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BEGG-171: Media and Communication Skills

BEGG-171: Media and Communication Skills

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

If you are looking for BEGG-171 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Media and Communication Skills, you have come to the right place. BEGG-171 solution on this page applies to 2021-22 session students studying in BAG courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Solution

Assignment Code: BEGG-171 / TMA / 2021-22

Course Code: BEGG-171

Assignment Name: Media and Communication Skills

Year: 2021 – 2022 (July 2021 and January 2022 Sessions)

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Section A


Short answer questions based on Blocks 1 and 2 (Answer each question in 300 words)


Q1 What are the basic functions of communication? 5

Ans) The basic functions of communication are as follows:


Information has a wide range of meanings, ranging from everyday use to technical contexts. In general, imparting instruction, knowledge, meaning, mental stimulus, pattern, perception, and representation are all strongly tied to the concept of information.



Persuasion is a social influencing technique. It is the process of using rational and symbolic techniques to persuade individuals to embrace a new concept, attitude, or behaviour. It is a problem-solving method that relies on “appeals” rather than strength. Manipulation is persuasion taken to its logical conclusion, with one individual or group benefiting at the expense of the other. Persuasion aids in making decisions or gaining an agreement on public policy, allowing for greater control and governance.


Debate and Discussion

Debate, often known as debating, is a formal type of participatory argumentation. Debate is a broader type of argument since it incorporates persuasion, which appeals to an audience's emotional responses and allows individuals to discuss and deliberate on differences within a framework that defines how they will engage. A debate's outcome can be decided by audience voting, judges, or a mix of the two. The users benefit from critical analysis of debates and discussions.



An instruction is a piece of transmitted information that serves as both a command and a description of how to begin, complete, conduct, or execute a specific action, behaviour, procedure, or activity. One of the most important tasks of communication is to inform, educate, and socialise society's members. All of these functions begin early in childhood, at home or at school, and continue throughout one's life cycle.



Through photos, films, music, drama, dance, art, literature, humour, sports, and games, communication supplies individuals with endless enjoyment. Culture may be preserved and fostered with the help of communication. It encourages people to explore and realise their creative desires. Integration Communication is an excellent means of distributing information and knowledge, which aids in social integration.


Q2 List the seven Cs of Communication and describe them briefly. 5

Ans) The following are the seven Cs of Communication:


1. Content

This is the most accurate way to assess communication performance. Once you've determined the main question that will assist your audience, you can begin researching the information to answer it. As a result, the message must be meaningful to the recipient and compatible with his or her value system.


2. Context

The context of the communication must be clear and not contradict the message. It must allow for participation and replay of events in order to comprehend the scenario. Good questions should be asked. Before you start designing any message, make sure you have a clear aim in mind.


3. Channels

Only established communication channels should be used—channels that the receiver is familiar with and respects—creating new channels is tough. Different channels have various effects and are useful at various phases of the diffusion process.


4. Clarity

People's interest will quickly wane if you don't go right to the point. The message must be conveyed in a straightforward manner. Words must be understood by the receiver in the same way that they are understood by the sender. Complex concerns must be condensed into slogans that are both simple and clear. The simpler a message is, the further it must go.


5. Composition

Write down whatever you're considering about how to engage your audience in your writing. Communication must be broken down into fundamental content "building pieces." Make groups and clusters out of the information. The most important unit of information is your aim. Index cards can be used to organise information into modules.


6. Contrast

To draw attention to them, use contrast: large vs. small; rough vs. smooth; black vs. white. The brain responds to contrast by saying, "Pay attention!"


7. Consistency

To prevent distracting people, keep elements like colour, fonts, spacing, and text sizes similar unless you're highlighting variances. Extraneous information, according to research, hinders people's ability to assimilate and learn. The process of communication is never-ending. Persistence is required to accomplish penetration. The plot must be logical.


Q3 What is the importance of advertising and what objectives does it fulfill? 5

Ans) Advertising is the most effective means of reaching out to customers. Customers are more informed about the brands available in the market and the diversity of products available to them thanks to advertising. Everyone, even children, young and old, is exposed to advertising. It is accomplished through the use of numerous media kinds, as well as the most appropriate strategies and procedures.


