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BEGE-143: Understanding Poetry

BEGE-143: Understanding Poetry

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2023-24

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Assignment Code: BEGE-143/TMA/2023-24

Course Code: BEGE-143

Assignment Name: Understanding Poetry

Year: 2023-2024

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Section A


Write short notes in about 200 words each.


(i) Metaphysical poems

Ans) Metaphysical poetry is a distinctive genre of poetry that emerged in the 17th century, primarily in England. It is characterized by its intellectual and philosophical exploration of complex themes, often using elaborate conceits and wit to examine the spiritual, emotional, and physical aspects of existence. The term "metaphysical" was coined by Samuel Johnson in the 18th century to describe a group of poets who shared common features in their works.

a)     Conceits: Metaphysical poets are known for their use of extended metaphors, known as conceits, which draw unusual and surprising comparisons between dissimilar subjects. These conceits are used to explore abstract concepts in a concrete and vivid manner.

b)     Intellectual Depth: Metaphysical poets delve into deep philosophical and metaphysical themes, such as love, death, the nature of the soul, and the relationship between the physical and the spiritual.

c)     Complex Language: The language in metaphysical poetry can be intricate and often requires careful analysis. Poets like John Donne and Andrew Marvell use intricate language and wordplay to convey their ideas.

d)     Spiritual and Sensual Themes: These poets often grapple with the tension between the spiritual and the sensual, exploring the conflicts and harmonies between earthly desires and spiritual aspirations.

e)     Bold Themes and Imagery: Metaphysical poets were unafraid to tackle controversial and unconventional themes, and their work can include striking, sometimes shocking, imagery.


(ii) Modernism and poetry

Ans) Modernism was a cultural, artistic, and literary movement that emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and had a profound impact on poetry. It marked a departure from traditional forms and styles, reflecting the tumultuous changes in society, politics, and technology during that period.


a)     Experimentation with Form: Modernist poets embraced innovative forms and structures. They broke away from traditional rhyme and meter, opting for free verse and unconventional layouts. This experimentation allowed them to express the fractured, fragmented, and often chaotic nature of the modern world.

b)     Stream of Consciousness: Modernist poets often employed a "stream of consciousness" narrative style. They delved into the inner thoughts and feelings of their characters, reflecting the psychological complexities of the human mind. This technique can be seen in the works of poets like T.S. Eliot and James Joyce.

c)     Shift in Themes: Modernist poetry addressed themes such as disillusionment, alienation, and the impact of industrialization. It also explored the uncertainties and anxieties of a world marked by World War I and the aftermath.

d)     Rejection of Sentimentality: Modernist poets rejected the sentimentality and romanticism of the past. They favoured a more objective and often fragmented approach to emotion and experience, breaking away from the Victorian and Edwardian poetic traditions.

e)     Eliot's "The Waste Land": T.S. Eliot's poem "The Waste Land" is a quintessential work of modernist poetry. It reflects the disillusionment and fragmentation of the post-World War I world, drawing on a wide range of cultural and literary references to create a complex and multilayered narrative.

f)      Imagism: Imagism was a modernist poetic movement led by poets like Ezra Pound and H.D. It emphasized clarity, conciseness, and the use of precise, evocative imagery. Imagist poets sought to capture the essence of a subject or moment in a vivid and immediate way.


Section B


Explain with reference to the context in 300 words each.


(i) Tell Flesh must fade for heaven and here!

Thus learnt she and lingered – joy and fear!

Thus lay she a moment on my breast.

Ans) "Tell Flesh must fade for heaven and here! Thus learnt she and lingered – joy and fear! Thus lay she a moment on my breast," are from the poem "The Garden of Proserpine" by Algernon Charles Swinburne. These lines are rich in symbolism and imagery, reflecting the themes of life, death, and the eternal.


In these lines, the speaker is contemplating the transient nature of human existence and the impermanence of the physical body. "Tell Flesh must fade for heaven and here!" conveys the idea that our earthly bodies, represented by "Flesh," must eventually wither and decay ("fade") to make way for a higher, spiritual realm ("heaven").


This reflects a common theme in poetry and philosophy, where the physical body is seen as a temporary vessel for the soul or spirit, and the goal is to transcend the limitations of the flesh.


