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BEGA-102: Writing for Radio (English)

BEGA-102: Writing for Radio (English)

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

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Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BEGA-102/BDP/TMA/2021-2022

Course Code: BEGA-102

Assignment Name: Application Oriented Course in Writing for Radio

Year: 2021-2022

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Max Marks: 100



This assignment has 8 questions. Attempt all of them and answer each question in approximately 300-350 words, unless stated otherwise.


Q1. What are some innovations that have taken place as far as radio is concerned? (10)

Ans) Many people assume that writing is a talent. This could be partially correct. We constantly come across folks who write better than others, as if they had a natural grasp of the language. There are at least two compelling reasons to learn to write. First, learning to write can help you become a better writer; however it won't make you famous. Second, the idea that perspiration is more important than inspiration holds true here as well.


We often believe that "profuse strains of unpremeditated art" emanate from all brilliant authors. This is almost never the case. Good writing needs a great deal of planning and effort. Even the best writers need to be well-versed in their craft's abilities and techniques. Furthermore, a writer must be well-versed in the requirements of the media for which she is writing. Print journalism and radio journalism, for example, have significantly different expectations. A good writer is one who understands these requirements and has acquired the essential skills. This is also true with the broadcast writer.


Writing for the Ear

The broadcast writer must be especially aware of the sound of the spoken language. In a book, a tough line can be read twice, but broadcasters can't keep repeating what the audience doesn't get. Audience members must absorb information without having the opportunity to study it. They are unable to request that a speaker repeat a fact or clarify a complex topic. This is a significant element for people who write for the ear.


Another key aspect to consider for the broadcast writer. The target audience is isolated people who are unable to benefit from the social facilitation provided by a group in an auditorium or movie theatre. In effect, the broadcaster is addressing directly to viewers in their homes, offices, or automobiles. Even if millions of people are listening, they are not all in the same spot. This necessitates the broadcaster's use of a casual, conversational tone of voice.


Q2. What does adapting for radio involve? Give a detailed answer. (10)

Ans) The following is a brief summary of what adaptation generally involves:


Compressing or Expanding the Material: The original must frequently be compressed or expanded. Dramatization is distinguished by the fact that it takes longer to depict than the written word. Relevance should be the guiding principle in the selecting process. Aesthetics and dramatic interest The primary objective of expansion or condensation (i.e. the deletion or addition of material) is to create dramatic interest.


Material Selection: The length constraint does not necessarily have to be the guiding factor (i.e. in order to shorten the material). Subplots, minor scenes, and minor characters may all be sacrificed on the altar of adaptation. You can even get rid of characters who you don't think are adding to the drama. You can either remove or combine characters.


Giving a Sense of the Present: This is a point of contention. However, modern "adaptors" believe that an adaptation should be relevant to current events. This isn't only about having "current relevance" (whatever that implies), but also about being able to appeal to or provide insight into the modern mentality. One contemporary example is Satyajit Ray's film Ganashatru, which is based on Henrik Ibsen's Enemy of the People. Peter Brook's Mahabharata adaption is a great example of this in the theatre. But it's important to note that when I say "current," I don't mean that the storey should be set in a different era. Just that the treatment should not be completely reliant on 50-year-old interpretations!


I'm not translating from one language to another here; instead, I'm translating into dialogue. I'm referring to the conversion of narrative or descriptive text into conversation. It's not difficult to convert a storey into a narrative ("Drona asked Yudhishthira to look at the bird and take aim."). You must utilise radio-friendly terminology when translating or altering narration or description into dialogue.


When adapting to radio, convert to auditory coding. Sound effects and music are used to substitute visual codes in this method. For example, music can be used to indicate the transition from one "chapter" to the next.


Last but not least, adaptability is a difficult task. Other than ethical guidelines, there are no hard and fast rules. But it's also not a free-for-all. You need to be aware of your own limitations. If you don't think you'll be able to defend every change you're making, don't bother. To put it another way, think twice before giving Shakespeare's plot a fresh twist.


Q3. Define a commentary and describe its various types. (10)

Ans) A commentary is a series of remarks describing an event, esp. on radio or television, or a set of written notes explaining or expressing an opinion on a text or subject.