Importance of Advertising


Retain the existing customers – It is critical that customers continue to follow, buy, and use your brand. And this is when advertising comes in handy once more! It continues reminding clients about the brand, hence assisting in customer retention and sales growth.


Educates people It's not only about promotion when it comes to advertising! It also educates people and raises public awareness about a variety of concerns. Many societal issues, such as female foeticide, child labour, and child maltreatment, are also brought up through effective advertising. As a result, advertising aids in the education and awareness of the public.


Comparison – Customers can also compare different products with the help of advertisements. Customers can choose from a variety of products based on characteristics, traits, or specifications stated in advertising.


Objectives of Advertising

Four main objectives of advertising are:


  1. Trial:  This is usually the goal of most start-up projects or businesses. It entails persuading clients to purchase a new product or service that has been launched to the market. Advertisers utilise meaty advertisements to attract customers and urge them to look at the products and buy for trials in order to achieve this goal.

  2. Brand Switch: This is the goal of companies who wish to attract the customers of their competitors. Marketers aim to persuade clients to move from their current brand to their goods in order to achieve this.

  3. Continuity: It has to do with keeping existing clients for a long time. Marketers typically do this by launching new products that are of interest to customers and promoting them well so that existing customers continue to buy their products.

  4. Switching Back: To bring back the previous customers, who have switched to other brands, advertisers use different ways to attract them back such as discount sale, some reworking done on packaging, new advertise, etc.


Q4 What is the ASCI and what role does it perform? 5

Ans) The Advertising Standards Council of India (ASCI), which was founded in 1985, is dedicated to the goal of self-regulation in advertising and consumer protection. Advertisers, Advertising Agencies, Media (including Broadcasters and the Press), and others such as PR Agencies and Market Research Companies were all instrumental in the formation of ASCI.


The ASCI ensures that all advertising adhere to some fundamental principles, such as truthful portrayals. This means that the advertisements should send a clear and honest message to customers and even competition. Advertisements should also adhere to generally accepted public decency and propriety standards and be non-offensive to the general public. Advertisements should not be used indiscriminately to promote things that are potentially detrimental to society or individuals. Advertisements should not contain any plagiarism, which means they should be unique in terms of creativity and topic matter. Advertisers are encouraged to run commercials that promote safe practises, such as wearing helmets, wearing seatbelts when driving, not using cell phones while driving, and so on, according to the ASCI.


The educational sector is another area that need continual monitoring these days. Education has evolved into a major commercial activity in recent years, with educational institutions spending significant sums of money to promote their educational programmes. These must be closely watched to ensure that parents are not duped when selecting an educational programme for their children.


Food and beverages are another sector that must be closely monitored. Advertisements that promote a healthy, well-balanced diet and decent eating habits while emphasising proper physical activity can have a favourable impact. As a result, only healthy foods should be advertised, not those that include significant amounts of fat, salt, sugar, or other substances that may be damaging to the consumers' health.


Q5 List some of the dangers of mass media. 5

Ans) There are five major concerns or dangers associated with Mass Media:


1. Manipulation:

Electronic deception that distorts the facts is a big challenge today. Electronic device users can manipulate the meaning of recorded visual and audio content to make it appear to be something it isn't.


2. Privacy:

There have been numerous complaints concerning privacy violation. The topic of how to balance the right to privacy with the public good has become a major one for policymakers and social scientists alike.


3. Security:

Another important problem is governmental and institutional security breaches. Secret government information, private financial transactions, and institutional records have all been compromised by computer systems.


4. Democratic Process:

It is self-evident that democracy works best when people are well-informed about all issues and challenges. By selecting only what they want to watch and hear, such as sports, financial market quotes, and entertainment. In some cases, the power of selectivity may function as a limiting element in citizen education.


5. Isolation:

While the communication revolution has the potential to bring the world closer together, it also has the potential to isolate individuals and small groups. Couples and families stay at home to watch television and video on their television screens rather than interacting with crowds at movie theatres. Adults and children alike can sit for hours, oblivious to anything but what appears on the small screen. A growing percentage of employees work from home, connected to their offices via a personal computer. Some intense media users have sought psychological therapy as a result of their isolation from comrades and the loss of group dynamics. The negative effects of a significant number of individuals being alone have not yet become a major issue in our country, but we are on our way there.


