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BESC-132: Structure and Management of Education

BESC-132: Structure and Management of Education

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

If you are looking for BESC-132 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Structure and Management of Education, you have come to the right place. BESC-132 solution on this page applies to 2022-23 session students studying in BAG courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: BESC-132/TMA/July 2022 and January 2023

Course Code: BESC-132

Assignment Name: Structure and Management of Education

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Total Marks: 100


There are three Assignments. All questions are compulsory. Total marks of the assignment questions are 100.


Assignment A


Answer the following questions in about 500 words each.


Answer the following questions in about 500 words each. 2×20=40


Q1) What are various fundamental rights given to citizens in India in the Constitution of India? Which among these facilitates ensuring the right to education and how?

Ans) The following Articles in the category of Fundamental Rights have a special bearing on education in India:


The three rights that are most crucial to a democracy are the right to freedom, equality, and liberty. One cannot think of the other without first thinking of the other.


  1. ARTICLE 14: aims to provide "Equality before the Law." It reads, "The State shall not deny to any individual, within the territory of India, equality before the law or equal protection of the laws." States of today have authority over people.

a) The goal of the Right to Equality is to prevent the State from using its authority in a biased manner. In terms of education, it is used to control admissions standards and so works to ensure that all people have access to education.

2.ARTICLE 15: This Article assures that the State shall not engage in discrimination on the basis of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth. Additionally, it guarantees equitable access to education in India.

3.ARTICLE 15(4): It allowed the government to implement specific measures for the welfare of underprivileged groups, such as Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs).

4.ARTICLE 16(1): It ensures that all citizens have the same opportunities whether applying for jobs or being appointed to government positions.

5.ARTICLE 16(4): Any economically disadvantaged class of individuals may receive special consideration from the government.

6.ARTICLE 21A: It guarantees all children between the ages of six and fourteen the right to free and compulsory education in a setting determined by the State. This Article, which was added by the 86th Amendment in December 2002, grants education the status of a right in order to guarantee the quality of educational expansion at the primary level.

7.When the Constitution first went into effect, Article 45 of Part IV of the Constitution listed education as one of the Directive Principles of State Policy.

8.ARTICLE 24: No child under the age of fourteen is allowed to work in a factory, mine, or engage in other hazardous profession, according to the law.

9.ARTICLE 28: The state-run institutions do not promote any particular religion, provide religious instruction, or show preference for followers of other religions. This has been done to uphold and promote the secularism principle. This Article's provisions prohibit the State or any other entity from providing religious instruction in any school that receives all of its funding from the State. The establishments created by any trust or endowment that mandates the delivery of religious instruction in such institutions are exempt from this rule. The article further states that no student attending a school that is recognised and supported by the state may be required to participate in religious education without their parents' permission. This suggests that while minority community-founded schools are eligible for grants in help from the State, they cannot compel pupils to heed the religious teaching taught there. They may continue to practise their religion without pressuring any reluctant students to adopt it.

10.ARTICLE 46: It is very evident that the State must support the economic and educational interests of the weaker groups of the population, especially the SCs and STs, and must safeguard them against social injustice.


Q2) What do you mean by Total Quality Management (TQM)? Suggest the ways to ensure TQM in higher educational institutions.

Ans) Total Quality Management is a "practical but strategic approach to administering a company that focuses on its customers' and clients' needs," according to Sallis. It is an organised, methodical technique or methodology that puts all of its effort into upholding high standards.


School Education

Education, whether it be vocational, moral, or factual, is the primary goal of education. Standardized examinations have been developed after decades of research, whether public or commercial, to ensure that the aim is achieved. The school employs a variety of strategies to guarantee high-quality instruction. Following are some general traits of successful schools: leadership, school administration, staff stability, and focus a deliberate and well-thought-out programme, Academic achievement recognised by the entire school, parental involvement, teamwork, a strong sense of community throughout the school, effective classroom management techniques, high levels of academic engagement, tracking of students' progress, etc. In addition, a school's quality can be assessed based on how well its resources are used, how simple it is to run, how satisfied students are, and how well it provides possibilities for fundamental vocational training.


As a result, the focus on quality management in schools is similar to TQM's methodology. In this example, the leader is an educational leader like a principal who makes sure that the personnel is properly equipped and trained to make their work simple and efficient. Students are devoted to the institution they are enrolled in, just like customers in general. Cost effectiveness is given great consideration, and both a positive work environment for the personnel and a positive educational experience for the children are guaranteed. The management of the school actively participates in the process of improvement, just as it does in TQM, and it never ends.