Types of Commentaries


News Related Commentary: This form of commentary is most commonly heard as part of news broadcasts or current affairs magazine programmes. You might have a host or presenter who introduces you to a live-commentator (also known as an anchor person) on the spot: "...and to bring you an on-the-spot report from the scene of the fire, our correspondent Malini Singh reports..." and then over to the correspondent. Senior commentators frequently (or should) provide an analysis of the situation, whereas junior or beginning commentators mainly describe.


Special Event Commentaries: Several commentaries are presented with a specific event or goal in mind. The Republic Day Parade, Beating Retreat functions, inaugurations, convocations, and funeral processions are all possible candidates. Whatever the purpose, the qualities of a competent commentator remain constant. A good commentary, according to Melville de Mellow, is 10% inspiration and 90% perspiration. The commentator may appear to the lay audience to be nothing more than a glib talker. That's true, but that's not all. An excellent commentator puts forth a lot of effort in gathering and preparing related material. He can't afford to arrive on location and wait for the words to come to him. Besides, what matters is that the words sound clear, comprehensible, clever, and entertaining, not the words themselves.


Commentary on Sports: Here are a few more things to consider:

  1. Don't get too caught up in the game. You should be able to describe what's going on in detail. "Oh, what a gorgeous delivery," for example, should be followed by a description of the delivery. Is it a googly? Is this an off-spin? Is he a Chinese?

  2. A sports commentator must also continue to educate the audience as the game progresses. Explain the finer points. As a result, the audience will feel more connected to the game.

  3. You must be well-versed in the subject. You must be able to contrast and compare.

  4. Keep your intonation in mind. Do not unnecessarily elevate your voice to a frantic level.


Q4. Assess the role of radio in distance education. (10)

Ans) Distance Education (DE) is a multimedia-based system of higher education that does not rely solely on print and face-to-face teaching to transmit knowledge. And electronic media is a significant, if not crucial, part of the educational approach. In DE, it has been discovered that a combination of media is most helpful. The master medium is usually print. Other forms of media, such as audio and video, supplement the printed lesson.


The following is a definition of a feature of Distance Education that demonstrates the necessity for such assistance: it is a system in which the teacher and the students are separated from one another. In addition, each pupil is separated from his peers. That is, this learning system has the potential to create a sensation of isolation.


One of the most essential functions of electronic media is to alleviate feelings of loneliness. The use of informal language, as well as the careful selection of presenter and voice, all contribute to the creation of an indirect contact between the teacher and the students. Electronic media is used by open universities all over the world to provide self-regulated independent study packages of university courses to their students.


In India, IGNOU has a network of study centres planned across the country where students would have access to audio/video equipment. Aside from the IGNOU Program, which is carried on the national network via radio and television. The DE electronic network of IGNOU, notably the radio network, is made more useful by its connection to analogous systems at the four regional open universities in Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Maharashtra.


Radio can also be utilised for counselling, particularly in areas where study centre facilities are scarce. Aside from these general benefits, specific disciplines, like as medical (the sound of heartbeats, pulse, respiration, and so on), poetry, theatre, physics (the transmission and creation of sound waves, and so on), languages, and so on, require a significant oral component for effective learning. In such courses, radio classes can make a huge difference in terms of comprehension when compared to rote learning.


Q5. Write Public Service Announcements on all three of the following: (5x3=15)


a) Do’s and don’ts during an earthquake

Ans) Do the following steps to protect yourself during an earthquake:

If Indoors

  1. DROP to the ground; take COVER by getting under a sturdy table or other piece of furniture; and HOLD ON until the shaking stops. If there is no a table or desk near you, cover your face and head with your arms and crouch in an inside corner of the building.

  2. Protect yourself by staying under the lintel of an inner door, in the corner of a room, under a table or even under a bed.

  3. Stay away from glass, windows, outside doors and walls, and anything that could fall.


If Outdoors

  1. Do not move from where you are. However, move away from buildings, trees, streetlights, and utility wires.

  2. If you are in open space, stay there until the shaking stops. The greatest danger exists directly outside buildings; at exits; and alongside exterior walls. Most earthquake-related casualties result from collapsing walls, flying glass, and falling objects.


If in a Moving Vehicle

  1. Stop as quickly as safety permits and stay in the vehicle. Avoid stopping near or under buildings, trees, overpasses, and utility wires.