Q6 What is the difference between public service announcements and commercial advertisements? 5

Ans) Service to the public Announcements are an efficient way to reach out to the public with information that is important to a country's population. As a result, while a commercial advertisement is fundamentally a persuasive paid communication that aims to persuade people to buy what it has to offer, PSAs are communications that encourage people to support a social cause that is judged beneficial to the broader public.


PSAs In simple terms, commercial advertising aims to share the market, whereas public service announcements aim to share the mind. Commercial advertising satisfies a consumer's perceived demand by advertising certain consumer products. SA, on the other hand, prompts the audience to recognise a need. The PSA, for example, makes its viewers aware of the need to conserve water during a dry season by using the tagline "Save Water." As a result, the arousal or waking of one's awareness is primarily a PSA function, whereas commercial advertisements cater to the consumer's felt need. PSAs are produced by advertising professionals and distributed for free by media outlets who provide both space and time. Many businesses sponsor PSAs that make no mention of their own products for sale. This is an example of the new business philosophy. Eleemosynary institutions' PSA: PSA is carried out by philanthropic institutions, called as Eleemosynary institutions, such as Help age, Care, and UNICEF, among others. Their messages are sometimes aided by corporate interests, but they are more commonly supported by the philanthropic organisations themselves. Government Public Service Announcement: Citizens in developing countries must be well-informed. PSAs are an excellent way to get important information to the general population. In the sake of the public good, such advertising is used to promote causes without bias or partisan tilt.



Section B


Short answer questions based on Blocks 3 and 4 (Answer each question in 300 words)


Q1 What is News and what are its basic elements? 5

Ans) The term "news" refers to information regarding current occurrences. This can be done in a variety of ways, including word of mouth, printing, postal systems, broadcasting, electronic communication, and the testimony of event observers and witnesses. Information from the North, East, West, and South is included in the news.


Elements of News

You should be aware that news is based on certain news values. Journalists use these news values to determine whether or not an event is newsworthy. Only a few events can be regarded as news if they meet at least one of the following criteria:


1. Impact:

News is defined as events that have an impact on people's lives. The incident itself may only involve a few people, but the ramifications could be far-reaching.


2. Timeliness:

Almost all news stories have the benefit of being timely. It refers to the time since an event occurred. Most incidents cannot be called news without the requirements of timeliness.


3. Prominence:

Even when they do insignificant things, prominent people generate headlines. The Prime Minister of India's acts and statements are significant to us in India. Movie stars, well-known politicians, social activists, and sports celebrities all create headlines simply because they are well-known.


4. Proximity:

Local events are more likely to make the news than similar occurrences that occur abroad. Things that happen around us pique our interest.


5. Conflict:

It is news when people disagree, fight, or have disagreements. The government's announcement of demonetization has sparked heated debate among all political parties. This was a major news storey that required both sides of the debate to be presented.


6. The bizarre or the unusual:

 An unusual event, such as the discovery of a new star or planet, a new type of bloodless surgery using laser technology, or the birth of octuplets, can be considered news.


7. Currency:

Current interest concerns frequently have news value, and events around those issues are occasionally labelled news.


Q2 What is an editorial and what is its importance? 5

Ans) An editorial is an article in which the newspaper expresses its opinions on current events, news, or a pressing topic. It is the publication's official position. Every day, they can be found in the same spot on the same page of the newspaper. This page is known as the editorial page, and it is located in the page's left-hand column, from top to bottom. The average length of an editorial is 500 words. Editorials are usually published on a dedicated page called the editorial page, which also frequently includes letters to the editor from members of the public; the op-ed page, on the other hand, frequently contains opinion pieces (hence the name think pieces) by writers who are not directly affiliated with the publication.


Importance of an Editorial

On behalf of the editor, an editorial is normally prepared by the editor, one of the associate or deputy editors, or one of the writers. These views reflect the newspaper's position and are not bound by any lines. Politicians, bureaucrats, and the general public all want to know where the media stand on issues that affect society. Why is this point of view so crucial? The press, after all, is the fourth estate and society's watchdog. The rest of the world would undoubtedly be interested in learning about the newspaper's policy on important matters. The editorials not only urge readers to change their minds, but also assist them in forming such opinions. This generates a significant public outcry and a public wave. As a result, politicians and bureaucrats have a legitimate stake in editorials.