Higher Education

According to Harris, there are three general methods for using TQM in UK higher education. But these strategies are simple to understand by everyone. The initial strategy is focused on the clients, in this case, the pupils. To ensure that pupils receive an effective, pertinent, and flexible education, ongoing effort is made. The second strategy emphasises the employees. To make the institution's operations more effective, it tries to recognise and improve worker performance. This strategy also motivates the workforce to create better regulations and set sensible priorities for ongoing development. It also examines the numerous issues and difficulties that the institution has to deal with in order to function.


The third strategy focuses more on rules and regulations that once again make sure the institution runs smoothly. Examples include teachers keeping track of students' attendance, grades, and classroom performance or setting time limits for using the lab, library, and audio-visual resources. It is obvious that TQM seeks to continuously enhance and maintain a high standard of instruction and infrastructure in higher education, just as it does in traditional education. Another prevalent tendency in TQM in higher education is introducing innovation and satisfying market demands, along with monitoring the competence of the administrative as well as academic personnel and comprehending the most recent developments in education.


Higher education quality standards, unlike TQM, are more subjective than objective, making it challenging to measure them. Additionally, the standards that one aspires to may alter gradually or suddenly. This is why the government, as well as private citizens and organisations, have committed a great deal of labour and money to develop specific methodologies and approaches to gauge the quality of higher education.




Answers the following questions in about 250 words each. 4×12=48


Q3) How has the recommendations of the National Knowledge Commission (NKC) helped in shaping the new structure of higher education in India? Explain critically.

Ans) The recommendations of the National Knowledge Commission that helped in shaping the new structure of higher education in India are as follows:

  1. The commission advocated building numerous additional universities. To enable India to reach a gross enrolment ratio of at least 15% by 2015, the higher education system requires a significant expansion of opportunities, to approximately 1500 universities worldwide.

  2. The commission suggested altering the higher education regulatory framework. In some significant ways, the higher education regulatory structure as it is today flawed. Overall, the system is both overregulated and under governed. The Commission noted that the establishment of an Independent Regulatory Authority for Higher Education is clearly necessary (IRAHE).

  3. The commission suggested raising government spending and varying funding sources. Without increased amounts of funding, the higher education system cannot be expanded. It is necessary for both public and private sources to contribute to this.

  4. The panel advocated for the creation of 50 National Universities capable of offering the best education possible.

  5. The Commission underlined the need to restructure the system of undergraduate colleges connected to universities and questioned the usefulness and relevance of affiliated institutions in the current environment.

  6. In order to improve accountability, higher education must be expanded in a way that gives students options and encourages competition between institutions.

  7. NKC proposed that a national law reaffirming the right to education be passed. This must include a financial clause stipulating that the majority of new monies required for the realisation of the right to education must come from the federal government.


Q4) Critically examine and compare the role and functions of CBSE and your state board of examination.

Ans) The NCERT's curriculum and texts are required by CBSE. SCERT created a curriculum for the schools that is used by the state boards. Each state in the Indian Union has established its own State Board. Education is a national priority and a state subject. The states place a high priority on providing universally required primary education. The syllabus and curriculum vary from one state to the next. The curriculum and syllabus of state boards in the North-eastern States, for example, would be very different from those of other states, like, say, Kerela. This discrepancy results from the social and cultural diversity of the states' populations.


The curriculum of the state boards and the CBSE diverge, which results in different syllabuses. When comparing the two certification tests' study materials, it becomes clear that CBSE has a larger global perspective than the individual state boards, as was to be expected. The science course curriculum for the state board and the CBSE are very similar. The social sciences and English language curricula differ noticeably from other languages. Depending on the student, this could be a benefit or a drawback.


In national level competitive tests, pupils from the CBSE board appear to have an advantage over students from the state boards. For the school's promoters, it may be claimed that while starting and running a state board affiliated school is undoubtedly simpler, choosing CBSE can result in a higher calibre of education. Despite the autonomous position of the SCERTs, the states also supply the teacher training facilities and guidance, however in comparison to CBSE they are frequently deemed deficient and far more dependent on the state education policy regarding teacher recruitment than anticipated. There are definitely benefits to the CBSE's more regulated policies.


Q5) Explain various types of higher education institutions in India?

Ans) The types of higher education institutions in India are as follows:

  1. Central Universities: A Parliamentary Act creates Central Universities. India now has 45 Central Universities.

  2. State Public Universities: These universities were established by state legislation. There are 318 State universities as of right now.

  3. Open Universities: Institutions in this category offer instruction in any discipline or branches of knowledge via open and distance learning. In addition to 14 state open universities, there is currently only one central open university, the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU).

