land is the highest of all the crops. They are one of the potential earners of foreign currency. Horticultural crops contribute significantly to economic security, in addition to providing a source of income for a large number of small farmers.


Major Constraints in the Development of Agricultural Sector

The lack of good quality seeds, inadequate irrigation, soil testing facilities, and extension staff are the major constraints in the production and marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables. Other constraints include inefficient pest management, a lack of credit, high production costs, a lack of information, large post-harvest losses, a lack of infrastructure such as roads, cold storage, adequate space, poor market intelligence, and high transportation costs, among others.


Over the last decade, several research initiatives and significant investments have resulted in an increase in the supply of fresh fruits and vegetables. To reduce post-harvest losses and increase per-unit productivity and per capita availability of fruits and vegetables in the country, more resources must be allocated to agricultural research and infrastructure development.

Timely delivery, grading, packaging, quality control, market infrastructure, agro-processing plants, marketing credit, proper pricing, standardisation of weights and measures, poor access to market information, and low and declining productivity are among the other challenges that the horticulture sector faces.

  1. Crop production in horticulture is highly specialised.

  2. Inadequate skilled manpower to meet the wide range of horticulture development requirements.

  3. There are insufficient facilities for hands-on training.


Q2) Discuss the Broad Categories of the Indian Soils in which the horticulture can be developed.

Ans) In general, horticultural crops can be cultivated in soil that is suitable for growing field crops.


Some of the Broad Categories of Indian Soil for the Development of the Horticulture are as follows:



This soil is ideal for the growth and development of any plant. This type of soil is commonly found along rivers and is made up primarily of rock particles that have been crushed by the current. In this soil, the depth, water-holding capacity, and fertility level are all appropriate. This category includes the majority of the field crops grown along the Indo-Gangetic plain zones. This soil is suitable for growing horticultural crops such as fruit, vegetables, and flowers. This soil is also simple to work with. In this type of soil, the responses to various inputs are better than in any other soil.


Black Soil

Its colour is black, as the name implies. This soil contains more clay than sand or silt. In terms of workability, this makes the soil heavy. Wetting and drying this soil causes it to lose its physic-chemical properties. Cotton is commonly grown in this soil, which is why it is often referred to as Black Cotton Soil. This soil is unsuitable for crops that produce underground stems or roots, such as potatoes, radish, carrots, and other root crops. Although this soil has a higher humus content, the stiffness of the soil prevents it from being readily available to plants. Mango, jackfruit, and other fruit crops thrive in this soil.


Red and Lateritic Soil

This soil is reddish-brown in colour due to the presence of more iron. Jharkhand, Orissa, and West Bengal are the most common locations. It has a low water holding capacity and is naturally acidic. Most horticultural crops can be grown, but those that require neutral soil and a lot of water do not do well in many soil types. There is sometimes iron toxicity in this soil, which can stifle plant growth. Humus deficiency is also a problem in such soils. This soil is also difficult to work.


Hill and Montane Soil

Plantation and vegetable crops thrive in such soils. The only problem is that because they are on a steep slope, they are prone to erosion. These soils are most common in hilly areas. Because of the presence of decomposed materials in the soil, it is nutrient-dense. It is possible to grow any type of crop. Even in the hills, many of the highest-quality fruits and vegetables are grown. This soil is frequently gravely and ideal for fruit and vegetable crops.


It can also be used to grow a few flower crops. The hill ecosystem has a significant impact on the soil quality. Due to the steep slope, soil erosion is a major issue. You may have heard of contour farming or stair farming if you live in a hilly area. Small patches of land are cleared and planted with crops.


Q3) Please discuss the Major categories of injuries in the horticultural plants caused by the temperature.

Ans) Exposure to extreme temperatures is frequently associated with a variety of injuries affecting the entire plant or a specific organ.


Major Categories of Injuries Caused by the Temperature in Horticulture are as follows:



If we remember correctly, we may have come across a withered plant during the winter months. This occurs as a result of the low temperature, which slows the absorption of water and chilling of cell fluid. The chilling of cell fluid causes the cell wall to rupture, resulting in cell death. Frosting causes root injury in a small number of plants.


Desiccation of leaves and branches can result from high leaf temperature caused by insolation or surrounding atmospheric heat when combined with excessive transpiration and slow moisture absorption. This situation may almost certainly result in crop death. Desiccation of leaves in banana, guava, citrus, and other plants is a common injury symptom during the drier months in the tropics, when subsoil moisture and atmospheric humidity are both very low. Wilting of the leaves and the entire plant, followed by death, is a possibility in this situation.


Chilling Injury

Tropical and subtropical fruit plants are frequently injured and eventually die as a result of temperatures above freezing. Exposure to low temperatures above freezing has been shown to disrupt metabolic functions and cause injury in these plants. In these cases, the length of exposure determines the severity of injuries, which can range from temporary to permanent wilting of an organ or the entire plant.


Freezing Injury

The ambient temperature in temperate regions drops below freezing. Long-term exposure to temperatures below freezing point causes water to crystallise in the cells, tissues, and intercellular space of higher plants, causing injury or death to the tissues. Protoplasm can be deformed by pressure, dried by water withdrawal, and coagulated, resulting in plant death. Except for apple, the flowers of temperate plants are generally hardier and colder tolerant.


