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BEGC-108: British Literature: 18th Century

BEGC-108: British Literature: 18th Century

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Assignment Code: BEGC-108/TMA/2023-24

Course Code: BEGC-108

Assignment Name: British Literature: 18th Century

Year: 2023-2024

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Section A


Q1) Write short notes on the following in about 200 words each:


Qi) Historical Circumstances of 17 th and 18 th Century England.

Ans) The 17th century in England was a period of significant political, social, and cultural transformation.

a)     Civil War and Interregnum: The 17th century began with the English Civil War (1642-1651) between supporters of the monarchy (Royalists) and those of Parliament (Parliamentarians). The war led to the execution of King Charles I in 1649 and the establishment of the Commonwealth of England, a republic, under Oliver Cromwell.

b)     Restoration: The monarchy was restored in 1660 under Charles II, marking the end of the Interregnum. The period that followed is known as the Restoration era. It witnessed a return to royal rule and a more relaxed cultural atmosphere.

c)     Glorious Revolution: The Glorious Revolution of 1688 resulted in the overthrow of King James II, a Catholic monarch, and the ascension of William and Mary, who accepted constitutional limitations on their power. This event solidified the supremacy of Parliament and the Protestant monarchy.


Historical Circumstances of 18th Century England:

a)     Hanoverian Succession: The 18th century began with the Hanoverian succession, as the Elector of Hanover became King George I of England in 1714. This marked the transition to the Hanoverian dynasty, which continued to rule throughout the century.

b)     Georgian Era: The 18th century is often referred to as the Georgian era, named after the successive King Georges. It was a period characterized by the development of parliamentary government, constitutional monarchy, and political stability.

c)     The Enlightenment: The 18th century was a time of intellectual enlightenment. Figures like John Locke, David Hume, and Voltaire contributed to philosophical, scientific, and political ideas that challenged traditional authority and promoted reason and rationalism.

d)     Industrial Revolution: The Industrial Revolution, which began in the late 18th century, transformed the British economy and society. Technological innovations, such as the steam engine, revolutionized manufacturing, and transportation, leading to urbanization and significant social changes.

e)     Colonial Expansion: England's colonial empire expanded during this century, with territories in India, Africa, and the Americas. The American colonies played a central role in global trade, and the 18th century saw tensions that led to the American Revolution.


Qii) Enlightenment.

Ans) The Enlightenment, also known as the Age of Reason, was a philosophical, cultural, and intellectual movement that swept through Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries.

a)     Rationality and Reason: The Enlightenment was characterized by a strong emphasis on rationality and the power of human reason. Thinkers of this era believed that reason could be used to understand and improve the world. This marked a departure from the previous dominance of religious authority and dogma.

b)     Empiricism and the Scientific Revolution: The Enlightenment coincided with the Scientific Revolution, which emphasized empirical observation and the scientific method. Figures like Isaac Newton and Galileo Galilei made groundbreaking discoveries that challenged traditional beliefs and paved the way for the Enlightenment's focus on empirical evidence.

c)     Philosophical Movements: Enlightenment philosophy was diverse and included prominent figures such as René Descartes, John Locke, Voltaire, Immanuel Kant, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. They explored concepts like individual rights, social contracts, and the nature of knowledge, contributing to the development of modern political thought.

d)     Secularism and Scepticism: Enlightenment thinkers often challenged religious authority and embraced secularism. They questioned traditional religious beliefs and called for the separation of church and state. This led to the promotion of religious tolerance and the protection of freedom of thought.

e)     Political Ideals: Enlightenment ideas had a profound impact on political thought. Thinkers like John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau laid the groundwork for concepts of individual rights, democracy, and the social contract.

f)      Literary and Artistic Expression: Enlightenment principles influenced literature, art, and music. Writers and artists often explored themes of reason, individualism, and the human experience. The period saw the emergence of satire, essays, and the novel as literary forms.


Qiii) Major Characteristics of Restoration Period.