The line "Thus learnt she and lingered – joy and fear!" suggests that someone, the speaker, or another character, has come to understand this truth about the impermanence of the flesh and has paused to contemplate it. The emotions of "joy and fear" are intertwined, indicating a complex reaction to this realization. There is joy in the potential for spiritual transcendence and the promise of heaven, but there is also fear in the face of mortality and the unknown beyond death.


The final line, "Thus lay she a moment on my breast," introduces a more personal and intimate element to the poem. The identity of "she" is unclear, but it could be a lover, a muse, or a symbolic figure. The act of lying on the speaker's breast conveys a sense of vulnerability, closeness, and intimacy. It may suggest a moment of solace and reflection in the face of the profound truths about life and death that have just been contemplated.


(ii) You say

the beak that steals

The worm-ridden grain spread out to sun

is a pariah cow.

Ans) The statement "the beak that steals the worm-ridden grain spread out to sun is a pariah cow" is a part of a larger context, and its meaning can be understood by breaking it down.


The Beak that Steals: In this phrase, "the beak" refers to a bird's beak, which is associated with birds feeding on grains or seeds. The act of stealing implies that these birds are taking something without permission or without it being offered to them. This could symbolize a form of scavenging, where birds are trying to find sustenance wherever they can.


The Worm-Ridden Grain: The term "worm-ridden grain" refers to grains or food that are infested with worms or parasites. These are no longer suitable for human consumption and are often discarded as worthless.


Spread out to Sun: When grains are spread out to sun, it is a common practice to dry them and make them fit for storage or use. In this context, it suggests that even the damaged, worm-ridden grains are left out in the sun, for the birds or other creatures to consume.


Pariah Cow: The term "pariah cow" refers to a cow that is an outcast or an untouchable in the traditional Indian caste system. Pariah cows are often left to roam freely, as they are not considered valuable or sacred like other cows.


The statement could be interpreted as a metaphorical reflection on the value of life and the treatment of those who are marginalized or considered outcasts. The birds, which are often seen as insignificant and may even be considered pests for stealing grains, are compared to pariah cows. Just as the pariah cows are left to roam and fend for themselves, the birds are scavenging for their survival, even if it means taking grains that are no longer of use to humans.


The statement might suggest a sense of empathy or understanding for these creatures, highlighting their struggle for survival. It could also serve as a commentary on how society often treats the marginalized or those deemed as outcasts, drawing a parallel between the treatment of the birds and the pariah cows. This context underscores the idea that even those considered insignificant or unwanted have their own place and purpose in the world, and their actions are driven by the instinct for survival.


(iii) Like all good shepherd sees to it they do

He is free to play a flute all day.

As well fed tigers and fat sheep drink from the same pond.

Ans) "An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum" by Stephen Spender. These lines reflect the stark juxtaposition of different life experiences and opportunities in a deeply unequal society.


The speaker is observing a stark contrast in the opportunities available to different individuals within the same society. The reference to a "good shepherd" implies someone who is responsible for the well-being and care of their flock, in this case, the people in the society. The idea that "he is free to play a flute all day" suggests that this shepherd has the luxury of leisure and free time, implying a life of comfort and abundance. The shepherd is metaphorically equated with "well-fed tigers" and "fat sheep," further emphasizing this image of a life of plenty.


On the other hand, the contrast is drawn with the harsh realities of life for the people in the slum, who face poverty and deprivation. The phrase "fat sheep drink from the same pond" suggests that even though both the privileged and the underprivileged have access to the same resources (the metaphorical "pond"), the outcomes are drastically different. The privileged, like the well-fed tigers and fat sheep, enjoy the benefits of their circumstances, while those in the slum struggle for necessities.


The lines underscore the inequality and social injustice prevalent in the society, where a few, like the well-fed tigers and fat sheep, have an abundance of resources and opportunities, while the majority, represented by the slum-dwellers, live in poverty and deprivation. The "flute" played by the good shepherd is a symbol of leisure and artistic expression, highlighting the stark contrast between a life of privilege and a life of struggle.


These lines contribute to the poem's overarching themes of social inequality and the impact of socio-economic disparities on the lives of children. The poem serves as a poignant commentary on the unequal distribution of resources and opportunities and the devastating consequences of such disparities, particularly on the education and prospects of children growing up in impoverished conditions.


