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BCOE-144: Office Management and Secretarial Practice

BCOE-144: Office Management and Secretarial Practice

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for BCOE-144 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Office Management and Secretarial Practice, you have come to the right place. BCOE-144 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in BCOMG courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: BCOE-144/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: BCOE-144

Assignment Name: Office Management and Secretarial Practices

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Attempt all the questions.

Section A 

Q1) “An organization’s present and future plans must be taken into consideration while deciding about the location.” Discuss.

Ans) The location of an organization plays a crucial role in its success and sustainability. It affects the organization's ability to attract customers, access resources, and compete with other businesses. Therefore, it is essential to consider both the present and future of an organization when deciding about its location.


Firstly, the present plans of the organization should be taken into consideration. This includes factors such as the nature of the business, the target market, and the availability of resources. For example, a retail business that caters to a local community may want to locate itself in a residential area to attract more customers. Similarly, a manufacturing company that requires access to raw materials may choose a location close to its suppliers.


Secondly, the future of the organization should also be taken into consideration. This includes factors such as the growth potential of the business, the potential for expansion, and the availability of skilled labour. For example, a startup company may want to choose a location that has the potential to attract more investors and partners in the future. Similarly, a company that plans to expand its operations may need to choose a location that has enough space and infrastructure to accommodate its growth.


Moreover, an organization's location can also have a significant impact on its brand image and reputation. For instance, a luxury brand may choose a location in an upscale neighbourhood to align its brand with the target market's lifestyle and preferences.


An organization's present and future must be taken into consideration while deciding about its location. A well-planned location can help an organization to achieve its business objectives, attract customers, and establish a strong brand image. Therefore, it is important to conduct thorough research and analysis before making any location decisions.


Q2) “One of the major objectives of office management is the optimum utilization of office resources- both human and material”. Discuss.

Ans) Office management is the process of planning, organizing, coordinating, and controlling the office activities to achieve organizational goals. One of the major objectives of office management is the optimum utilization of office resources, both human and material. This objective is crucial because it affects the overall efficiency and productivity of the organization.


  1. Increases Productivity: Optimum utilization of office resources can increase the productivity of the organization. By using the resources efficiently, the organization can reduce wastage, and utilize the resources to their maximum potential. This will result in increased productivity and efficiency.

  2. Reduces Costs: Efficient utilization of office resources can help in reducing the operational costs of the organization. By minimizing wastage, the organization can save on resources, and reduce the cost of procurement and maintenance of resources.

  3. Improves Employee Morale: Optimum utilization of human resources can help in improving employee morale. By assigning appropriate tasks to employees, and utilizing their skills and expertise, the organization can motivate them to work towards achieving the organizational goals.

  4. Enhances Customer Satisfaction: By utilizing resources efficiently, the organization can provide better services to its customers. This can lead to increased customer satisfaction and loyalty.

  5. Supports Growth: Optimum utilization of resources can support the growth and expansion of the organization. By efficiently managing resources, the organization can expand its operations, and tap into new markets and opportunities.


The optimum utilization of office resources is a critical objective of office management. By efficiently managing human and material resources, the organization can increase productivity, reduce costs, improve employee morale, enhance customer satisfaction, and support growth. Therefore, office managers must adopt effective strategies to ensure the optimum utilization of office resources.


Q3) What are various types or forms of office Organisation? State advantages and disadvantages of line organisation.

Ans) Office organization refers to the way in which the activities and tasks of an office are structured, coordinated, and controlled. There are various types or forms of office organization, including line organization, functional organization, line and staff organization, committee organization, and matrix organization.


Line Organization

Line organization is the simplest and oldest form of organization. It is based on the principle of direct line of authority from top to bottom. Under this system, every employee reports to only one superior, and there is a clear chain of command. The advantages and disadvantages of line organization are as follows:



Simple and easy to understand: Line organization is simple and easy to understand. It provides a clear chain of command, and every employee knows who their immediate superior is.


  1. Quick Decision-Making: Line organization facilitates quick decision-making as there is no need for consultation with other departments or superiors. Decisions can be made quickly, and action can be taken immediately.

