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BCOS-186: Personal Selling and Salesmanship

BCOS-186: Personal Selling and Salesmanship

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for BCOS-186 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Personal Selling and Salesmanship, you have come to the right place. BCOS-186 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in BCOMG, BSCG, BAG courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BCOS-186/TMA/2022-23

Course Code: BCOS-186

Assignment Name: Personal Selling and Salesmanship

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Attempt all the questions.


Section A


Q1) What are the various steps of sales process in personal selling. Discuss them in detail.

Ans) The sales process in personal selling typically involves several steps that a salesperson goes through to convert a prospect into a customer. These steps are designed to establish a relationship between the salesperson and the prospect, identify their needs, and then present a solution that meets those needs. The steps of the sales process in personal selling are:

  1. Prospecting: This is the first step in the sales process and involves identifying potential customers or leads. The salesperson can use various methods to prospect, including referrals, cold calling, networking, and online research.

  2. Pre-Approach: After identifying potential customers, the salesperson must prepare for the sales call. This involves gathering information about the prospect, their needs, and their preferences, and creating a plan for how to approach them.

  3. Approach: In this step, the salesperson meets with the prospect and starts to build a relationship. They may introduce themselves, explain the purpose of the meeting, and try to establish common ground.

  4. Needs Assessment: Once a relationship has been established, the salesperson needs to understand the prospect's needs. They may ask questions to gather information about the prospect's business, their challenges, and their goals.

  5. Presentation: In this step, the salesperson presents a solution to the prospect's needs. They may demonstrate their product or service, show how it meets the prospect's needs, and address any concerns or objections.

  6. Handling Objections: At this stage, the prospect may have questions or concerns about the product or service being offered. The salesperson should listen actively, address their concerns, and provide any additional information or support that may be needed.

  7. Closing: If the prospect is interested in the product or service, the salesperson should close the sale. This involves asking for the prospect's commitment to purchase and finalizing the details of the sale.

  8. Follow-Up: After the sale, the salesperson should follow up with the customer to ensure their satisfaction and to address any additional needs they may have. This can help to build a long-term relationship and generate repeat business.

Personal selling is an important aspect of the sales process. By following the steps outlined above, a salesperson can establish a relationship with the prospect, understand their needs, present a solution, and close the sale. A successful sales process requires a combination of communication, listening, and problem-solving skills, as well as a deep understanding of the product or service being offered and the needs of the customer.


Q2) State the various qualities required by the salesman to become a successful salesman.

Ans) The various qualities required by a salesman to become a successful salesman:


  1. Communication Skills: A successful salesman must possess excellent communication skills. They should be able to articulate their message clearly and persuasively, both in writing and verbally. They should also be able to actively listen to their customers and understand their needs.

  2. Interpersonal Skills: A successful salesman should possess excellent interpersonal skills. They should be able to build rapport with their customers, develop relationships based on trust and respect, and maintain those relationships over time. They should also be able to empathize with their customers and understand their perspectives.

  3. Technical Knowledge: A successful salesman should possess a deep understanding of the product or service they are selling. They should be able to answer any questions the customer may have and provide technical support as needed. They should also be able to keep up with the latest developments in their industry.

  4. Persistence: A successful salesman should possess persistence. They should be able to handle rejection and continue to pursue potential customers even when faced with obstacles. They should also be able to work through setbacks and maintain their motivation.

  5. Adaptability: A successful salesman should possess adaptability. They should be able to adjust their approach to fit the needs of each individual customer and be able to handle unexpected challenges.

  6. Goal-Oriented: A successful salesman should be goal-oriented. They should be able to set clear sales targets for themselves and work towards achieving those targets.

  7. Ethical: A successful salesman should be ethical. They should always act in the best interests of their customers and avoid any unethical practices.