  4. Deemed Universities: High performing higher education institutions are deemed universities. They are granted university status and have the authority to grant their own degrees. There are 33 Deemed Universities-Government, 10 Deemed Universities-Government Aided, and 80 Deemed Universities-Private, according to AISHE (2017–18).

  5. Institutes of National Importance: There are 101 Institutes of National Importance at the moment, among the several HE institutions that have received the designation of "National Importance" through a parliamentary act.

  6. Private Universities are created by means of a State/Central Act, but their management is handled by a society registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860, or by any other corresponding law currently in effect in a State, or by a Public Trust, or by a Company registered under Section 25 of the Companies Act, 1956, created by means of a State/Central Act. 262 public and private universities exist.

  7. Institute Under State Legislature Act: These organisations were founded or formed as a result of a state legislature act. They are recognised as higher education institutions. There are now 5 such institutions.


Q6) Discuss the factors contributing to the growth of private participation in education?

Ans) The factors contributing to the growth of private participation in education are as follows:


Liberalization: With the implementation of liberalisation policies over the past ten years, the field of education has also seen a significant infusion of private sector activity. To support these efforts, the government has provided financial support to numerous educational institutions run by the private sector. Private involvement in education has so been promoted.


Changing Social Needs: Right now, our economy needs workers who are educated and skilled. The number of graduates from public universities is far less than what is necessary. Additionally, as the economies of the world become more intertwined due to globalisation, professionals are in demand worldwide. The public sector was unable to meet the expanding demand for labour, necessitating private involvement.


Quality of Education: It is a well-known reality that the quality of education or the perception of it provided by government schools does not compare to that of private schools, despite the government pouring money into the cause of universalizing elementary education. Thus, the popularity of private schools and the resulting rise in their numbers. It is a paradox that significant financial resources are being invested in public schools through the SSA programme, but that parents would rather pay for their children to attend private schools, where the learning has been determined to be of higher quality. A sizable percentage of urban students are currently enrolled in private schools in a number of states.


Investment in Education Leading to High Returns: Previously, there was just an altruistic motivation for providing education; today, profiteering is also a factor. It is common knowledge that financial investments in educational institutions yield substantial returns. Rich and wealthy people are opening private schools to increase their revenue. The market for education is highly large and lucrative due to the substantial student population in a population of more than a billion people. This is resulting in a continual influx of business owners offering educational services even from outside of a given area.




Answer the following questions in about 125 words each. 2×6=12


Q7) Discuss the role and functions of District Institutes of Education and Training (DIETs).

Ans) In 1987, a plan was developed to improve teacher preparation by building reputable training facilities, such as the District Institutes of Education and Training (DIET). The plan aimed to provide a workable institutional, academic, and technical resource base for the country's schoolteachers' orientations, training, and ongoing improvement of their knowledge, competence, and pedagogical skills.


The district-level agency DIET was created based on NPE-1986 for the purpose of organising, carrying out, and overseeing educational initiatives within the district. The following seven academic branches make up each DIET.

  1. Pre-Service Teacher Education Branch (PSTE)

  2. Work Experience Branch (WE)

  3. District Resource Unit (DRU)

  4. In-service Programmes, Field Interaction, and Innovation Co-ordination Branch (IFIC)

  5. Curriculum, Material Development and Evaluation Branch (CMDE)

  6. Educational Technology Branch (ET)

  7. Planning and Management Branch (P & M)


Q8) What are the objectives of the National Skill Qualification Framework (NSQF)? Discuss.

Ans) The National Skill Qualification Framework organises qualifications into a number of levels of one to ten with respect to knowledge, skill, and aptitude in relation to the competencies in order to up skill the underprivileged sector, semi-skilled, and un-skilled people for better employability.


The key objectives of the NSQF are to provide:

  1. National standards for identifying skill levels and abilities that lead to international equivalence

  2. There are numerous entry and exit points between technical education, general education, vocational education, skill training, and the job market.

  3. Established progression routes within the framework for skill qualification.

  4. Opportunities to encourage skill development and lifetime learning.

  5. Collaboration between business and employers.

  6. A credible, open, and responsible system for skill development across industries.


The objectives of the NSQF are to provide a framework that:

  1. Enables the creation of a set of qualifications for each level while taking into account the diversity of Indian education and training systems.

  2. Gives progression paths structure for development and upkeep.

  3. Gives people the choice to advance through education and training.

  4. By increasing the value and comparability of Indian qualifications, supports and improves both national and international mobility.

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