The editorial acts as:

  1. A voice of the common man.

  2. Advocate of human rights

  3. Critique of government policies

  4. Interpreter of the Constitution

  5. Forecaster of political and social changes

  6. Informer and analyst of complicated issues

  7. Promoter of worthy activity

  8. Problem solver of any issue of social importance.


Q3 List some of the advantages and disadvantages of internet journalism. 5

Ans) Journalists use the Internet on a daily basis to provide thorough coverage of events and concerns to viewers and readers. From coming up with a storey idea to presenting it, the Internet aids every step of the journalistic process.


Advantages and Disadvantages of Internet Journalism

The internet has a variety of consequences on journalism, the majority of which are favourable, however some have also proven to be negative. One of the more positive affects it has had is that it is one of the simplest ways to get massive amounts of content spread. Another benefit is that the information can be updated quickly, and the web design can be readily modified. Without having to wait for papers and other publications to be printed and delivered, any "breaking news" can be announced virtually quickly. Journalists today have smart phones, tablets, I pad, and other similar gadgets, allowing them to deliver any news in minutes.


The Internet saves time and money for journalists and news organisations. Reporters may swiftly and easily obtain varied views and up-to-date information via the Internet. Reporters can now write more and better articles because to the Internet.


There are several drawbacks to using the Internet. Users may find it difficult to filter through the mountains of information available on the Internet. And some of the information could be suspect. Journalists should also not rely only on online sources, as many critical documents are not available online. Despite its flaws, the Internet provides reporters with new options for gathering information. They can use e-mail, go straight to a Web site, surf the Internet, and utilise a search engine, as well as read newspapers and publications online or on blogs.


Q4 Write a note on cyber crime and its prevention. 5

Ans) Cybercrime is defined as a crime committed using a computer and a network. It's possible that the computer was used to commit a crime or that it was the intended target. Cybercrime can jeopardise a person's security and financial well-being. Also, online financial frauds, invasions of net users' privacy, cyberbullying, identity thefts, sex crimes such as child pornography trafficking, an increase in occurrences of violence, murders, and burglaries, and the threat of plagiarism.


Some preventive strategies to reduce the hazards posed by cyber-attacks on web users are listed below.

1) Personal information should not be posted on the Internet because it will remain there indefinitely. When making online purchases, one should ensure that personal information such as one's name, age, address, phone number, bank account number, and other financial information is provided only after ensuring that the websites are secure; otherwise, hackers can easily hack into the information provided.


2) A strong password and anti-virus software should be used to ensure the security of one's personal computer. It's also a good idea to keep your computer firewall turned on at all times. These safeguards will keep viruses from invading your computer and damaging your files and data.


3)  Downloading content and programmes should be done with caution because they are the avenues via which viruses can access one's account.


4) Security settings should be enabled on social networking sites and profiles.


5)  Never open or click on a file of an unknown origin. It's also not a good idea to open emails from strangers. Email passwords should be strongly protected; else, email accounts can be readily hacked.


6) Cyberbullying, threats or harassment over the Internet, hacking and financial frauds, sex crimes, identity theft, and other incidents should be reported to the site administrator or the authorities as soon as possible.


Q5 What is editing and why do we need to edit? 5

Ans) Editing is the process of choosing and arranging textual, photographic, visual, auditory, or cinematic material for the purpose of conveying a message or information by a person or an entity. Correction, condensation, organisation, and a variety of other changes are all part of the editing process, with the goal of generating a correct, consistent, accurate, and full piece of work.


The goal of editing is to make sure that your thoughts are presented as clearly as possible to the reader. Proofreading is concerned with checking for accuracy in the finer points of your work. It is a part of the whole editing process, and it is best completed at the end.


The Need to Edit

  1. Because the initial version is never flawless, we must edit. The diamond becomes sharper the more you chisel it. There are a few more factors stated below that will convince you that you need to alter.

  2. The tone or atmosphere may not be as intended due to a lack of clarity in the wording. The storey may not appear to be tailored to the reader.

  3. There could be a shortage of space on the page, and the storey could be lengthy. On the other side, while there may be plenty of room, the storey may be brief.