Becoming a successful salesman requires a combination of communication skills, interpersonal skills, technical knowledge, persistence, adaptability, goal-orientation, and ethics. By possessing these qualities, a salesperson can build strong relationships with their customers, provide them with solutions that meet their needs, and achieve their sales targets.


Q3) Write explanatory note on buying motives of the customers.

Ans) Buying motives refer to the reasons behind why a customer decides to purchase a product or service. Understanding these motives is essential for businesses to design their marketing strategies and ensure that their products or services meet the needs and desires of their target market.There are several buying motives that influence a customer's purchasing decision. These include:

  1. Basic Needs: These are the most fundamental buying motives, which are related to basic physiological and safety needs, such as food, shelter, and clothing. Customers purchase products that meet these needs, and businesses that offer such products have a high potential for success.

  2. Emotional Needs: Customers may also purchase products based on their emotional needs, such as a desire for social status or personal satisfaction. For example, luxury brands may appeal to customers who want to feel prestigious or successful.

  3. Rational Needs: Rational buying motives are based on logical reasoning, such as cost-effectiveness, quality, and reliability. Customers may prioritize these factors over emotional needs, particularly for big-ticket items like cars or homes.

  4. Cultural and Social Factors: Cultural and social factors, such as religion, ethnicity, and social norms, can also influence buying motives. For example, customers may purchase certain products because they align with their cultural or social identity.

  5. Personal Values and Beliefs: Customers may also be influenced by their personal values and beliefs, such as environmentalism or health consciousness. Companies that align their products with these values may attract these customers.

  6. Impulse Buying: Sometimes, customers may make a purchase impulsively, without much thought or planning. Impulse buying can be influenced by factors such as product placement, packaging, or discounts.


Understanding buying motives is crucial for businesses to create marketing campaigns that appeal to their target market. By identifying the buying motives of their customers, companies can tailor their products, services, and marketing strategies to meet the needs and desires of their customers, leading to increased customer satisfaction and sales.


Q4) What do you understand by personal selling? Explain importance of person selling in modern marketing.

Ans) Personal selling refers to the process of one-to-one communication between a salesperson and a potential customer to promote and sell a product or service. It involves building relationships with customers, understanding their needs and wants, and providing them with tailored solutions to meet their specific requirements. Personal selling is a vital component of the promotional mix and an essential tool for modern marketing.


The importance of personal selling in modern marketing can be attributed to several factors. First and foremost, personal selling allows for customized communication with customers. It enables salespeople to understand the needs and preferences of individual customers and offer personalized solutions to meet those needs. This personalized approach can lead to increased customer satisfaction and loyalty, which in turn can result in repeat business and referrals.


Secondly, personal selling helps to build strong relationships between the salesperson and the customer. This relationship-building aspect of personal selling is particularly important in high-value or complex sales situations. By establishing trust and credibility with the customer, salespeople can help to overcome objections and persuade them to make a purchase.

Thirdly, personal selling provides an opportunity to gather valuable feedback from customers. Salespeople can use this feedback to improve products or services, refine their sales approach, and identify new sales opportunities. This feedback can also be used to identify trends and changes in customer preferences, which can inform future marketing strategies.


Finally, personal selling can be an effective way to differentiate a product or service from competitors. By providing customers with a personalized experience and tailored solutions, salespeople can help to set themselves and their products apart from others in the market.


Personal selling is a crucial aspect of modern marketing. It enables salespeople to build strong relationships with customers, provide customized solutions, gather valuable feedback, and differentiate products or services from competitors. As such, it is an essential tool for businesses looking to succeed in today's competitive marketplace.


Q5) Discuss in detail certain conditions that favour personal selling.

Ans) Personal selling is a marketing strategy that involves face-to-face communication between a salesperson and a prospective customer. While this approach may not be suitable for all products or services, there are certain conditions that favour personal selling. Here are a few of these conditions:


  1. Complex Products or Services: Personal selling is particularly effective for complex products or services that require a high degree of customization, explanation, or demonstration. For example, in the case of software solutions, a salesperson can explain how the software works, answer any questions, and provide demos that can help potential customers understand how the product can meet their specific needs.