  2. Clear Accountability: Line organization provides clear accountability. Every employee is accountable to their immediate superior, and there is no ambiguity in the reporting structure.

  3. Centralized Control: Line organization provides centralized control. The top management has complete control over the organization, and there is no sharing of authority or responsibility.



  1. Limited Specialization: Line organization does not provide for specialization. Employees are expected to perform a variety of tasks, and there is no scope for them to develop specialized skills.

  2. Overburdened Top Management: Line organization overburdens the top management as they must take all the decisions and handle all the responsibilities.

  3. Rigid Structure: Line organization is rigid in structure, and there is little scope for flexibility. Employees are expected to follow a fixed set of rules and procedures, and there is little room for innovation.

  4. Lack of Coordination: Line organization may result in a lack of coordination between departments or functions. There is little interaction between employees, and there is no sharing of information or resources.


Line organization is a simple and easy-to-understand form of organization. It provides clear accountability, facilitates quick decision-making, and provides centralized control. However, it also has its limitations, including limited specialization, overburdened top management, rigid structure, and lack of coordination. Therefore, before adopting line organization, office managers must carefully consider its advantages and disadvantages and evaluate its suitability for their organization's specific needs and goals.


Q4) “Your platform has nowhere to go but up with the right marketing strategy” Discuss in context of publishing platforms.

Ans) In today's highly competitive publishing industry, having a great publishing platform is not enough to guarantee success. The right marketing strategy is crucial to attract readers and authors, and to increase visibility and revenue.

  1. Increase Brand Awareness: A well-planned marketing strategy can help in increasing brand awareness. By promoting the platform through social media, blogs, and other online channels, the platform can reach a wider audience and create a strong brand identity.

  2. Targeted Marketing Campaigns: Targeted marketing campaigns can help in attracting the right audience. By identifying the niche market and designing campaigns that appeal to their interests, the platform can increase its chances of success.

  3. Collaborate with Influencers: Collaborating with influencers in the publishing industry can help in reaching a wider audience. Influencers can promote the platform through their blogs, social media channels, and podcasts, and provide valuable exposure to the platform.

  4. Offer Incentives: Offering incentives such as discounts, free trials, and rewards can help in attracting new readers and authors. These incentives can encourage them to try the platform and increase their engagement and loyalty.

  5. Provide Quality Content: Providing quality content is essential for attracting and retaining readers and authors. The platform must offer a wide range of content that meets the needs and interests of its target audience.

  6. Provide Exceptional Customer Service: Exceptional customer service is crucial for building a strong reputation and retaining customers. The platform must provide prompt and efficient customer service to address any issues or concerns raised by customers.


A publishing platform can go up with the right marketing strategy. By increasing brand awareness, targeting niche markets, collaborating with influencers, offering incentives, providing quality content, and providing exceptional customer service, the platform can attract and retain readers and authors and increase its revenue and visibility. Therefore, publishers must adopt effective marketing strategies to stay ahead of the competition and succeed in the publishing industry.


Q5) Does modern office design eliminate the stress factor? Discuss with the help of a case study.

Ans) Modern office design has become an important consideration for companies, as it is believed that a well-designed workspace can improve employee productivity, job satisfaction, and well-being. However, whether modern office design can eliminate the stress factor is still a matter of debate.


Case Study

The study was conducted by Steelcase, a leading office furniture manufacturer, and involved 1,000 employees from 11 companies in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. The employees were surveyed on their perceptions of their workplace environment and its impact on their stress levels. The study found that employees who worked in modern offices with open layouts and comfortable furniture reported lower levels of stress than those who worked in traditional offices with closed cubicles and uncomfortable furniture. The employees in modern offices reported feeling more connected to their colleagues and having more control over their work environment, which contributed to their reduced stress levels.


However, the study also found that modern office design alone could not eliminate the stress factor. Other factors, such as workload, job demands, and organizational culture, also played a significant role in employee stress levels.


Therefore, the study suggests that while modern office design can help in reducing employee stress, it must be combined with other measures, such as workload management and organizational culture improvement, to have a lasting impact on employee well-being.