Ans) Major characteristics of restoration period are:

a)     Restoration of the Monarchy: The period began with the restoration of the monarchy under Charles II in 1660, following the English Civil War and the rule of Oliver Cromwell. This political shift had a profound impact on literature, as it marked the return of royal patronage and a more relaxed atmosphere in society.

b)     Classical Influence: The literature of the Restoration was heavily influenced by classical Greek and Roman literature. Writers looked to classical models for inspiration and sought to emulate the clarity, order, and rationality of classical works.

c)     Satire and Wit: Satire became a prominent genre during the Restoration. Writers like John Dryden and Jonathan Swift used satire to critique the social and political mores of the time. Satirical works were characterized by sharp wit, humour, and a keen eye for societal absurdities.

d)     Heroic Couplets: The heroic couplet, a form of poetry consisting of rhymed pairs of iambic pentameter lines, gained popularity. This structured and rhythmical form was favoured for its clarity and ability to convey ideas succinctly.

e)     Restoration Comedy: The period is known for the development of Restoration comedy. These comedies were often bawdy, witty, and focused on the foibles of society's upper classes. Playwrights like William Congreve and William Wycherley wrote famous comedies that satirized manners, courtship, and marriage.

f)      Role of Women Writers: This period saw the emergence of notable women writers, such as Aphra Behn and Katherine Philips, who made important contributions to literature and played a role in challenging gender norms.


Qiv) Poetry in 18 th century.

Ans) The 18th century was a significant period in the evolution of English poetry.

a)     Neoclassical Poetry: The early 18th century is often associated with Neoclassical poetry, characterized by its adherence to classical principles of order, reason, and clarity. Poets like Alexander Pope, Jonathan Swift, and Samuel Johnson exemplify this style. Pope's "The Rape of the Lock" and his satirical works, as well as Swift's satirical prose in "Gulliver's Travels," are prominent examples.

b)     Satire: Satire was a dominant mode in 18th-century poetry. Poets used it to critique society, politics, and human follies. Jonathan Swift's biting satires, including "A Modest Proposal," satirized the social and political issues of his time.

c)     Heroic Couplets: The use of heroic couplets, pairs of rhymed lines in iambic pentameter, was a common poetic form. It allowed poets to express ideas with precision and elegance. Alexander Pope's "An Essay on Man" and "The Dunciad" are notable examples of heroic couplet poetry.

d)     Transition to Romanticism: As the century progressed, poetry started to shift toward Romanticism. Poets began to embrace a more emotional and imaginative style, moving away from the strictures of Neoclassical poetry. James Thomson's "The Seasons" is seen as an early bridge to Romanticism, celebrating nature and emotions.

e)     Women Poets: The 18th century saw an emergence of women poets who made significant contributions to English literature. Poets like Anna Laetitia Barbauld, Charlotte Smith, and Mary Wollstonecraft addressed themes of nature, emotion, and social justice in their works.


Section B

Answer the following in about 300 words each.


Q1) Comment on the development of the character of Robinson Crusoe in the story.

Ans) Daniel Defoe's novel "Robinson Crusoe," first published in 1719, is a classic adventure story that tells the tale of a marooned man's survival on a deserted island.

a)     Initial Character Traits: At the beginning of the story, Robinson Crusoe exhibits certain character traits that contribute to his eventual predicament. He is impulsive, adventurous, and often disobeys his father's warnings. Crusoe's desire for adventure leads him to become a seafarer, against his family's wishes.

b)     Survival Instincts and Adaptation: After being shipwrecked on a deserted island, Crusoe's survival instincts kick in. He is initially overwhelmed by fear and despair but gradually begins to adapt to his new environment. He learns to secure food, shelter, and clothing, becoming resourceful in the process. His ability to adapt and improvise becomes a defining aspect of his character development.

c)     Spiritual Awakening: Crusoe's time on the island prompts a spiritual awakening. He starts to believe that his circumstances are a consequence of his disobedience to his father's advice. He begins to read the Bible, prays regularly, and seeks solace in religion. This transformation reflects a deepening of his character beyond mere physical survival.

d)     Self-Reflection and Repentance: While alone on the island, Crusoe engages in self-reflection and soul-searching. He acknowledges his past mistakes, including his disobedience and reckless behaviour. His experiences on the island lead to a profound sense of repentance and personal growth.

e)     Mastery of Skills: As time passes, Crusoe's character develops as he acquires new skills. He learns to craft tools, build structures, and cultivate crops. He also tames animals and becomes a skilled mariner. His mastery of these skills demonstrates his determination and resourcefulness.

f)      Loneliness and Mental Resilience: Crusoe's isolation on the island, which lasts for over two decades, tests his mental resilience. He grapples with loneliness, despair, and the fear of being the island's sole inhabitant. However, his character development is evident in his ability to overcome these challenges and maintain his sanity through journal writing and other activities.

g)     Transformation into a Master and King: Crusoe eventually rescues a native whom he names Friday, and this event marks a turning point in his character development. He takes on the role of mentor and protector, which highlights his personal growth from a reckless youth to a responsible and compassionate individual.