Section C

Answer the following questions in 800 words each.


Q1) Discuss ‘The Ruined Cottage’ as an example of poetic narrative.

Ans)"The Ruined Cottage," written by William Wordsworth, is a narrative poem that stands as a notable example of this poetic genre. Narrative poetry combines storytelling and lyrical elements to convey a tale in verse, and "The Ruined Cottage" exemplifies this tradition. This poem is often considered one of Wordsworth's significant contributions to the Romantic movement in English literature.


"The Ruined Cottage" tells the story of a humble, impoverished family living in a remote and picturesque rural setting. The poem begins with the poet's discovery of the ruined cottage, and he reflects on its current state of desolation. As the poem progresses, the narrative shifts to recount the story of Margaret, the mother of the family, her husband, and their three children.


Margaret's husband, the primary breadwinner, leaves to serve in the military, leaving his family in a precarious economic situation. The family struggles to make ends meet, and Margaret works diligently to care for her children. Tragically, the husband returns from the war ill and weak, eventually succumbing to his illness. The family's hardships increase, and the children are left without proper care. Margaret's own health deteriorates, and she eventually dies, leaving her children orphaned.


The poem concludes with the poet's musings on the passage of time and the cyclical nature of life, with new generations of children playing by the same ruined cottage. It ends with a reflection on the transient nature of human existence.


Elements of Narrative Poetry in "The Ruined Cottage":

a)     Plot and Storytelling: The poem presents a clear plot, complete with a beginning, middle, and end. It tells the story of a family's struggles, the father's departure and eventual return, the family's hardships, and the tragic deaths of both parents. The narrative structure allows for a progression of events that engage the reader's interest.

b)     Character Development: "The Ruined Cottage" features well-defined characters, primarily Margaret, the mother, and her husband. The poet provides insights into their lives, emotions, and struggles, allowing readers to connect with and empathize with these characters. This character development is crucial in creating a narrative with emotional depth.

c)     Setting and Atmosphere: The poem is set in a rural landscape, and Wordsworth's vivid descriptions of the natural environment contribute to the narrative's atmosphere. The ruined cottage, surrounded by the beauty of nature, plays a significant role in the story. The setting not only serves as a backdrop but also reflects the emotions and experiences of the characters.

d)     Dialogue and Monologue: Wordsworth incorporates both dialogue and monologue in the poem. The characters' words and thoughts are conveyed through their interactions and reflections. These elements provide insight into their inner lives and emotional states.

e)     Themes and Moral Lessons: "The Ruined Cottage" touches on themes such as poverty, war, the resilience of the human spirit, the passage of time, and the transitory nature of life. The poem conveys moral lessons about the importance of empathy, the consequences of war, and the fragility of human existence.

f)      Symbolism and Imagery: Wordsworth uses rich symbolism and imagery to enhance the narrative. The ruined cottage symbolizes the decay of human life, and nature's beauty stands in stark contrast to the human tragedy. The imagery of the "mantling clematis" and the "starving, spangled snake" creates vivid, sensory experiences that add depth to the narrative.

g)     Narrator's Perspective: The poem is narrated by an observer who stumbles upon the ruined cottage and its surroundings. This perspective allows for a degree of detachment, as the narrator observes and reflects on the events. It also adds a layer of introspection, as the narrator contemplates the universal truths and lessons found in the story.


Emotional Resonance:

"The Ruined Cottage" is a narrative poem that is emotionally resonant and deeply moving. It explores themes of human suffering, the impact of war, and the inevitable passage of time. The characters' struggles and eventual fates elicit empathy and sadness from the reader. Wordsworth's lyrical language and poignant descriptions enhance the emotional depth of the narrative.


"The Ruined Cottage" by William Wordsworth is a compelling example of poetic narrative. Through a well-defined plot, rich character development, a vivid setting, and emotionally charged themes, the poem tells a poignant story that engages the reader's imagination and emotions. It is a testament to Wordsworth's skill as a poet and storyteller, and it remains a classic work in the realm of narrative poetry.


Q2) Critically comment on Sukhirtharani’s feminism as reflected in her poetry.