  4. Mistakes in spelling must be identified and repaired.

  5. It's possible that there are grammatical errors. The places and usage of verbs, nouns, adverbs, and other components of speech would need to be checked.

  6. If necessary, syntactical adjustments would have to be made.

  7. It is vital to follow the newspaper's rule book or style book. Facts, statistics, and names must all be checked and cross-checked.

  8. It's also necessary to write headlines and subheadings, select acceptable photographs, and create visual representations.


Q6. What are Blogs? Explain briefly.

Ans) Blogs are web logs that their authors update on a regular basis. They may contain information on a certain subject. Blogs are sometimes used as daily diaries about people's personal lives, political opinions, or even social commentary. The truth is that blogs may be anything you want them to be, as long as you are the author.


Blogs allow you to create information that is specific to you and your practise. While some individuals dislike self-promotion, your blog allows you to communicate with your readers while also promoting who you are and what you do.


Today, blogs are utilised for a wide range of reasons. There are businesses that utilise blogs to communicate with consumers and other stakeholders. Newspapers integrate blogs onto their main websites to provide their writers a new outlet. Individuals also started blogs to share their knowledge on specialised topics with the rest of the world. And so forth.


It's no more difficult to start a basic blog than it is to sign up for an email address. You can start blogging in a matter of minutes. All you have to do now is sign up with a blog host, choose a name, and start writing. If you're new to blogging or don't have much computer experience, the best way to get started is to start simple, which involves joining up with a blog host. The host will supply you with a blog address, a variety of ready-made page themes, and simple online tools for adding and updating entries. You won't have to bother about things like registering and managing a domain name, learning HTML, or installing any specific software. You may use your own domain name with Blogger.



Section C


Long answer questions based on Blocks 1 to 4 (Answer each question in 500 words)


Q1. What are the different types of mass media? Discuss the impact they have on our lives. 10

Ans) The term “MSM” or “mainstream media” has been widely used in the blogosphere in discussion of the mass media and media bias. The different types of Mass Media are:


1. Journalism

Journalism is the practise of gathering, analysing, verifying, and reporting on news. Journalists are those who practise journalism. In the 1500s, the widespread use of printed text in Europe created a new form of communication. For the first time, a single message could be easily duplicated and sent to thousands. This “mass” approach to communication quickly caught on and was soon used to distribute news, entertainment, and government regulations. Many news organisations pride themselves on holding public officials and institutions accountable, but media critics question holding the press itself accountable.


2. Broadcasting and Telecasting

Broadcasting is the large-scale distribution of audio and/or video signals (programmes). The general public or a large segment of it. Thus, an Internet channel may broadcast global text or music, whereas a workplace public address system may broadcast local sound bites. The CC regulates the frequency bands used to broadcast TV and radio. This rule establishes the acceptable content and band width. Like radio and TV shows, cable shows have a smaller audience. Like BBC One and Two, a broadcaster may broadcast multiple programmes on multiple channels (frequencies). It can also multiplex programming, combining multiple channels into one. Online broadcasting is known as webcasting.


3. Internet

The Internet is “a network of networks”. It is a worldwide public network of interconnected computer networks that uses Internet Protocol to transmit data (IP). It consists of millions of smaller networks that together carry information and services like electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the World Wide Web's interlinked Web pages and other documents. However, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not synonymous.


4. Publishing

Publishing is the activity of making information available to the public. Authors can be their own publishers. Traditionally, the term refers to book and newspaper distribution. Modern publishing now includes websites, blogs, and other digital media such as digital information systems. Publishing as a business includes creating and distributing newspapers, magazines, books, music, software, and other information products.


5. Mobile

When Finland introduced downloadable ringtones in 1998, mobile phones became a mass media. Soon, most media content was available on phones. Mobile has several advantages over TV and the internet, including being always carried and always connected. Mobile is the only mass media with an integrated payment channel available to all users without credit cards, PayPal accounts, or even an age limit. With apps like WhatsApp and WeChat, the mobile is perhaps the most popular mass communication medium.