Q2) Critically analyse important characters of Gulliver’s Travels Book III.

Ans) Gulliver's Travels" by Jonathan Swift is a satirical novel consisting of four books, each detailing Lemuel Gulliver's voyages to different fantastical lands.

a)     Lemuel Gulliver: Gulliver, the protagonist, remains the central character throughout the novel. In Book III, he serves as the observer and commentator on the absurdities and irrationalities of the lands he encounters. He is open-minded and rational, which makes him a sharp contrast to the peculiar inhabitants of Laputa, Balnibarbi, Luggnagg, Glubbdubdrib, and Japan.

b)     The Laputians: The Laputians, particularly the scientists and intellectuals on the floating island of Laputa, are notable characters. They are obsessed with abstract and impractical scientific experiments and live detached from the real world. Their absurd and unworldly preoccupations satirize the detachment of intellectuals from practical matters and the misuse of knowledge.

c)     Lord Munodi (Balnibarbi): Lord Munodi, a resident of the kingdom of Balnibarbi, stands in stark contrast to the Laputians. He is a character who represents reason and practicality. His efforts to improve the state of Balnibarbi and his contrast with the foolish Projectors illustrate Swift's critique of absurd government policies and the consequences of ignoring practical wisdom.

d)     The Struldbrugs (Luggnagg): The Struldbrugs are immortal beings in Luggnagg, but their immortality comes with a tragic twist. They do not age but continue to deteriorate physically and mentally, living in a state of perpetual suffering. Swift uses them to explore the consequences of immortality without eternal youth, critiquing the human desire for eternal life and the fleeting nature of human ambition.

e)     The Governor of Glubbdubdrib (Glubbdubdrib): The Governor of Glubbdubdrib possesses the power to summon the spirits of historical figures, allowing Gulliver to converse with the dead. This character serves as a tool for Swift to engage in a satirical discourse with figures from the past, exposing the fallibility and deceit of historical heroes and leaders.

f)      The Japanese Emperor (Japan): The Japanese Emperor is a symbol of pragmatism and practicality, reflecting the Japanese approach to foreign influences. Gulliver finds Japan's strict control of foreign influences and its emphasis on preserving its culture and traditions to be commendable. The Emperor's character underscores Swift's critique of European colonialism and cultural arrogance.


Q3) What is the “The Way of the World” solution to the Hobbesian power struggle?

Ans) The Way of the World," a renowned Restoration comedy written by William Congreve, offers a satirical perspective on the complex social and romantic dynamics of the late 17th century.

a)     Hobbesian Power Struggle: Thomas Hobbes, in his work "Leviathan," described the natural state of humanity as a condition of perpetual conflict, where individuals, driven by self-interest and the desire to secure their own well-being, engaged in a power struggle.

b)     Solution in "The Way of the World": In "The Way of the World," the characters engage in a different type of power struggle. Rather than a struggle for physical survival, they are vying for social status, wealth, and advantageous marriages. The play's solution to this social power struggle can be summarized as follows:


1)      Marriage as a Social Contract: The central theme of "The Way of the World" is the idea of marriage as a strategic social contract. Character’s view marriage not solely as a matter of love or companionship but as a means to secure financial stability, social status, and personal freedom.

2)     Manipulation and Deception: Throughout the play, characters employ manipulation, disguise, and wit to achieve their goals. They engage in clever schemes and strategies to outmanoeuvre others in the pursuit of advantageous marriages.

3)     Restoration Comedy Satire: "The Way of the World" is a comedy of manners and a satire of the social norms and behaviours of the Restoration period. It pokes fun at the superficiality of the characters and their preoccupation with material gain and social climbing. The characters' actions and motivations highlight the shallowness of their social world, reminiscent of the Hobbesian notion of a self-centred human nature.

4)     Social Commentary: While the play may not offer a direct solution to the power struggle, it serves as a commentary on the society of the time. By exaggerating the characters' pursuit of wealth and social advantage, it encourages the audience to reflect on the values and priorities of the Restoration era.


Q4) What meaning does the term “Age of Sensibility” convey to you?