Ans) Sukirtharani is a contemporary Tamil poet from India known for her powerful and feminist poetry. Her work reflects a strong feminist perspective, addressing issues of gender inequality, discrimination, and the struggles faced by women in society. To critically comment on Sukirtharani's feminism as reflected in her poetry, we can explore key themes, stylistic elements, and the impact of her work on the feminist literary landscape.


Themes in Sukirtharani's Poetry:

a)     Gender Inequality: Sukirtharani's poetry is marked by a sharp critique of the deeply entrenched gender inequalities in society. She addresses the disparities in opportunities, rights, and societal expectations imposed on women. Her poetry vividly portrays the struggles faced by women in both public and private spheres.

b)     Female Empowerment: One of the central themes in Sukirtharani's poetry is the empowerment of women. She portrays women as strong, resilient, and capable of challenging the status quo. Her poems celebrate the strength and courage of women in the face of adversity.

c)     Body and Sexuality: Sukirtharani's work often challenges societal norms and taboos related to women's bodies and sexuality. Her poems explore the complex relationships between desire, control, and agency, challenging conventional notions of female sexuality.

d)     Voice and Expression: A recurring theme in her poetry is the importance of women finding their own voices and expressing themselves freely. She highlights the power of self-expression as a means of liberation and resistance.

Stylistic Elements in Sukirtharani's Poetry:

a)     Imagery: Sukirtharani's poetry is characterized by vivid and evocative imagery. She uses striking visuals to convey the emotional intensity of her themes, often drawing from nature and everyday life to create powerful metaphors.

b)     Language: Her use of language is both evocative and accessible. She employs Tamil, her native language, to convey her ideas with an authenticity and directness that resonates with her readers.

c)     Free Verse: Sukirtharani's poetry often takes the form of free verse, allowing her to experiment with structure and rhythm. This form of expression allows for a greater degree of flexibility and emotional impact in her work.


Impact of Sukirtharani's Poetry:

a)     Feminist Discourse: Her poetry has added a significant voice to the feminist discourse in India and beyond. She has helped bring attention to the struggles faced by women in South Asia and has contributed to a more nuanced understanding of feminism in a diverse cultural context.

b)     Empowerment: Sukirtharani's work empowers women by validating their experiences and emotions. Through her poetry, women may find a sense of solidarity and recognition of their struggles, which can be empowering and liberating.

c)     Social Awareness: Her poetry raises awareness about the gender-based discrimination, violence, and injustice that persist in society. By shining a light on these issues, her work becomes a catalyst for change.

d)     Cultural Preservation: By writing in her native language, Tamil, Sukirtharani contributes to the preservation and promotion of indigenous languages and cultures. She uses the power of poetry to champion cultural diversity and local identities.

e)     Literary Innovation: Sukirtharani's poetic style and approach to feminist themes have pushed the boundaries of Tamil literature. She is seen as an innovator and a trailblazer in contemporary Tamil poetry.


Critique and Challenges:

Sukirtharani's feminist poetry, while celebrated for its boldness and social impact, has also faced challenges and criticisms. Some of these critiques include:

a)     Conservatism: Her work has encountered resistance from conservative elements in society who view her exploration of female desire and sexuality as provocative and offensive.

b)     Language Barrier: While her poetry is immensely significant in the Tamil-speaking world, it can sometimes face challenges in reaching a wider, non-Tamil-speaking audience.

c)     Cultural Specificity: Some critics argue that her work is culturally specific and may not be easily accessible or relatable to those outside the South Asian context.


Sukirtharani's feminist poetry is a powerful and important voice in contemporary literature. Her work reflects a profound commitment to challenging gender inequalities and empowering women. Through striking imagery, accessible language, and a deep understanding of her cultural context, Sukirtharani has had a significant impact on feminist discourse, women's empowerment, and the evolution of literary traditions. Her poetry continues to inspire and challenge readers, contributing to a more inclusive and gender-equitable world.


Q3) Comment critically on the poems of Kynpham Sing Nongkynrih.

Ans) Kynpham Sing Nongkynrih is a renowned Indian poet, known for his insightful and evocative poetry that delves into a wide range of themes, often with a strong focus on the culture and environment of his native Meghalaya. His works are characterized by vivid imagery, a deep connection to his roots, and a keen sense of social and environmental awareness.


