If you are looking for BGGET-142 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Economic Geography, you have come to the right place. BGGET-142 solution on this page applies to 2023 session students studying in BSCG courses of IGNOU.
BGGET-142 Solved Assignment Solution by Gyaniversity
Assignment Code: BGGET-142/TMA/2023
Course Code: BGGET-142
Assignment Name: Economic Geography
Verification Status: Verified by Professor
All Questions are compulsory and carries 10 marks each.
1. Describe geographic fixity and geographic mobility in the context of economic geography.
Ans) People, goods, ideas, and services can stay in one place or move around depending on a number of factors. When they stay in one place, we call that "geographic fixity," and when they move around, we call that "mobility." When geographical mobility comes into play, people talk about fixity. Fixity is also seen in terms of ties to a place, being rooted, or being rooted in a place. It is used to mean that people have a deep connection to their places or localities. It is not just among people who live off of local resources; it is also among people who live in the most developed economies and societies because of ties to places, people, cultures, etc.
In this case, "places" are not just geographic areas; they also include all of the physical and economic details about them. Geographers like David Harvey have recently linked it to capital. Both spatial mobility and fixity are seen in terms of the capitalists' goal of making money by moving resources to different parts of space and accumulating capital to make money. There are geographical factors at play in both cases.
Both physical and human geography care a lot about how people move around. Mobility is both a matter of the body and of the mind. Physical mobility is the movement of people, goods, services, or ideas from one place to another. Cultural mobility is the movement of a person or group from one social status to a better one. Movement can be put into two types of geography: physical geography and human geography. Physical geography includes things like the movement of soil, water, ice, and objects in landslides, while human geography includes the movement of people, things, ideas, and information, as well as trade and transportation. It happens at different sizes in both space and time.
New technologies reduce boundaries between people, goods, services, and ideas/information. People, products, services, and ideas/information can go quicker and further. Since information can reach any area of the world in real time, it can move in ways never imagined. Technology and other factors also speed up people and things. Goods and people require ways to move, like on foot or in spaceships. People relocate from their neighbourhoods to commute and migration. Migration is measured in distance and time. Mobility requires networks and movement. ICT allows two entities to converse without moving. ICT progress is called "the world is flat," "the death of distance," "broken walls," etc.
Cultural or social mobility involves moving up or down a hierarchy. Learning to do or have what others do elevates a person or society. Social mobility in India allows lower castes to climb up in cuisine, language, religion, culture, and jobs. Cleaning, disposing dead animals, and other menial tasks were avoided. People and civilizations become more mobile when they adopt significant practises. Mobility occurs when a person or group adopts a new language. Mobility involves assimilation and acculturation.
2. Write a detailed account on alternative source of energy along with their importance during contemporary times.
Ans) Alternative sources of energy are becoming increasingly important in contemporary times due to their potential to mitigate climate change and reduce dependence on non-renewable fossil fuels. The following are some of the most important alternative sources of energy and their significance:
Solar Energy: Solar energy is the most abundant source of renewable energy available on Earth. The use of solar panels and solar thermal collectors to generate electricity and heat water has been increasing rapidly in recent years. Solar energy is an important source of energy for remote areas that are not connected to the power grid.
Wind Energy: Wind energy is generated by wind turbines that convert the kinetic energy of wind into electrical energy. Wind energy is an important source of energy in areas with high wind speeds, such as coastal areas and high altitude regions. It is also a popular source of energy for powering large-scale industrial operations.
Geothermal Energy: Geothermal energy is generated by tapping into the heat that is naturally produced by the Earth's core. This energy is used for heating and cooling buildings, as well as for generating electricity.
Hydro Energy: Hydro energy is generated by harnessing the power of falling water. This energy is commonly generated by large dams that use the power of water to generate electricity. Hydro energy is an important source of energy for countries with large rivers and waterfalls.
Biomass Energy: Biomass energy is generated by burning organic matter, such as wood, crops, and waste. Biomass energy is an important source of energy in rural areas where there is no access to electricity. It is also an important source of energy for cooking and heating.
The importance of alternative sources of energy lies in their potential to mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, and natural gas, are the primary sources of energy that contribute to climate change. The use of alternative sources of energy can reduce dependence on these non-renewable sources of energy. Alternative sources of energy also offer a number of other benefits. They can reduce energy costs, create jobs, and improve energy security. They also have the potential to promote sustainable development by providing access to energy in rural areas and reducing dependence on imported oil.
In conclusion, alternative sources of energy are becoming increasingly important in contemporary times due to their potential to mitigate climate change and reduce dependence on non-renewable fossil fuels. Solar, wind, geothermal, hydro, and biomass energy are all important sources of energy that can play a significant role in the energy mix of the future. The adoption of these alternative sources of energy is crucial to ensuring a sustainable future for the planet.
3. What is animal husbandry? Explain various forms of livestock with suitable examples.
Ans) Animal husbandry is the practice of breeding, caring for, and managing domestic animals for various purposes such as meat, milk, wool, and other products. It is an important branch of agriculture that contributes significantly to the economy and food security of many countries around the world.
Various forms of livestock that are reared through animal husbandry practices include:
Cattle: Cattle are domesticated animals that are raised for meat, milk, and other dairy products. They are also used as draft animals in agriculture. Examples of cattle include dairy cows, beef cattle, and oxen.
Pigs: Pigs are domesticated animals that are raised for meat. They are also used to produce lard and other products. Examples of pig breeds include Yorkshire, Berkshire, and Hampshire.