  2. High Value or High-Priced Items: Personal selling is also effective for high-priced items or those that require significant investment from the customer. In such cases, customers are more likely to make a purchase decision after receiving personalized attention and having all their questions answered by a salesperson.

  3. Personalized Solutions: If a customer has unique needs, a salesperson can provide personalized solutions that address these needs. This approach can help build a relationship between the salesperson and the customer, leading to increased trust and loyalty.

  4. Large or Important Accounts: For large or important accounts, personal selling can be an effective way to build a relationship and establish trust. A salesperson can work with the customer to identify their specific needs, provide personalized solutions, and address any concerns or questions they may have.

  5. Competitive Market: In a competitive market, personal selling can help a company stand out from its competitors. By providing personalized attention and solutions, a salesperson can differentiate their company and build stronger relationships with potential customers.


Personal selling can be an effective marketing strategy in a variety of situations. It can help build relationships with potential customers, provide personalized solutions, and differentiate a company from its competitors. However, it is important to consider the costs associated with personal selling, including the time and resources required to train and manage a sales team, before implementing this strategy.

Section B


Q6) What steps sales manager can take to avoid puffery and misrepresentation in selling.

Ans) The steps sales manager can take to avoid puffery and misrepresentation in selling are:


  1. Provide Training: Sales managers should provide training to their teams on ethical selling practices, including the importance of honesty and transparency. They should also provide examples of what constitutes puffery and misrepresentation, and how to avoid these practices.

  2. Set Clear Expectations: Sales managers should set clear expectations for their sales teams regarding what is and isn't acceptable in terms of sales tactics. This includes making it clear that puffery and misrepresentation will not be tolerated.

  3. Establish Metrics: Sales managers can establish metrics that measure the success of their sales teams based on ethical practices, such as customer satisfaction and repeat business.

  4. Monitor Sales Activity: Sales managers should monitor sales activity to ensure that their teams are following ethical practices. This can include reviewing sales scripts, listening in on sales calls, and conducting random audits of sales transactions.

  5. Provide Feedback: Sales managers should provide feedback to their teams on their performance, including how well they are adhering to ethical selling practices. This feedback should be both positive and constructive and should focus on specific behaviours that need to be improved.


Q7) What do you understand by creative salesmanship ? Explain the Characteristics of Creative Selling.

Ans) Creative salesmanship is a sales technique that involves using innovative and imaginative approaches to persuade potential customers to buy a product or service. It is about finding new and creative ways to reach out to customers and communicate the benefits of the product or service in a way that is compelling and engaging. The characteristics of creative selling include:


  1. Tailoring the Message: A creative salesperson tailors their message to the specific needs and interests of each individual customer. They take the time to understand the customer's unique situation and adjust their sales pitch accordingly.

  2. Using Storytelling: A creative salesperson uses storytelling to create a connection with the customer. By sharing personal anecdotes and experiences, they can make the benefits of the product or service more relatable and memorable.

  3. Creating a Sense of Urgency: A creative salesperson creates a sense of urgency by highlighting the benefits of the product or service and why the customer needs it now. They do this by emphasizing the unique features of the product or service and what sets it apart from competitors.

  4. Offering Solutions: A creative salesperson offers solutions to the customer's problems rather than simply selling a product or service. They take the time to understand the customer's pain points and offer customized solutions that meet their specific needs.

  5. Building Relationships: A creative salesperson focuses on building long-term relationships with customers. They do this by providing excellent customer service and following up with customers after the sale to ensure their satisfaction.


Overall, creative salesmanship is about finding new and innovative ways to connect with customers and communicate the benefits of a product or service. By doing so, salespeople can build strong relationships with customers and achieve long-term success.