Impact of Mass Media

The media's power can sway people's beliefs and even knowledge. With improved media, the media's overall influence has grown significantly. The media has a big impact on kids' mental health. Thus, physicians should advise parents on age-appropriate media use, such as television, radio, music, video games, and the Internet. Media criticism often evolves along with new forms of journalism, media formats, markets, and technologies. A media message's ability to change or reinforce audience or individual beliefs. Media effects are tangible results of media influence. Audience response to media messages is influenced by demographic and psychological traits. These effects can be immediate or delayed. Some media messages merely reinforce pre-existing beliefs. Researchers examine audience members' cognitive, emotional, physiological, and behavioural changes.


Q2. What is the importance of ethics in advertising and what moral principles should advertisements follow? 10

Ans) In the field of ethics, a set of moral principles that guide a person's behaviour or activity is defined. Furthermore, advertising is a means for sellers and buyers to communicate with one another. Adverting ethics are therefore a set of clearly defined principles that govern the manner in which the seller and buyer communicate with one another. The most important characteristic of advertising is its ethical nature. In spite of the fact that advertising has numerous advantages, it also has some disadvantages. An ethical advertisement does not lie, does not make false claims, and does not go above and beyond the bounds of reasonableness. Nowadays, advertisements are more exaggerated and fuller of hyperbole. Puffery is the term used to describe promotional claims that express subjective rather than objective viewpoints. Puffery exaggerates the features and benefits of the advertised product. These are not literal interpretations of the facts.


Advertisers may not be aware of ethical norms and principles that apply to their industry. They just don't get it and are unable to distinguish between what is right and what is wrong. Advertisers' primary goal is to increase sales by attracting new customers and increasing product demand through the use of visually appealing and colourful advertising materials. Because of its novelty, cost-effectiveness, and other features and benefits, they claim that their product is superior. Many of these advertisements, on the other hand, are false and unethical. Customers are only confused as a result of their actions. The most effective examples of this type of advertising involve the promotion of children's snacks. These commercials make use of vibrant colours and glossy images to entice viewers to purchase the product, regardless of whether or not the product is nutritionally beneficial. Beliefs are also at the heart of ethical reasoning. Advertisers who believe that their customers will understand and act on their advertisements are not acting unethically in this regard. Using unreasonably bold claims such as "just clicking your fingers will outfit your home and office" or "buying a lottery ticket will make you a millionaire" is unethical marketing.


Moral Principles

The three moral principles of advertising are truthfulness, social responsibility, and human dignity. Affirmations should not abuse the consumer's trust or exploit their lack of experience or knowledge. Right way to consumers. Advertisements should never be false or misleading. Advertising should avoid using expressions, sounds, and visuals that could mislead consumers by providing incorrect information or claiming exaggerated claims. Honesty and truthfulness are vital in advertising because consumers expect brands to be trustworthy. Abusing consumer trust damages brand image and prestige. Socio-economic Responsibility: Advertisements should not promote discrimination against people based on their race nationality religion or disability. Nor should they belittle human dignity.


Advertisements should not exploit fear, condone or incite violence, or exploit people's suffering. Ethical principles remind advertisers of their social responsibility and that they do more than just sell products or services. Applications on digital media platforms have grown in recent years, and many of them have begun to annoy consumers. In this sense, unwanted e-mails and marketing lists with consumers' names have grown. These must be strictly controlled.

Q3. Describe the important functions and principles of news editing. 10

Ans) Making stories more understandable by clarifying facts and figures and condensing for space is editing. Assigning a storey to a page also includes writing headlines, rewriting a storey to fit the organization's style guide, and writing an appealing lead.


Important Functions of Editing

There's always room for improvement. The diamond gets sharper as you chisel it. Other reasons to edit are listed below.

  1. The tone or mood may be off due to a lack of clarity in the writing.

  2. It may not seem reader specific.

  3. The storey may be too long for the page. Alternatively, the storey may be long, but the space is limited.

  4. Spelling errors must be found and corrected.

  5. Possible grammatical errors. Check the positions and usage of verbs, nouns, adverbs, and other parts of speech.

  6. Syntax changes may be required.

  7. Adherence to the newspaper's rules or style is required. Facts, numbers, and names must also be checked.

  8. Writing headlines and subheadings, selecting images, and creating graphics are also required.


Principles of Editing

Every idea or theory has certain principles to run the system and process for a long time. Editing is the final step before publishing a newspaper or magazine. Editing news is based on principles that conform to the firm's ethics and systems. Editing news stories follows these principles:


Accuracy: Editing is a time-bound and data-driven activity. A single blunder can jeopardise the newspaper's reputation. “If there is any doubt, keep it out,” is common editor/sub-editor advice. “We learned this from a well-placed source,” for example. Such words should not be used in print or electronic media without attribution. A split second can destroy a story's entire purpose. Checking and cross-checking facts and figures will help the organisation develop and maintain credibility.