Ans) The term "Age of Sensibility" refers to a cultural and literary period that emerged in the 18th century, particularly in the latter half, and extended into the early 19th century.

a)     Emphasis on Emotion and Sentiment: The Age of Sensibility is often associated with a deep appreciation for the emotional and sentimental aspects of human experience. Poets, novelists, and artists of this period sought to explore and depict the inner emotional lives of their characters. They were interested in the range of human feelings, including love, empathy, sympathy, and compassion. The poetry of the era often focused on themes of love, nature, and the sublime, delving into the emotional aspects of these subjects.

b)     Nature and the Sublime: The natural world played a significant role in the literature and art of the Age of Sensibility. Poets and painters often turned to nature as a source of inspiration, viewing it as a reflection of human emotions and as a means of expressing the sublime. Nature was seen as a source of solace and a way to connect with one's own emotional landscape.

c)     Empathy and Social Awareness: The Age of Sensibility saw a growing emphasis on empathy and social awareness. Writers like Samuel Richardson and Henry Fielding explored the lives of common people, and novels like "Pamela" and "Tom Jones" depicted characters from diverse social backgrounds. This focus on empathy and understanding the lives of others contributed to a broader awareness of social issues.

d)     Literary Forms: The novel gained prominence during this period, as it was a flexible and effective medium for delving into the emotional lives of characters. Novels often featured intricate character development, intricate plots, and emotional depth. The epistolary novel, in which characters' emotions were revealed through their letters, was a popular form.

e)     Humanitarianism and Reform: The Age of Sensibility was marked by an emerging concern for humanitarian causes and social reform. Writers like Samuel Johnson and Thomas Day championed moral and social causes, contributing to the broader awareness of issues like slavery, poverty, and the mistreatment of marginalized individuals.


Section C


Answer the following questions in about 400 words each.


Q1) How does the novel foreground that cultural colonization and geographical conquering go hand in hand?

Ans) Joseph Conrad's novella "Heart of Darkness" is a classic exploration of the dark and brutal consequences of European imperialism and colonialism, particularly in the context of the African Congo. The novel foregrounds the idea that cultural colonization and geographical conquering are intricately linked.

a)     Exploitative Imperialism: The novel is set in the Belgian Congo during the height of European imperialism in Africa. The Belgian Congo, under King Leopold II, was infamous for its brutal exploitation of the African people and resources. The European colonizers, driven by economic interests, enslaved the local population and extracted ivory and other resources. This economic exploitation went hand in hand with the cultural colonization, as the Indigenous cultures were suppressed and subjugated to serve the interests of the colonial powers.

b)     Dehumanization of the Natives: The novel depicts the dehumanization of the native African population by the European colonizers. The Africans are treated as commodities and subjected to inhumane working conditions. This dehumanization is a cultural colonization, as the Indigenous beliefs, values, and ways of life are disregarded and replaced with the values and norms of the colonizers.

c)     Kurtz's Transformation: The character of Kurtz, an ivory trader stationed deep in the Congo, exemplifies the fusion of geographical and cultural conquest. Initially, Kurtz is a European idealist who believes in the civilizing mission of colonization. However, as he ventures deeper into the heart of Africa, he undergoes a profound transformation.

He becomes a symbol of the darkness within human nature and the corruption that can result from the unchecked pursuit of power and wealth. Kurtz's descent into madness and brutality is both a geographical and cultural conquest, as he conquers the land and its people while losing his own cultural and moral bearings.

d)     The Horror of Imperialism: The famous phrase "The horror! The horror!" uttered by Kurtz as he dies encapsulates the horrors of imperialism. It signifies the realization of the brutal and destructive nature of colonialism and the dark consequences of geographical conquering. The horror is both cultural and geographical, as it reflects the devastation of Indigenous cultures and the exploitation of the land.

e)     Narrative Framing: The novel is framed as a story within a story, with Marlow, the narrator, recounting his journey into the Congo to discover the truth about Kurtz. This narrative structure underscores the interconnectedness of geographical and cultural conquest. Marlow's physical journey into the heart of Africa becomes a symbolic journey into the darkness of the human soul and the moral corruption that accompanies colonial expansion.


Q2) Write a critical summary of Gulliver’s Travels Book IV.