Q8) “The salespersons’ motivation directly impacts his sales performance and his ability to achieve sales targets.” Comment.

Ans) The motivation level of a salesperson has a direct impact on their sales performance and their ability to achieve sales targets. When a salesperson is highly motivated, they are more likely to be focused, enthusiastic, and persistent in their sales efforts. This can lead to increased sales and improved performance. Here are a few reasons why a salesperson's motivation is critical to their success:


  1. Persistence: Sales can often be a challenging and competitive field. A highly motivated salesperson is more likely to be persistent in their efforts to close a sale. This persistence can help them overcome objections and close deals that might otherwise be lost.

  2. Resilience: Sales can also involve a lot of rejection and disappointment. A motivated salesperson is more likely to bounce back from setbacks and stay focused on their goals, even in the face of adversity.

  3. Confidence: A motivated salesperson is more likely to be confident in their abilities and their product or service. This confidence can help them communicate the benefits of their product or service more effectively and overcome objections from potential customers.

  4. Positive Attitude: A motivated salesperson is more likely to have a positive attitude, which can be contagious. This positive energy can help them build relationships with customers and create a more productive work environment.


Overall, a salesperson's motivation level is critical to their ability to achieve sales targets and succeed in their role. Sales managers can help foster a culture of motivation by providing recognition and rewards, setting clear goals and expectations, and creating a supportive work environment that encourages growth and development.

Q9) Explain the significance of ‘trial close’ in closing the sale with suitable examples.

Ans) A trial close is a technique used by salespeople to gauge a customer's interest in a product or service before attempting to close the sale. It involves asking a question or making a statement that encourages the customer to make a small commitment or provide feedback on their level of interest. The significance of a trial close is that it can help the salesperson identify potential objections or barriers to closing the sale and address them before attempting a final close. Here are a few examples of trial close questions:

  1. "If we could offer you a 20% discount, would you be interested in making a purchase today?"

  2. "Based on what we've discussed so far, do you think this product meets your needs?"

  3. "How do you feel about the benefits of our product? Do they align with your expectations?"


By asking these questions, a salesperson can gauge the customer's interest and address any concerns they may have before making a final attempt to close the sale. This can help the salesperson identify any objections or issues that need to be addressed before proceeding with the sale. It also allows the salesperson to tailor their approach to the customer's needs, which can increase the likelihood of a successful sale. A trial close is a valuable technique that can help salespeople close more sales by identifying potential barriers and addressing them before attempting a final close. By using trial close questions, salespeople can better understand the customer's needs and preferences, and tailor their approach accordingly.


Q10) What are the primary and secondary responsibilities of a Sales professional?

Ans) Sales professionals are responsible for driving revenue growth by selling products or services to customers. Their primary responsibility is to identify potential customers and convince them to buy the products or services offered by their company. To achieve this, sales professionals must have a good understanding of the market and the competition, as well as a deep knowledge of their own products or services.


In addition to identifying potential customers, sales professionals must also build relationships with existing customers to maintain their loyalty and secure repeat business. This involves understanding the customer's needs and tailoring their approach to match those needs. Sales professionals must also be able to communicate the value proposition of their products or services effectively, including features, benefits, and pricing.

Secondary responsibilities of a sales professional include:

  1. Forecasting and Reporting: Sales professionals must monitor and analyse sales data to forecast future sales and identify trends. They must also report sales performance to management and other stakeholders.

  2. Collaborating with Other Departments: Sales professionals must work closely with other departments, such as marketing, customer service, and product development, to ensure that customer needs are being met and that products or services are being marketed effectively.

  3. Managing Accounts: Sales professionals are responsible for managing accounts and ensuring that customers are satisfied with their purchases. This involves addressing any concerns or issues that arise and providing support when necessary.

  4. Staying up to date on Industry Trends: Sales professionals must stay up to date on industry trends and changes to the market to ensure that their sales strategies are effective and that they are offering customers the best products or services available.