  2. Proceed cautiously once the earthquake has stopped. Avoid roads, bridges, or ramps that might have been damaged by the earthquake.


If Trapped Under Debris

  1. Do not light a match. Do not move about or kick up dust.

  2. Cover your mouth with a handkerchief or clothing.

  3. Tap on a pipe or wall so rescuers can locate you. Use a whistle if one is available. Shout only as a last resort. Shouting can cause you to inhale dangerous amounts of dust.


b) Exercise your right to vote

Ans) Are you dissatisfied with your current situation? Are you dissatisfied with your elected officials? Then go ahead and do something about it. On election day, cast your ballot. It is your opportunity to influence not only your own but also our country's destiny. Make an effort. Carry out your responsibilities. Exercise your right to vote.


You should vote because it is the most effective method to be a responsible citizen.


If people have the right to vote, it is their responsibility to exercise that right to the fullest extent possible.


The lowest turnout rate for elections is among voters aged 18–24, but this figure is increasing significantly. Voting is a mechanism for people to express their political views. You don't have a political opinion, do you? You don't want it to be heard, do you? That is the impact of your vote.


Consider the people who have struggled throughout history to give you the right to make your voice heard, whatever your reason for not voting!


c) Steps to prevent the corona virus from spreading.

Ans) COVID-19 Everyday Prevention Actions

60 seconds


The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is working to help keep you and your community safe from COVID-19.


Take the following everyday steps to protect yourself and others:

  1. As soon as possible, get a COVID-19 immunisation.

  2. Wear a mask within public locations if you aren't fully vaccinated. (Masks should not be worn by children under the age of two.)

  3. If you are fully vaccinated, use a mask in indoor public spaces if you are in a region where transmission is substantial or high, or if your immune system is impaired.

  4. Keep a distance of 6 feet between you and anyone who isn't a member of your family.

  5. Avoid crowded areas and spaces with poor ventilation.

  6. Hands should be washed frequently.

  7. Coughs and sneezes should be covered.

  8. Clean high-touch surfaces on a regular basis.


Q6. Write a radio script for broadcast on any one of the following: (15)


a) Importance of yoga in today’s world

Ans) Yoga Hour – Concept of Health

- Shri. N. V. Raghuram and Rev. Ellen O’Brian


Yoga Hour Radio – April 2013: Discussion between Rev. Ellen O’Brian of Center for Spiritual Enlightenment, San Jose, CA, and Shri. N. V. Raghuram, Yoga Bharati.


Rev. O’Brian: Welcome to the yoga hour, where we open our hearts and minds to the infinity. I am Rev. Ellen Grace O’Brian. I will be sharing with you today some insights and practices from spiritual tradition of yoga, the ancient science yoga, the science of self and God realization. Yoga is a Sanskrit word that means oneness, commonly defined as way of oneness, union, or unity. And this refers in the highest way to bringing our attention and awareness to consciously abide in our essential spiritual nature. Yoga is self-realization. It is not just intellectually knowing this truth but realizing it and living in harmony with that truth of our being.


Today we have an opportunity to know how yoga can support us in complete well-being with the holistic understanding. We are blessed to have Yoga Shree Prof. N.V Raghuram with us today, the spiritual founder and chairman of Yoga Bharati. Welcome Raghuramji, I am so delighted that you are here with us today.


Shri. Raghuram: Namaste, Thank you so much


Rev. O’Brian: Today we have an opportunity to look at yoga holistically. Yoga is holistic; it is about being restored to fullness. Often people have just a little glimpse of one facet of yoga; they are familiar with the asanas; they see yoga as an exercise or as a philosophy or a meditation practice. Of course, yoga is a complete system that promotes physical, emotional intellectual spiritual health and well-being. How do you see as the yogic view of health?


Shri. Raghuram: Health does not mean just the physical health but it is total personality. Health is our own nature. It is not that we have to do something to be healthy but we have to get back to our nature and we regain health. When I am in myself, I am in good health, when I go away from myself that is sickness. The idea is - don’t focus on sickness but focus on health, secondly don’t look at only the physical wellbeing but total personality. So that is the yogic viewpoint of health.


Rev. O’Brian: It is so encouraging for people who are undergoing various forms of stress to the system to know this. This idea that health is natural to us, and that the healer is within, is so important to be in touch with our health. How does your research view diet for health?