Ans) Book IV of "Gulliver's Travels," subtitled "A Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms," is a satirical masterpiece by Jonathan Swift. In this final part of Gulliver's voyages, Lemuel Gulliver arrives in the land of the Houyhnhnms, a rational and highly intelligent race of horse-like creatures, and their counterparts, the Yahoos, who are brutish, irrational, and humanoid.


The narrative style in this book differs from the previous ones. It is presented as Gulliver's personal journal, which he writes as an account of his experiences in this strange and remarkable land. The book is marked by Swift's signature satirical wit, with a focus on critiquing various aspects of human nature and society.


The central theme of Book IV is the stark contrast between reason and irrationality, or, in Swift's terms, the Houyhnhnms' rationality and the Yahoos' irrationality. The Houyhnhnms embody the Enlightenment ideals of reason, harmony, and logical thinking. They live in a utopian society characterized by peace, order, and intellectual discourse. Their way of life is devoid of conflict, passion, or irrational behaviour. Gulliver is initially captivated by their way of life and comes to admire their virtues, which stand in stark contrast to the vices of European society.


The Yahoos, on the other hand, are the antithesis of the Houyhnhnms. They represent humanity's basest instincts and irrational behaviours. Gulliver's revulsion towards the Yahoos is palpable, and he is mortified when he realizes that the Yahoos are, in fact, humans. Swift uses this contrast to satirize the flaws and follies of human nature and to suggest that the Yahoos, or humans, are no different from the "savage" creatures in this foreign land.


As the story unfolds, Gulliver becomes increasingly disillusioned with his own species. He finds himself torn between the rational and virtuous Houyhnhnms and the brutish and irrational Yahoos. His own identity is thrown into turmoil, as he begins to see the parallels between the Yahoos and the people of Europe. Gulliver, who was once a keen observer of other cultures and a self-proclaimed Englishman, now identifies himself more with the Houyhnhnms.


Gulliver’s encounters with the Houyhnhnms and the Yahoos lead to his expulsion from their society, as the Houyhnhnms consider him a Yahoo. He returns to England, but he is profoundly changed and unable to tolerate the behaviours and irrationalities of his fellow humans. His misanthropy deepens, and the book ends on a sombre note.


Q3) Critically analyse the major themes in “The Way of the World”.

Ans) Marriage as a Social and Economic Transaction:

Central to the plot of "The Way of the World" is the theme of marriage as a social and economic transaction. The characters in the play are primarily motivated by financial and social considerations when choosing their spouses. Mirabell, the male protagonist, must marry a woman with a substantial fortune to secure his social position.

The play satirizes the idea that love should be the primary reason for marriage. It portrays a world in which individuals are calculating and strategic in their pursuit of marriage partners, often prioritizing wealth, and social status over affection.


The Role of Wit and Deception: Wit and deception play a crucial role in the play's social dynamics. Characters employ their intelligence and cunning to navigate the complex social web of manners and marriage. The characters engage in a battle of wits and engage in devious schemes to achieve their desires. The clever use of wordplay and deception is a source of humour and tension in the play.


Gender and Social Class: "The Way of the World" explores the constraints of gender and social class in early 18th-century England. It highlights the limited agency of women in choosing their partners and the pressure they face to conform to societal norms.

The play portrays the struggle of women like Millamant, who seek greater independence and a voice in their own destinies. Millamant is a character known for her wit and independence, and she represents the evolving role of women in society.


Manners and Etiquette: The play is a quintessential example of the comedy of manners, emphasizing the intricacies of polite society and the importance of adhering to established etiquette.

Characters in the play are expected to behave in a manner consistent with their social class. The violation of social norms and etiquette is often a source of comedic conflict.


Satire of Hypocrisy and Artifice: "The Way of the World" is a satirical work that exposes the hypocrisy, affectation, and artificiality of the characters and their social milieu. The characters often wear masks, both literal and figurative, to navigate society.

The play mocks the superficiality of social interactions and the disingenuousness of characters who put on facades to achieve their goals.


Love and Authenticity: Amid the social games and deceptions, "The Way of the World" also explores the theme of love and authenticity. Mirabell and Millamant, despite the social obstacles, are depicted as a couple genuinely in love.Their love is contrasted with the mercenary and opportunistic motivations of other characters. The play suggests that genuine love can triumph over societal constraints and artificiality.


Q4) Discuss some critical assumptions about the epitaph of the Elegy.