Overall, sales professionals are responsible for driving revenue growth by identifying and converting potential customers, building, and maintaining relationships with existing customers, and collaborating with other departments to ensure that customer needs are being met.


Section C


Q11) Write short notes on:


(a) Digital Marketing

Ans) Digital marketing refers to the use of digital channels such as search engines, social media, email, mobile apps, and websites to promote products or services. It encompasses a wide range of tactics including search engine optimization (SEO), pay-per-click (PPC) advertising, social media marketing, content marketing, email marketing, and more. Digital marketing has become increasingly popular as more people have access to the internet and spend more time online. It offers businesses the ability to reach a large audience with targeted messaging, track the effectiveness of their campaigns, and adjust their strategies accordingly. One of the advantages of digital marketing is that it can be highly cost-effective, allowing businesses of all sizes to compete in the online space. It also provides opportunities for personalized communication with customers, which can increase engagement and loyalty.


(b) Tour diary

Ans) A tour diary is a personal journal or record of a traveller’s experiences and observations during a tour or trip. It can be written or recorded in any format, such as a notebook, blog, video diary, or social media updates. The purpose of a tour diary is to document the journey, capture memories, and share the experience with others. Tour diaries often include details such as the itinerary, places visited, people met, food tasted, and sights seen. They may also contain personal reflections on the trip, including thoughts and feelings about the destination, culture, and experiences.


Tour diaries are a great way to preserve memories and share them with others who may be interested in following in the traveller’s footsteps. They can also serve as a valuable resource for future planning and research, providing insights and recommendations for others who may be planning a similar trip. In today's digital age, tour diaries are often shared on social media platforms such as Instagram, YouTube, or Facebook, allowing travellers to connect with a wider audience and share their experiences in real-time.


Q12) Distinguish between:


(a) Door-in-the-Face Technique and Foot-in-the-door Technique

Ans) Door-in-the-face technique and foot-in-the-door technique are two persuasive tactics that are used to influence people's behaviour. The key difference between the two techniques lies in their approach. Door-in-the-face technique involves making an initial request that is so large and unreasonable that it is likely to be refused. Once the first request is declined, a smaller, more reasonable request is then presented, which is more likely to be accepted. The technique works by creating a contrast effect, where the second request appears more reasonable in comparison to the first one.


Foot-in-the-door technique, on the other hand, involves making a small initial request that is easily granted. Once the person agrees to the initial request, a larger, more significant request is then made, which is more likely to be accepted. This technique works by creating a consistency effect, where the person is more likely to agree to a larger request after having already agreed to a smaller one.


(b) Organization Skills and Persuading Skills

Ans) Organization skills and persuading skills are two distinct competencies that are valuable in different contexts. Here are the differences between the two:


  1. Definition: Organization skills refer to the ability to efficiently manage and coordinate resources, tasks, and people to achieve specific objectives. Persuading skills, on the other hand, refer to the ability to convince others to adopt a certain viewpoint, take a specific action or make a particular decision.

  2. Importance: Organization skills are essential in ensuring that tasks and projects are completed on time, within budget, and to a high standard of quality. Persuading skills are essential in influencing others to make decisions that support your goals, whether in personal or professional contexts.

  3. Techniques: Organization skills require the use of techniques such as prioritizing tasks, delegating responsibilities, and time management. Persuading skills require the use of techniques such as active listening, presenting compelling arguments, and adapting communication styles to suit different audiences.

  4. Focus: Organization skills are focused on the process of planning, coordinating, and executing tasks to achieve specific objectives. Persuading skills are focused on influencing others to make decisions that support your objectives.

  5. Outcome: The outcome of effective organization skills is the completion of tasks and projects within the specified parameters, such as time, budget, and quality. The outcome of effective persuading skills is the ability to influence others to make decisions that support your objectives, such as adopting a new strategy, purchasing a product, or approving a project proposal.

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