"Across the Khasi Hills":

This poem explores the landscape and culture of the Khasi Hills, which is a region in Meghalaya, India. Nongkynrih's vivid descriptions paint a striking picture of the natural beauty of the hills, the people who inhabit them, and their way of life. The poem resonates with themes of preservation, tradition, and the intersection of the human and natural worlds. It highlights the need to safeguard the indigenous culture and the fragile ecosystem of the region.



"Bamboo" is a remarkable poem that encapsulates the essence of the bamboo plant, a significant cultural symbol in the northeastern states of India. Nongkynrih delves into the multifaceted nature of bamboo, describing it as a source of sustenance, utility, and artistry. The poem is a commentary on the intrinsic relationship between nature and culture, reflecting how the environment has shaped the way of life and traditions of the people in the region.



In "Shillong," Nongkynrih portrays the capital city of Meghalaya, Shillong, with great affection. The poem is a tribute to the city's unique character, reflecting its natural beauty and multicultural atmosphere. It touches upon the diversity of Shillong's people and the harmony that exists within this cultural tapestry. Nongkynrih captures the essence of the city and its people while emphasizing the importance of preserving such harmonious coexistence.


"Dawn at Mawphlang":

"Dawn at Mawphlang" is a poem that skillfully captures the serenity and spirituality of Mawphlang, a village in Meghalaya. The poem is an exploration of the relationship between the natural world and the human spirit. Nongkynrih presents the sacred groves of Mawphlang as a space where the divinity of nature is revered and protected. This poem serves as a reflection on the ecological and spiritual significance of preserving such natural sanctuaries.


"A Bridge Called "Khassih":

This poem is a reflection on the importance of bridges, both literal and metaphorical, in the lives of the people in Meghalaya. Nongkynrih uses the bridge as a symbol of connection and unity. The poem illustrates the significance of these structures in the region's rugged terrain, highlighting the need for solidarity and cooperation. It also carries an underlying message of building bridges of understanding and empathy between cultures and people.


"The Blue Hills":

"The Blue Hills" is a contemplative poem that delves into the meaning and significance of the hills of Meghalaya, often referred to as the "Blue Hills" due to the bluish tinge of the mountains. Nongkynrih's verses are imbued with a sense of wonder and reverence for the natural landscape. The poem evokes a sense of connection between the land and its people and prompts readers to contemplate the beauty and mysteries of the hills.


Kynpham Sing Nongkynrih's poetry is notable for its deep-rooted connection to the culture and environment of Meghalaya. His works shed light on the importance of preserving the rich heritage and delicate ecosystem of the region. Additionally, his poetry serves as a vehicle for cultural preservation and an exploration of the intricate relationship between humans and the natural world.


Nongkynrih's writing also demonstrates a strong ecological consciousness, emphasizing the need for environmental protection and the significance of Indigenous knowledge and practices. His poems often read like celebrations of his homeland, rich with descriptions of its natural beauty, cultural diversity, and the interconnectedness of all living things.


Kynpham Sing Nongkynrih's poetry reflects his deep love for Meghalaya and its people, culture, and environment. His work is a testament to the power of poetry to capture the essence of a place, convey important social and environmental messages, and inspire readers to appreciate and protect the beauty and heritage of the land.


Q4) Critically analyse the poem ‘Bequest’.

Ans) "Bequest" is a thought-provoking and poignant poem by the American poet Robert Frost. Written in 1922, this poem delves into themes of legacy, mortality, and the passage of time. As with many of Frost's works, "Bequest" is deceptively simple, yet it carries a deep and powerful message that invites critical analysis.


Structure and Style:

"Bequest" is a sonnet, consisting of 14 lines and employing the traditional iambic pentameter. The poem is divided into three quatrains and a closing couplet. The rhyme scheme is ABAB CDCD EFEF GG. This traditional structure and rhyme scheme allow Frost to explore profound themes within the constraints of a structured form, highlighting his skill as a poet.