Shri. Raghuram: Indian philosophy says that our body is consciousness-mind-body continuum. So naturally that mind and intellect have to be in harmony with the whole body for us to maintain the health. So naturally, the food we take becomes an important component of this consciousness-mind body continuum. In yoga, we have given a lot of importance to the kind of food that we eat, the quality and quantity, the frequency, and the atmosphere in which we eat. All these factors are a part of diet. So this is the simple direction for the yogic food. In that category vegetarian food with less spices and balanced kind of a diet - food grains, vegetables, and fruits and all that is grown and prepared naturally, not contaminated by the chemicals is supposed to be yogic food.


Rev. O’Brian:  We have been talking about yoga as a holistic system for wellbeing at all levels, body, mind, and emotions emanating from the divine self, the core of our being. Tell us a bit about yoga therapy:


Shri. Raghuram: The first paradigm shift in yoga therapy is to shift our focus from the illness to wellness. People, who come there with ailments, will see that with all those conditions they may be suffering from, they still have health in their hands (at the core). Through yoga therapy, we try to create an environment that allows one to heal oneself from within. Since health is our own nature, spirituality creates the deep inner harmony encouraging the healing process to go on. Modern medicine looks at therapy as fighting with the sickness while yoga has a different paradigm. Yoga therapy aims at harmony and we do not speak the language of fighting. Basically we avoid fighting at all levels and that is when the healing takes place. That is a language of therapy.


Rev. O’Brian: To let the deep harmony and well-being of the self-prevail, brings so much strength up to the surface; the body will be able to restore to original wholeness, which is a definition my Guru often gives for yoga itself. At the core of yoga is the understanding of what we really are as the self - indestructible, unchangeable, pure existence - and so at the heart of this therapeutic approach we understand that disease is a changeable condition, and that is not the truth of what we are. So yoga therapy is very powerful with this view of helping people to get back to bliss, to get back to the truth of their being and get back to the inner strength that can let the self-do what it does, which is to heal.


Q7. Write a radio play based on one of the following: (15)


c) The pen is mightier than the sword




This happened long back – almost 33 years ago – in the 1980’s – when I was posted on the faculty (instructional staff) at IAT Girinagar Pune.

I saw Army Soldiers cutting grass and clearing up weeds and wild bushes on the campus.

I mentioned this to the OC Adm at tea time.

“These bloody civilian maalis (gardeners) are not doing their job properly – so we have decided to use “service manpower” to get the campus cleaned up before the VIP visit…” he said.

I was amazed.

Since the “powers-that-be” were finding it difficult to take effective charge of the indolent civilian gardeners and make them do their job properly – the easiest solution was to deploy obedient soldiers to get the job done.


I said to the OC Adm:

“The civilian gardeners are being paid salaries – aren’t they…? But since you can’t get them to do their job – they easiest option is to deploy soldiers. So – why not deduct money from the lazy civilians’ salaries and give it to the soldiers…?”


The OC Adm gave me a stern look and asked me to shut up.

So – I held my tongue – since it was of no use arguing with him.

Of course – Navy Sailors and Air Force Airmen were not deployed to cut grass.

Maybe in the early years of his service – the Head of the Naval Wing – our Navy Boss – maybe he had probably seen the infamous “Topass Mutiny” of 1970 – so – he decided to be prudent – and he avoided deploying sailors for menial tasks like grass-cutting.


And – of course – deploying Air Force Airmen for menial tasks was unthinkable.

But – the evergreen soldier was the “jack of all trades” – and he could be deployed anywhere and everywhere – to do anything and everything.

A few days later – the gardener attached to our department came to see me along with his brother.

His brother was a soldier in the Infantry (Army) – he was in his mid-30’s.

The soldier was being released from the Army at this young age.

He wanted my help in getting a job.

I helped him out – it just required a phone call to one of my classmates who was an entrepreneur.

I thought about it.

The civilian gardener was better off than his soldier brother.


Firstly – the civilian gardener would retire at the age of 60 – when all his familial commitments were competed – whereas his soldier brother was left to fend for himself in the “civvy street” in his mid-30’s – when he had school going children to look after.

Secondly – with successive pay commissions – the “status” of the civilian gardener had been raised – “Class 4” had been abolished – and he was now in “Class 3” – and accordingly – he got a higher pay scale too.