Ans) Thomas Gray's "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard" is a renowned and widely studied poem, known for its reflective and melancholic tone. The epitaph at the end of the poem serves as a culmination of the themes and ideas explored throughout the elegy. There are several critical assumptions and interpretations that can be made about the epitaph:

a)     Universal Humanity: The epitaph of the elegy contains the famous lines: "The paths of glory lead but to the grave." This assertion highlights a critical assumption about the universal nature of human mortality. It implies that all individuals, regardless of their social status, achievements, or ambitions, ultimately share the same fate of death. This assumption underlines the poem's egalitarian perspective, suggesting that in death, everyone is equal.

b)     Critique of Ambition: Another critical assumption in the epitaph is a critique of excessive ambition and the pursuit of worldly glory. The "paths of glory" suggest the quest for fame, success, and power, which often lead individuals to engage in ruthless competition and disregard ethical values. The epitaph seems to caution against the unchecked pursuit of such ambitions, as it ultimately ends in the common destiny of the grave. This interpretation aligns with the elegy's overarching theme of the quiet lives of the rural poor being worthy of recognition.

c)     Transience of Human Achievement: The epitaph also assumes the transience of human achievement. It suggests that the glory or fame individuals may attain during their lives is fleeting and impermanent. This ties in with the poem's broader meditation on the passing of time and the gradual fading of historical memory. It implies that those who achieve greatness are remembered for a while, but their names and accomplishments are eventually consigned to oblivion.

d)     Humility and Acceptance: The epitaph conveys a sense of humility and acceptance of the human condition. It recognizes the inevitability of death and the insignificance of human endeavours in the face of mortality. This assumption invites readers to reflect on the need for humility in the face of life's uncertainties and the importance of accepting the limitations of human existence.

e)     Cultural Legacy: The epitaph also suggests the idea of a cultural legacy. It acknowledges that even though individuals may pass into obscurity, their contributions to culture and society can endure. The epitaph itself, as part of the poem, serves as a testament to the importance of recognizing and valuing the lives of those who lived in obscurity.

f)      Reflection on the Elegy: The epitaph can be seen as a reflection on the themes and emotions expressed in the elegy. It summarizes the elegy's contemplation of rural life, mortality, and the idea that people from all walks of life deserve recognition and respect. It reinforces the elegy's call to reflect on the lives and destinies of those buried in the churchyard.


Q5) Discuss the metaphors and personifications used in the Elegy.

Ans) Thomas Gray's "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard" is a remarkable poem that employs vivid metaphors and personifications to evoke a contemplative and melancholic atmosphere. These literary devices play a significant role in conveying the poem's themes and emotions.


a)     The Curfew Tolls the Knell of Parting Day: This metaphor compares the tolling of the evening curfew bell to the end of the day and, by extension, to the end of human life. It symbolizes the idea that death is like the closing of a day and serves as a recurring motif throughout the poem.

b)     The Ploughman Homeward Plods His Weary Way: This metaphor portrays the ploughman's journey home as a wearisome task, comparing it to the burdens and struggles of human existence. It emphasizes the toil and hardship experienced by common people.

c)     The Swain Returning with His Flocks from the Hill: This metaphor likens the return of the shepherd with his sheep to the idea of souls returning to the churchyard after their earthly journey. It underscores the rural and pastoral imagery of the poem.

d)     The Moping Owl Does to the Moon Complain: The metaphor of the "moping owl" complaining to the moon adds a sense of melancholy and loneliness to the nighttime scene. It implies that even nature mourns the passing of day and the arrival of darkness.



a)     The lowing herd winds slowly o'er the lea: Here, the lowing herd is personified as if it possesses the agency to wind slowly over the meadow. This personification emphasizes the peaceful and unhurried rural setting of the poem.

b)     The Plough, the Harrow, and the Mattock stood: In this line, agricultural tools like the plough, harrow, and mattock are personified, as if they are standing or at rest after a day's work. This personification lends human characteristics to these inanimate objects and contributes to the poem's sense of stillness and tranquillity.

c)     Beneath those rugged elms, that yew-tree's shade: The rugged elms and the yew tree are personified as if they provide shelter and solace to the dead. They are portrayed as guardians of the churchyard, offering a sense of protection and peace to the deceased.

d)     The thought of death sits uneasy on the human heart: This line personifies the thought of death, suggesting that it has a presence and an effect on the human heart. It reflects the uneasiness and fear that death can instil in people.

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