Brevity: A newspaper reader's need for brevity is recognised by a wide range of newspaper industry professionals. A good editor can convey his message concisely. He/she always respects time and space. In the competitive publishing field, succinctness and reliability are essential.


Clarity: Clarity is also important in print media. A news organization's vision is written down. Clarity in message content helps a newspaper's credibility. This is vital in helping the newspaper stand out amongst its peers.


Readability: Another print media rule is that a sentence should not be longer than eighteen words in length. Editing becomes difficult to grasp if a sentence exceeds the word limit of 18. The second assumption is that beyond 25 words, it becomes difficult to read and comprehend. Many editors do exceed the standard word limit for fine editing, but their writing style keeps the flow appealing to readers. So, it all comes down to the writers and their storytelling skills.


Human Interest: Human interest is a basic ingredient in all of our needs, including learning and career pursuit. In writing, editing maintains justice and human interest. A good editor must understand the reader's perspective. It is thus expected of a good editor to write stories based on the readers' interests.


Sharp Observation: Observation is vital in any human's life. An editor must have sharp observation skills because they are the ones who create, recreate, and write stories for a newspaper with a sense of responsibility. He/she should be able to shape the storey to fit the situation and highlight the society's truth.


Q4. The World Wide Web is an important medium of communication. Identify its main elements and discuss how to create content for the web. 10

Ans) The World Wide Web is the visible part of the Internet, connecting the thousands of information sources on the computers that make up the network. The network is made up of computers with organised data. It is organised so that users can easily access it. It connects the user to the physical network of wires, satellite and microwave links, and servers. Most people today use the terms “Internet”, “Web”, “Net” and “Cyberspace” to refer to the online space where they can find information, communicate with others or be entertained by multimedia content.


Contents for the Web

Content creation is today's content marketers' most time-consuming task. Creating great content is our main responsibility and the best way to engage our audience and influence revenue. We also earn our living that way. While writing for the web is similar to writing for any other audience, there are a few considerations when writing for the web. The medium's characteristics – convergence, non-linearity, and hypertextuality – influence how people read and therefore how writers write. Content ideas can come from your content team, your customers, other company stakeholders, new data, or something that inspires you. Choosing the best angle to take on a topic can be difficult depending on the piece's goal.


Elements for the Web

A few of the structural elements that make up the World Wide Web are listed below:

Web Browser

A web browser allows you to view and read content from the internet. It is a simple device that converts code into text and images so we can read, listen, or see material. The most popular browsers are IE, Netscape, and Firefox.


Web Page

A web browser displays and reads internet content. It converts code into text and images so we can read, listen, or see it. IE, Netscape, and Firefox are the most popular.


Home Page

A home page or landing page is the main introductory page of any site. It usually contains information that tells users what the site is about and links to the various parts of the site. It is somewhat like a combination of a magazine cover and its contents page.



A portal is a web page that leads to several other sites or information sources tied together by a theme or common structure. The term portal signifies that these pages are like ‘gateways’ to the collection of information. The portal of, for instance, does not have any introductory text, but simply links to other parts of the site and to stories of the day.



A ‘window’ is a frame that is open on your computer screen, usually corresponding to a location on the Web or a document from your computer.



“URL” is uniform resource locator, is an ‘address’ on the Internet that identifies the location of a document. The URL helps us access material on the Internet. It usually appears as a string of letter and numbers following the term http://www.inthe address box of your browser.



Hypertext is information that appears as a pop-up box within the page you're viewing. This can appear when you move your mouse over the highlighted term, or only when you click on it.



A hyperlink connects one page or document to another. Links on highlighted terms or images take you to another document or ‘location' on the Web. The use of hypertext links allows you to quickly access related content on the Internet.

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