Thirdly – the civilian gardener would never be transferred – and he would spend his entire 40 years career in IAT Pune.


Besides stability for children’s education and a good family life – easy availability of housing advance for civilians enabled him to build his own house in the village nearby and claim HRA (House Rent Allowance) – thereby supplementing his income.

Of course – most importantly – a civilian gardener’s job was much less risky than a soldier’s job.

I realized that in case you want to join government service – it was better to be a civilian than a soldier – and this was applicable across the board.

It was this incident that sowed in my mind the kernel of this fiction short story which I wrote a few years later…


The Soldier sat on the footpath near the gate of the Accounts Office.

“…Abe Langde … Hat Wahan Se …(Hey you one-legged cripple … Move from there)…Yeh Meri Jagah Hai …(This is my place)…” the food-cart vendor shouted at the soldier.

The soldier winced.

Then – he looked down at his amputated leg.

Yes – he was indeed a cripple – a langda.

When he had joined the Army – he had two strong legs.

And now – he had just one leg – and one stump.

The soldier picked up his crutch – pushed his body up – and he slowly hobbled a few steps away.


He was about to sit under a shady canopy near the street corner – when a traffic policeman shouted at the soldier:

“…Ae Bhikhari – Wahan Mat Baith … (Hey Beggar – don’t sit there)…”

“…Main Bhikhari Nahin Hoon – Main Fauji Hoon… (I am not a beggar – I am a soldier)…” protested the soldier.

“…Phir Border Pe Ja Kar Lad… (Then go and fight on the border)…” the policeman said with sarcasm.

“…Wahi to kar raha tha… (That is what I was doing)…” the soldier mumbled to himself.


As the soldier tottered on the street on his crutches – he talked to himself.

The soldier was overcome by regret.

He had been a fool to be brave.

He should have played safe.

At least – he would not have lost his leg.

And – he wouldn’t have been discharged from the Army as “medically unfit”.


Now – he was being made to run from pillar to post for his disability pension – just because some civilian clerk in the accounts office had “misplaced” his documents.

The soldier was exasperated.

In the Army – he was expected to do everything promptly and properly – in “double-quick time”.

But – these civilians were just not bothered.


First – the paperwork for his disability pension was delayed due to “red tape”.

Then – there were some careless typographical errors in his papers – and his documents had to be sent back to Delhi for the necessary corrections.

And now – his disability pension sanction documents had been misplaced.


It was sad.

Nobody was bothered about his plight.

The Civilian Babus were slack and indifferent – comfortably cocooned in their secure “9 to 5 five-day-week” jobs – and – these Civilian Babus did not give a damn for the soldiers who they were meant to serve.

Civilians expected soldiers to be loyal unto the grave – but civilians did not reciprocate the same loyalty in return towards the soldiers.


One cruel clerk had remarked mockingly:

“What is the big deal if you lost a leg…?

You soldiers are paid to fight.

And if you die – or if you get wounded – it is a part of your job.

You knew the risks before you joined the Army – didn’t you…?

If you wanted to live a safe and secure life – why did you become a soldier…?

You should have become a chaprassi (peon) – like your friend…”

Tears rolled down the soldier’s cheek as he thought of this.

Others were not so cruel and heartless – but their sympathy was tinged with scorn.


Indeed – he should have become a chaprassi like his friend – who was now helping him get his disability pension.

Both he and his friend had been selected for the post of peon in a government office.

But he had been a fool – he told everyone that it was “below his dignity” to work as a chaprassi – and then – he went to the Army Recruitment Rally – and joined the Army as a soldier.

He made fun of his friend – who took up the job of a peon – and he boasted with bloated pride about being a soldier.


And now – the tables had turned – and the peon was having the last laugh on the soldier.

The peon was secure in his job – while the soldier was out on the street – crippled for life – and begging for his pension.

And now – his friend wasn’t even called a chaprassi – they had upgraded all “Class 4” to “Class 3” – and his friend was now designated as “assistant”.


His friend would retire at the age of 60 – after a safe, secure, easy, tension-free career – without any transfers or hardships.

If a soldier got disabled – they would throw him out.

But – if a civilian employee got disabled – they would never throw him out – in fact – they would compensate him for his disability and give him easy work.