Modern office design can help in reducing employee stress by creating a more comfortable, open, and collaborative workspace. However, it is important to note that modern office design alone cannot eliminate the stress factor. Other factors, such as workload management and organizational culture improvement, must also be addressed to ensure employee well-being and job satisfaction. Companies must adopt a holistic approach to employee well-being, including modern office design, to create a positive work environment that fosters productivity, creativity, and job satisfaction.

Section B


Q6) What are the points kept in mind in designing of office forms?

Ans) Office forms are an essential tool for businesses to collect, record, and manage information. When designing office forms, it is crucial to consider the following points:

  1. Purpose: The first thing to consider when designing an office form is its purpose. What information do you want to collect? What is the form's goal? The purpose will determine the form's layout, design, and content.

  2. Clarity: Office forms should be easy to understand, with clear instructions and labels. Users should know exactly what information to provide and where to provide it.

  3. Consistency: Consistency is crucial for effective form design. The form should be consistent in terms of font, font size, colour, and design elements. This consistency will ensure that the form is easy to read and complete.

  4. Branding: The form should be consistent with the company's branding. It should use the company's logo, colours, and fonts to create a cohesive look and feel.

  5. Accessibility: Office forms should be accessible to everyone, including people with disabilities. The form should be designed to be read by screen readers and other assistive technologies.

  6. Security: Office forms may contain sensitive information. Therefore, it is essential to design the form with security in mind. The form should be protected with appropriate security measures, such as password protection or encryption.


Designing an effective office form requires careful consideration of its purpose, clarity, consistency, branding, accessibility, and security. By keeping these points in mind, businesses can create forms that are easy to use, reliable, and secure.


Q7) What is office mechanization? State its various advantages and disadvantages.

Ans) Office mechanization refers to the use of machines, equipment, and technology to automate office tasks and improve efficiency. It involves the use of computers, printers, scanners, copiers, and other electronic devices to replace manual and paper-based processes.



  1. Increased Efficiency: Office mechanization reduces manual labour, making work faster and more accurate. It can handle repetitive tasks, which are prone to errors when done manually.

  2. Cost Savings: By automating office tasks, businesses can save money on labour costs and office supplies such as paper, ink, and other stationery items.

  3. Improved Accuracy: Machines are more precise than humans and can produce more accurate and consistent results.

  4. Better Record-Keeping: Office mechanization allows for easier and more accurate record-keeping. Digital records are easier to store, search, and retrieve, compared to paper records.

  5. Improved Communication: With the use of computers and other devices, employees can communicate and collaborate more efficiently and effectively, regardless of their location.



  1. High Initial Cost: Implementing office mechanization requires a significant investment in technology and equipment, which can be costly for small businesses.

  2. Dependence on Technology: If there is a power outage or a technical malfunction, office work may come to a standstill.

  3. Potential for Job Loss: With the introduction of office mechanization, some jobs may become redundant, leading to layoffs and unemployment.

  4. Security Risks: Electronic records and communication are vulnerable to hacking and cyber-attacks, which can result in loss of sensitive information.

  5. Training Requirements: Employees need to be trained to use the new technology and equipment, which can be time-consuming and expensive.


Q8) What is automation? List down different advantages of the office system automation.

Ans) Automation refers to the use of technology to replace manual labour in various tasks or processes. In the context of an office, automation involves using computer software, hardware, and other technology to perform tasks that were previously done manually. Some examples of office system automation include email marketing automation, customer relationship management software, and automated appointment scheduling.


The advantages of office system automation are as follows:

  1. Increased Efficiency: Automation reduces the time and effort required to perform tasks, resulting in increased efficiency and productivity.

  2. Improved Accuracy: Automated systems are less prone to errors and mistakes than manual processes, which improves the accuracy and quality of work.

  3. Cost Savings: Automating tasks can reduce labour costs and other expenses, such as office supplies.

  4. Better Customer Service: Automation can improve the speed and quality of customer service, resulting in increased customer satisfaction and loyalty.