Metabolic Disturbances

As previously stated, higher temperatures cause a higher rate of respiration in comparison to photosynthesis, resulting in stunted growth, as well as disrupting and destroying hormonal mechanisms. Higher or lower temperatures above or below the optimum level adversely affect morphogenic changes, apical dominance, thermo-periodic induction, and other processes in all plants.


Direct Thermal Injury

Direct thermal injury can cause chlorophyll to bleach, as well as the death of a tissue or organ. When the temperature rises, the tissue or organ that comes into contact with it becomes sun scalded, burnt, and eventually dies. If the plant is exposed to direct heat, the entire plant may perish.


Q4) What do you mean by Toxicity of the Nutrients in Horticulture? Discuss toxicity symptoms of five nutrients in horticultural plants.

Ans) Nutrient toxicity occurs when an element is present in excess of a plant's requirements, resulting in a reduction in plant growth or quality. Symptoms of nutrient deficiency or toxicity vary widely among plant species and varieties. Soil, crop, climatic, and cultural factors all play a role in toxicities.


The Toxic Symptoms of the Five Nutrients in the Horticultural Plants are as follows:



Excess nitrogen is a rare occurrence, but when it does occur, it is harmful to plants.

  1. Plants with dark green foliage are more vulnerable to low temperatures, insects, and diseases. The terminal branches have been twisted.

  2. Large, soft, and poorly coloured fruits with poor eating and storage quality are possible.

  3. It's possible that they won't flower or that they'll fall off without setting. The period of adolescence is extended.

  4. Other elements, such as phosphorus and potassium, may become deficient as a result of the stimulation of growth.



  1. Excess phosphorus reduces nitrogen uptake, resulting in nitrogen deficiency symptoms.

  2. Excess phosphorus can inhibit the uptake and translocation of some micronutrients, such as zinc, calcium, manganese, and iron, resulting in deficiency of these elements.



  1. Excess potassium in fruit crops has no known symptoms. However, high levels of this nutrient in soils may affect manganese and zinc uptake, leading to deficiency.

  2. Citrus fruits with thick rinds and low juice content can become coarse.



  1. It is harmless in and of itself, but it can raise the pH of the soil and alter the availability of other nutrients.

  2. Iron is no longer available.

  3. Manganese, potassium, and zinc deficiency are all present.

  4. Acid-loving plants are difficult to grow.



  1. Magnesium excess results in the browning of root vessels, which eventually die.

  2. Potassium absorption is reduced, resulting in deficiency symptoms.


Q5) Describe the meaning of Pruning. Discuss five methods of pruning in horticultural orchard plants.

Ans) Pruning is the art and science of removing a portion of a plant's growth, flowering, and fruitfulness in order to influence the plant's growth, flowering, and fruitfulness, improve the quality of the product, or repair injury. Its purpose at any given time is determined by several factors:

  1. The plant's age in years.

  2. Its vitality.

  3. It doesn't matter if it's bearing or not.


Pruning procedures are determined by the individual plant's life span structure and growth habit. However, they could be as follows in general: pruning to promote growth Correcting the framework, pruning in preparation for bearing, pruning to rejuvenate old unproductive orchards, and root pruning in evergreen fruit trees, primarily to achieve flowering in the desired season.


Pruning, or the removal of plant growth, requires knowledge of a fruit plant's bearing habit. The bearing habits of different fruit plants differ. There are three types of flower buds: terminal (mango), lateral (grape), and adventitious (jackfruit). Flowering is also determined by the age of the shoot. As a result, the severity of pruning, the time of pruning, and the type of shoots to be pruned will all be determined by the plant species, its growth, and bearing habit.


The Five Methods of Pruning in Horticulture Orchard Plants are as follows:


Heading Back

Only one-third to one-half of the terminal portions of the branches are removed, leaving the basal portions intact. As a result, the twig, shoot, or branch's apical dominance is lost, and the lateral buds are encouraged to grow.

Thinning Out

When undesirable shoots or branches are completely removed from their point of attachment with the main trunk or branches without leaving a stub. It encourages the remaining terminals to grow longer, resulting in a decrease in laterals. This method is occasionally used to rejuvenate older trees.


Ringing or Girdling

A circular ring of bark measuring about 3 cm in length is removed during this procedure. It speeds up bearing by allowing more photosynthesis to accumulate in the plant's upward portion.



Notching is the process of creating a notch above a bud by removing a wedge-shaped piece of bark. It counteracts the effects of hormones and promotes growth.



Nicking is the process of creating a notch below a bud by removing a wedge-shaped piece of bark. This ensures that carbohydrates are accumulated from the leaves to the bud, which may lead to the formation of a fruit bud. In the case of stems, all of the above types of pruning are used. Pruning the roots and leaves is also popular. When it comes to bonsai and potted plants, root pruning is a must.


Root pruning serves the very purpose of keeping plants in dwarf shape. Root pruning is done on a regular basis in citrus by tilling the soil in December and January. Root pruning is used to control flowering in guava trees. Leaf pruning is a common bonsai practise. To keep the plant dwarf, a portion of the leaves are removed. To control flowering in guava, the newly emerged flush of leaves is pruned.

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