And – by chance – if his civilian friend died – his wife or son or daughter would get a government job in his place.


Nothing like that for the soldier.

A soldier had to fend for himself.

The soldier felt disheartened.

He looked at his amputated leg – and he deeply regretted his decision to join the Army.

Indeed – he had made a mistake by joining the Army.


He would have been much better off as a peon – a chaprassi – or in some other civilian job.

Yes – in the long run – a civilian government job was much better than being a soldier.

The soldier also felt a sense of guilt that he had made fun of his friend.

A few years ago – the soldier had laughed at his friend because he was a mere chaprassi – a peon.

Today – he was at his friend’s mercy.

The soldier had to live on the kindness of the man he had once ridiculed and scoffed at.

It was a terrible feeling.


More than 6 months had passed – and he was still anxiously waiting for his pension and dues.

His friend had given the soldier – and the soldier’s family – shelter and food.

And now – the peon friend was trying to help the soldier – by running around from office to office – using the “peon network” to trace the misplaced documents.

The soldier felt sorry for his hapless wife.


His ill-fated wife was at the mercy of his friend’s nasty wife – who openly derided her.

His friend’s spiteful wife made her displeasure quite clear by making scathing comments about the soldier, his wife, and their children.

His friend’s wife kept on complaining and making snide remarks about how the soldier and his family were sponging on her hospitality like parasites.


The soldier’s wife hated the peon’s wife – but the soldier’s wife had to suffer the humiliation in silence – and bear the daily insults.

It was terrible to be at the mercy of someone who detested you.

Today – the peon friend had asked the soldier to stand outside the gate – and the peon had gone into the accounts office alone.

The soldier’s peon friend had gone inside the accounts office alone – because last time – the soldier had spoilt everything by refusing to a pay a bribe to the accounts officer.

The soldier had even threatened the accounts officer that he would report the matter.

The accounts officer was furious.


The accounts officers said to the soldier:

“You go and report to whoever you want to.

Nothing will happen.

Now I will see to it that your papers are not traced until you die.

What do you bloody soldiers think…?

You soldiers think that you can threaten us…?

This is not the Army.

This is the Accounts Office.

Haven’t you heard the saying: “THE PEN IS MIGHTIER THAN THE SWORD”…?

Now I will show you my power…”

Today – his peon friend had gone inside to negotiate.


The clerks had told him not to bring the soldier inside the office – as the egoistic accounts officer may get furious on seeing the soldier – and everything will be spoilt.

They told the peon that once everything was “settled” – they would try and trace the “misplaced” documents – and – he could take the documents out to obtain the soldier’s signature – and then re-submit the papers for clearance of the disability pension.

The soldier waited anxiously in the hot sun for his peon friend to come out.


The soldier muttered to himself:

“Ungrateful, corrupt people – all these civilians.

We sacrifice our life and limb for their sake – and they humiliate us – they even ask me to pay a bribe to get my own disability pension…”

Angry thoughts buzzed in the soldier’s mind.


The soldier talked to himself:

“Patriotism, heroism, idealism – no one bothers about these things anymore.

I made a mistake by joining the Army.

Yes – I indeed made a mistake by joining the Army.

But – I made an even bigger mistake trying to be brave.

What was the point of showing courage, initiative and daring…?

What did I gain by going beyond the call of duty to nab those guys…?

How does it matter if a few militants sneak in…?

Who is bothered about these things anyway – especially out here in the city…?

They don’t even know what is happening out there on the borders.

Had I looked the other way – no one would have known – and I would not have become a one-legged cripple – a langda...

And even then – I wish they had shot me in the head – and I had died.

That would have been better – much better – to be dead than to be a cripple for my entire life…”


The soldier mumbled to himself, feeling very bitter, frustrated, and helpless.

The soldier thought of his wife, his children, the bleak future awaiting them.

How long would they have to be dependent on the mercy of his friend and his nasty wife…?

The soldier felt sad – very sad – as depressing thoughts of despondency and hopelessness filled his brain.


He wondered whether his disability pension problem would be solved today.

It was taking long – his friend had gone in at 10 AM – and it was almost 12 noon now.

The sweltering summer sun was hot – and the soldier felt parched and weak.

Since morning – he had drunk just a cup of tea.