  5. Easy Record-Keeping: Automated systems make it easy to store, search, and retrieve data, reducing the time and effort required for record-keeping.

  6. Better Decision-Making: Automated systems provide real-time data and analytics, which can help businesses make better decisions and improve their operations.

  7. Improved Employee Morale: Automation reduces the burden of repetitive and mundane tasks, allowing employees to focus on more meaningful and challenging work.


Q9) Differentiate between the following:


(a) Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) and Platform as a Service (PaaS)

Ans) Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) and Platform as a Service (PaaS) are two different types of cloud computing services that offer different levels of control and flexibility to users.


Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) provides users with access to virtualized computing resources, such as servers, storage, and networking, over the internet. With IaaS, users are responsible for managing and maintaining the operating systems, middleware, and applications running on the infrastructure. Examples of IaaS providers include Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft Azure, and Google Cloud Platform.


Platform as a Service (PaaS), on the other hand, provides users with a complete development and deployment environment for building, testing, and deploying applications. PaaS providers offer pre-built software components and tools, such as databases, middleware, and development frameworks, to enable developers to focus on building and deploying applications rather than managing infrastructure. Examples of PaaS providers include Heroku, Google App Engine, and Salesforce Platform.


The main difference between IaaS and PaaS is the level of control and flexibility that users have over the computing environment. With IaaS, users have more control over the infrastructure, but also more responsibility for managing and maintaining it. With PaaS, users have less control over the underlying infrastructure but can focus on developing and deploying applications more quickly and easily.


(b) Software as a Service (SaaS) and Functions as a Service (FaaS).

Ans) Software as a Service (SaaS) and Functions as a Service (FaaS) are two different types of cloud computing services that offer different levels of application development and deployment.


Software as a Service (SaaS) is a software delivery model where a third-party provider hosts applications and makes them available to customers over the internet. SaaS providers manage and maintain the software, including updates, security, and infrastructure. Customers pay for the software on a subscription basis and access it through a web browser or mobile app. Examples of SaaS applications include Salesforce, Microsoft Office 365, and Dropbox.


Functions as a Service (FaaS), also known as serverless computing, is a cloud computing model where a third-party provider manages and runs small pieces of code, called functions, in response to events or triggers. FaaS providers manage the infrastructure and automatically scale the resources up or down based on demand. Developers write and upload the code, and pay only for the resources used during execution. Examples of FaaS providers include AWS Lambda, Google Cloud Functions, and Azure Functions.


The main difference between SaaS and FaaS is the level of control and responsibility that users have over the software development and deployment. With SaaS, users have little control over the software but benefit from the convenience and flexibility of a hosted solution. With FaaS, users have more control over the code but are responsible for writing and deploying it in response to events or triggers.


Q10) What are the various types of cheques? State the reasons for not honouring a cheque.

Ans) Cheques are widely used as a form of payment in many countries around the world. There are different types of cheques that are used for different purposes. Some of the most common types of cheques are

  1. Bearer Cheque: A bearer cheque is payable to the person who presents it to the bank and does not require any endorsement.

  2. Order Cheque: An order cheque is payable only to the person named on the cheque or to the person authorized by them.

  3. Crossed Cheque: A crossed cheque is crossed with two parallel lines, which indicates that the cheque can only be deposited into a bank account and cannot be cashed over the counter.

  4. Post-Dated Cheque: A post-dated cheque is a cheque that is written for a future date.

  5. Stale Cheque: A stale cheque is a cheque that has not been cashed or deposited for a certain period, typically six months to a year, depending on the bank's policies.


Cheques may be dishonoured for several reasons, including insufficient funds, a stop-payment order, a discrepancy in the signature or account information, or a mismatch between the written and numerical amounts on the cheque. The bank may also refuse to honour a cheque if it is post-dated or stale, or if the account holder has placed a hold on the funds. In such cases, the cheque is returned to the payee marked as "dishonoured" or "bounced". It is important for the payee to ensure that there are sufficient funds in the account before depositing or cashing a cheque to avoid the cheque being dishonoured. The payee should also verify that the cheque is properly signed and dated, and that the amount in words and figures matches. If the cheque is crossed, it should be deposited into a bank account rather than cashed over the counter.