Analysis of "Bequest":

a)     First Quatrain: The poem opens with the speaker musing on what he will leave behind when he departs this world. The use of the word "late" in the opening line hints at the speaker's impending mortality. The "late" is a reference to a deceased person. The phrase "to someone else at work" suggests the idea of a bequest, a legacy, or an inheritance. However, what the speaker will leave is not material wealth but an unfinished piece of work, symbolized by a wall that is "half-built up." This immediately sets the tone for the poem, as it explores the idea of leaving something incomplete for the next generation.

b)     Second Quatrain: The second quatrain introduces the idea of ambiguity in the legacy. The speaker acknowledges that he is unsure about the person who will receive this bequest. He imagines a situation where a person is questioning the necessity of the wall, pointing out that "Good fences make good neighbours." This phrase is a well-known saying from Frost's poem "Mending Wall" and is often interpreted as a comment on the value of boundaries and privacy. The speaker's uncertainty about the recipient's perspective reflects the complexity of human relationships and differing viewpoints on what is valuable or necessary.

c)     Third Quatrain: In the third quatrain, the speaker presents an image of nature. He describes a moment when spring arrives and two people meet to repair the wall. This image invokes a sense of renewal and cooperation. It contrasts with the idea of boundaries and divisions presented earlier in the poem. The act of repairing the wall becomes a ritual, a shared activity that brings people together. This ritual reflects the cyclical nature of life and suggests that some things must be periodically revisited and renewed.

d)     Closing Couplet: The final couplet encapsulates the poem's central message. The speaker states that "Before I built a wall, I'd ask to know / What I was walling in or walling out." This reflects a deeper contemplation on the necessity of walls and boundaries. The speaker is not advocating for a world without boundaries but emphasizes the importance of understanding the purpose of those boundaries. He underscores the significance of questioning the need for walls and what they represent. The couplet suggests that sometimes we build walls without fully considering their purpose or the impact they may have on relationships and connections.

e)     Themes in "Bequest": Legacy and Inheritance: "Bequest" explores the idea of what we leave behind for the next generation. The unfinished wall symbolizes an incomplete legacy that raises questions about the value and meaning of the bequest.

f)      Ambiguity and Perspective: The poem highlights the ambiguity of human communication, and the differing perspectives people hold. It underscores the importance of questioning and understanding the purpose of our actions.

g)     Nature and Renewal: The image of spring and the act of repairing the wall suggest a sense of renewal and the cyclical nature of life. Nature is presented as a force that brings people together to engage in a shared activity.

h)     Boundaries and Connections: The poem questions the necessity of boundaries and walls in human relationships. It suggests that while boundaries have their place, they should not be built thoughtlessly. The poem encourages introspection about the role of walls in our lives.


Critical Analysis:

"Bequest" is a contemplative and introspective poem that challenges the reader to think deeply about the legacies we leave behind and the boundaries we construct in our lives. Frost's use of a structured sonnet form adds an element of formal elegance to a poem that addresses fundamental questions about human existence.


The poem engages with the theme of legacy in a unique way. Instead of celebrating a completed work or a definitive accomplishment, it focuses on the idea of leaving something incomplete. The wall is a metaphor for the actions, choices, and creations that people leave behind. By presenting an unfinished wall, Frost invites readers to question the purpose and meaning of their own bequests. This challenges the traditional idea of a legacy as a finished product and suggests that our impact on the world is often a work in progress.


The poem's reference to "Mending Wall," another poem by Frost, adds layers of meaning. "Mending Wall" deals with the idea that "Good fences make good neighbours," highlighting the importance of boundaries. In "Bequest," Frost revisits this notion and, in the closing couplet, questions the purpose of walls and boundaries. The poem does not reject the concept of boundaries outright but encourages thoughtful consideration of their necessity.


The image of spring and the act of repairing the wall underscore the idea of renewal and cooperation. Spring is a season of growth and transformation, and the act of repairing the wall becomes a ritual that brings people together. This suggests that some boundaries are not meant to be permanent but should be periodically revisited and reevaluated. It also emphasizes the cyclical nature of human interaction.


"Bequest" by Robert Frost is a thought-provoking poem that challenges traditional notions of legacy, boundaries, and human relationships. It encourages readers to contemplate the impact of their actions and creations and to question the necessity of the walls and boundaries that define their lives. Through its structured sonnet form and rich thematic exploration, the poem exemplifies Frost's ability to convey profound ideas in deceptively simple language, making it a classic work of American poetry.

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