They started their journey to the accounts office in the city by bus from their friend’s home in the distant suburbs – early in the morning.


Suddenly the soldier felt faint – so he walked towards the compound wall of the accounts office.

He took support from the wall – and he slid down to sit on his haunches.

At 12:30 – his peon friend emerged from the gates of the accounts office.

The peon was happy – the bribe had been paid – the documents had been promptly traced.

Now all he had to do was get the soldier’s signature on the papers – and he had been assured that the soldier’s disability pension and all his dues would be given within a month.

The peon friend began to look around for the soldier – and he saw the soldier sitting strangely – propped against the wall.


The soldier’s eyes were closed – and it seemed that he had fallen asleep.

Something seemed wrong – so the peon briskly walked towards the soldier.

The peon bent down – and he touched the soldier’s shoulder.

The soldier fell down to his side.

The peon friend panicked.

He thought the soldier had fainted – so he started shouting for help.

The traffic policeman – the food-cart vendor – and some passers-by – they all rushed to help.

The policeman told the vendor to sprinkle some water on the soldier’s face – but nothing happened.


The policeman rang up the police control room for an ambulance.

“I hope he is not dead…” the soldier’s peon friend said with trepidation.

“I don’t know. But it looks like he is totally unconscious. What happened…? Who is he…? He was muttering that he is a fauji – is he really a soldier…?” the policeman asked.

The soldier’s peon friend told the policeman the soldier’s story – the full story.

“Sad – very sad – it is really terrible – the way they treat our soldiers….” the policeman said.

The ambulance arrived.


A paramedic examined the soldier and he said:

“I think he is dead. We will take him to the hospital. There the doctors will examine him and officially pronounce him dead.”

The policeman looked at the dead body of the soldier – and he said:

“The enemy’s bullets could not do what these Babus did with their red tape.

It is so sad.

The enemy could not kill this brave soldier – but the these Babus  killed him…”


The soldier’s distraught friend – the peon – he commented:

“Yes. The accounts officer was right – The Pen is indeed Mightier than the Sword…”


Your target listeners are young adults between 16-18 years of age.


Q8. The following poem has to be taught to students of class 8. Write a script for broadcast over radio, inserting sound effects, music, and narration. (15)


The Cold Within

by James Patrick Kinney

Six humans trapped by happenstance

In bleak and bitter cold.

Each one possessed a stick of wood

Or so the story’s told.

Their dying fire in need of logs

The first man held his back

For of the faces round the fire

He noticed one was black.

The next man looking ‘cross the way

Saw one not of his church

And couldn’t bring himself to give

The fire his stick of birch.

The third one sat in tattered clothes.

He gave his coat a hitch.

Why should his log be put to use

To warm the idle rich?

The rich man just sat back and thought

Of the wealth he had in store

And how to keep what he had earned

From the lazy shiftless poor.

The black man’s face bespoke revenge

As the fire passed from his sight.

For all he saw in his stick of wood

Was a chance to spite the white.

The last man of this forlorn group

Did nought except for gain.

Giving only to those who gave

Was how he played the game.

Their logs held tight in death’s still hands

Was proof of human sin.

They didn’t die from the cold without

They died from the cold within.




Scene 1:

(Background sound effects: Soft sound of wind blowing, teeth chattering of the six people)

“Six humans trapped by happenstance

In bleak and bitter cold.

Each one possessed a stick of wood

Or so the story’s told.”


Narration: Just by chance six persons got trapped in bitter cold. It was of course a cold wave which was unbearable for the six persons. They found themselves in a very grave situation from which it was difficult to come out. But luckily they found there dying fire. Finding no way to escape from this grave situation, they sat near the dying fire which was at that time only source of their survival. Each of them had a stick of wood, but sadly and strangely, each had a reason to hold his stick back. No one came forward to add the fuel to the dying fire with his own stick. It is a story which has immense significance and therefore is told on to future generations, as the poet decides to tell the readers.


Scene 2:

(Background sound effects: rusty wind blowing, conspiracy sound effect, hesitation of people indicated by ‘sighing’)

“Their dying fire in need of logs

The first man held his back

For of the faces round the fire

He noticed one was black.”