Section C


Q11) What is Unstructured Supplementary Service Data (USSD)?

Ans) Unstructured Supplementary Service Data (USSD) is a protocol used to send text messages between a mobile phone and an application server. USSD messages are typically shorter than SMS messages and are sent over a voice channel instead of a data channel. USSD codes are used by mobile network operators to provide a range of services to their customers, such as balance inquiries, top-ups, and mobile banking services.

USSD sessions are initiated by dialling a short code on the mobile phone, followed by a series of menus that allow the user to interact with the service. Unlike SMS, USSD messages do not require a data plan or an internet connection, making it a popular choice in areas with limited connectivity. USSD is widely used in Africa and Asia, where it is used for a variety of services, including mobile payments, agriculture, and healthcare.


Q12) What is the between Sales Budget and Purchase Budget.

Ans) Sales budget and purchase budget are two different types of budgets that are used in business operations.


A sales budget is a financial plan that outlines the projected sales revenue for a specific period, usually a year. The sales budget is typically based on historical sales data, market research, and sales forecasts. The purpose of a sales budget is to set targets for sales revenue and to provide a basis for evaluating performance against those targets. It helps businesses to plan their production, marketing, and distribution strategies.


A purchase budget, on the other hand, is a financial plan that outlines the expected purchases of raw materials, inventory, or other goods that are needed to support the production process. The purchase budget is typically based on the production plan, sales forecast, and inventory levels. The purpose of a purchase budget is to ensure that the necessary materials and supplies are available when needed and to avoid overstocking or stockouts.


Q13) What are the requisites of a valid meeting?

Ans) A meeting is a gathering of individuals to discuss a particular topic or issue. To be considered a valid meeting, certain requisites must be met. Some of the requisites of a valid meeting are:

  1. Notice: Proper notice must be given to all the participants regarding the date, time, and venue of the meeting.

  2. Quorum: The minimum number of members required to conduct the meeting must be present. The quorum is usually specified in the bylaws or rules of the organization.

  3. Agenda: The agenda for the meeting must be prepared and circulated in advance. The agenda should include the topics to be discussed and the order in which they will be addressed.

  4. Chairperson: The meeting must be chaired by a designated person who is responsible for maintaining order and ensuring that the meeting follows the agenda.

  5. Minutes: The minutes of the meeting must be taken and recorded. The minutes should include the date, time, and venue of the meeting, the names of the attendees, and a summary of the discussions and decisions made.

  6. Voting: Decisions made during the meeting must be taken by a vote of the members present. The rules of voting must be clearly stated in the bylaws or rules of the organization.


Meeting that meets all these requisites are considered valid and the decisions taken in such meetings are considered legitimate. It is important to follow these requisites to ensure that the meetings are conducted in a fair, transparent, and effective manner.

Q14) Define the following:


(a) Agenda

Ans) An agenda is a list of items that are to be discussed at a meeting or event. It is a document that outlines the topics to be covered, the order in which they will be addressed, and the time allotted for each item. The agenda is typically distributed to all the participants before the meeting or event so that they can come prepared and know what to expect.


Agendas can vary in format and content depending on the type of meeting or event. They may include details such as the names of the attendees, the date, time, and location of the meeting, and any relevant background information. The items on the agenda can range from routine matters to important decisions that need to be made.


(b) Notice

Ans) Notice is a communication or announcement that is given to someone to inform them of a particular event, meeting, or situation. It is a formal way of providing information to someone in advance, so they can prepare accordingly. Notice can be given in writing, such as through a letter, email, or memo, or it can be given verbally.


The purpose of notice is to ensure that the recipient is aware of the event or situation and has sufficient time to make necessary arrangements. Notice can be given for a variety of reasons, such as to schedule a meeting, announce a change in policy, or to provide information about an upcoming event. In some cases, notice may be required by law, such as in the case of legal proceedings or contractual agreements. The notice may need to be given within a certain time frame and in a particular format, to be considered valid.

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