Narration: As the fire was dying, it greatly needed to be fed with logs of wood. It could be kept alive only if one of them would have come forward to supply the fuel in it with his own stick. The first man who greatly suffered from the feeling of racial prejudice did not want to sacrifice his stick because he thought that by doing so, the life of the black would be saved. The racial prejudice made him so stem that mercy could not touch his heart. Hence he showed no intention for the welfare of humanity and held back his stick.


Scene 3:

(Background sound effects: rusty wind)

“The next man looking ‘cross the way

Saw one not of his church

And couldn’t bring himself to give

The fire his stick of birch.”


Narration: The second person had his own reason not to supply the fuel to the dying fire with his own stick. As he suffered from the feeling of religious intolerance, he gave importance only to those who belonged his own religion and followed his religious principles. He made social contribution on the basis of religious feelings. The feeling of love, peace, brotherhood, and neighbourhood were nothing to him if he found religious difference. When he looked around the group sitting near the fire, he found that one man did not belong to the same church (i.e. religious community) as his. Hence he could not persuade himself to give up his stick of wood to help a person of another religion.


Scene 4:

(Background sound effects: Dramatic music)

“The third one sat in tattered clothes.

He gave his coat a hitch.

Why should his log be put to use

To warm the idle rich?”


Narration: The third man who seemed to be very poor and wore tattered clothes was not least interested in supplying the fuel to the dying fire with his own stick of wood because he had seen a rich man in the group of six persons and he was overwhelmed with the feeling of hatred at the sight of the rich man. By giving a hitch to his tattered coat, he showed his tightness against the rich man. He thought that the person who exploited his community in every way, should not be helped in any way. He thought it would be unjust to give what little he had to help others who had more than he. Hence he did not want to sacrifice his stick to keep the rich man warm whom he considered an idle fellow enjoying the fruit of hard labour done by the poor labourers.


Scene 5:

(Background sound effects: Use of slur for the poor by the rich guy, clicking of tongue expressing disdain and hate towards the bunch of other poor guys)

“The rich man just sat back and thought

Of the wealth he had in store

And how to keep what he had earned

From the lazy shiftless poor.”


Narration: The fourth man who was the rich man, was also sitting near the fire with other men of the group, but due to being a wealthy person, he maintained a distance from them especially from the poor. Because of being oblivious to reality, he was engrossed in the thought of hoarding his riches. He seemed to be worried about his wealth which he had at that time in store. He wanted to secure his wealth from the poor whom he considered a dishonest and idle fellow. Hence he kept the wooden stick to himself instead of adding it to the dying fire.


Scene 6:

(Background sound effects: Suspense effects, closing the zipper of the bag while hiding his stick inside)

“The black man’s face bespoke revenge

As the fire passed from his sight.

For all he saw in his stick of wood

Was a chance to spite the white.”


Narration: The fifth one who was a black man, was full of hatred for the white people. He had experienced exploitation, humiliation, and torture at the hand of the white people. When he noticed the white in the group of people, the signs of revenge were clearly visible at his face. As the fire was dying out, he thought he had now golden opportunity to hurt the white people by keeping his stick with him instead of fuelling to the dying fire.

Scene 7:

(Background sound effects: Chill-inducing music showing his selfishness, rustling of leaves, wind blowing, the soft sound of diminishing fire, shivering of people shown by chattering teeth)

“The last man of this forlorn group

Did nought except for gain.

Giving only to those who gave

Was how he played the game.”


Narration: The sixth man of this lonely group was a very selfish man. He did nothing except something for his benefit. He gave only to those who gave him something back in return. As he had already observed that no one in the group was interested to give his stick to add the fuel to the dying fire, he also decided to keep his stick to himself.


Scene 8:

(Background sound effects: Dramatic atmospheric piano, airy strings, heavy breaths, screaming of people for help, shivering in cold)

“Their logs held tight in death’s still hands

Was proof of human sin.

They didn’t die from the cold without

They died from the cold within.”


Narration: None of the six persons gave up the stick to supply fuel to the dying fire. All of them held the sticks in their hands tightly. As the fire extinguished, all the men died of freezing cold. It was nothing, but a proof of human sin. They died not because of the biting cold outside but because of the cold within. They themselves invited death by nourishing the feelings of racism, envy, arrogance, revenge, selfishness, and greed in them. They could get rid of these feelings of sin and purify their souls by putting their sticks in the dying fire and thus helping one another.

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