Sheep: Sheep are domesticated animals that are raised for wool, meat, and milk. They are also used for grazing and land management. Examples of sheep breeds include Merino, Dorset, and Suffolk.
Goats: Goats are domesticated animals that are raised for meat, milk, and other dairy products. They are also used for grazing and land management. Examples of goat breeds include Nubian, Boer, and Alpine.
Poultry: Poultry refers to domesticated birds that are raised for meat, eggs, and feathers. Examples of poultry include chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese.
Fish: Fish are raised in fish farms or aquaculture systems for their meat and other products. Examples of fish that are raised through animal husbandry practices include trout, tilapia, and catfish.
Animal husbandry practices involve various techniques such as breeding, feeding, housing, and healthcare management. These techniques help to ensure the health and productivity of the animals while also maximizing their output. For example, breeding practices involve selecting the best animals for breeding based on their genetic traits and physical characteristics.
Feeding practices involve providing the animals with a balanced diet that meets their nutritional requirements. Housing practices involve providing the animals with suitable shelter that protects them from the elements and provides them with a comfortable environment. Healthcare management practices involve monitoring the animals for diseases and providing them with appropriate medical care when needed.
In conclusion, animal husbandry is an important branch of agriculture that involves breeding, caring for, and managing domestic animals for various purposes. Cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, poultry, and fish are some of the common forms of livestock that are reared through animal husbandry practices. The use of various techniques such as breeding, feeding, housing, and healthcare management helps to ensure the health and productivity of the animals while also maximizing their output.
4. What is transport cost? Describe transport cost with suitable examples in detail.
Ans) Transport cost refers to the expenses incurred in the movement of goods, people or materials from one location to another. It includes the cost of fuel, maintenance, labour, and any other expenses related to the transportation of goods or people. The cost of transportation can have a significant impact on the pricing of goods and services, the efficiency of supply chains, and the economic development of regions. Transport cost can be divided into two main categories direct cost and indirect cost.
Direct Costs: Direct costs are the expenses that are incurred during the transportation of goods or people. These costs include fuel, maintenance, labour, insurance, and other expenses directly related to the operation of the vehicle. For example, if a trucking company wants to transport goods from one city to another, the direct costs would include the cost of fuel, the wages of the driver, and any maintenance expenses related to the vehicle.
Indirect Costs: Indirect costs are the expenses that are associated with the transportation of goods or people, but not directly related to the operation of the vehicle. These costs include the cost of time, delays, accidents, and other external factors that may affect the transportation of goods or people. For example, if a trucking company experiences delays due to traffic congestion, the indirect costs would include the lost productivity of the driver, the cost of missed delivery deadlines, and any other expenses associated with the delay.
Transport cost can also vary depending on the mode of transportation. For example, the cost of transporting goods by air may be significantly higher than the cost of transporting goods by sea or by rail. This is because air transportation is faster and more expensive than sea or rail transportation. Transport cost is an important consideration for businesses and governments when making decisions about transportation infrastructure and logistics. For example, a company may choose to invest in a more efficient supply chain to reduce transport costs and improve profitability. Similarly, governments may invest in transportation infrastructure such as highways, ports, and airports to support economic development and trade.
In conclusion, transport cost refers to the expenses incurred in the movement of goods, people, or materials from one location to another. It includes both direct and indirect costs, and can vary depending on the mode of transportation. Transport cost is an important consideration for businesses and governments when making decisions about transportation infrastructure and logistics, as it can have a significant impact on the pricing of goods and services, the efficiency of supply chains, and the economic development of regions.
All Questions are compulsory and carries 10 marks each.
5. What is growth and development? Differentiate between growth and development by citing appropriate examples.
Ans) The terms "growth" and "development" are frequently interchanged, despite the fact that they refer to two independent processes that are closely related to one another.
The term "growth" refers to a gain in size or quantity that takes place over a period of time. It is possible to measure it objectively, for example in terms of physical growth or economic growth, or it is possible to measure it subjectively, for example in terms of personal growth or intellectual growth. For instance, the growth of a child's body can be assessed in terms of height and weight, while the growth of a company's economy can be measured in terms of revenue and profits.
On the other hand, the term "development" refers to a process of change that is more qualitative in nature and that ultimately results in an improvement in one's quality of life, skills, knowledge, or capabilities. Growth is only one component of development; other components include transformation, adaptation, and learning. It is a more comprehensive idea that takes into account the various aspects of an individual's or community's life, such as the social, cultural, and environmental circumstances in which they find themselves. For instance, the intellectual development of a child entails not only the acquisition of new information and abilities, but also the growth of analytical thinking, inventiveness, and emotional intelligence.
Difference between Growth and Development
Physical Growth and Personal Development: A child's physical growth can be measured in terms of height and weight, but their personal development involves the acquisition of social skills, emotional intelligence, and other qualities that contribute to their overall well-being.
Economic Growth and Human Development: A country's economic growth can be measured in terms of GDP or per capita income, but its human development involves a broader set of factors such as education, health, and social inclusion.
Technological Growth and Sustainable Development: Technological growth may lead to more efficient production and consumption, but sustainable development requires a more holistic approach that takes into account the impact on the environment, society, and future generations.
In conclusion, growth and development are two related but distinct concepts that are often used interchangeably. Growth refers to an increase in size or quantity over time, while development refers to a more qualitative process of change that leads to an improvement in quality of life, skills, knowledge, or capabilities. Understanding the difference between growth and development is important for making informed decisions about individual and collective well-being, as well as for promoting sustainable and inclusive development.
6. What is mining? Describe any two methods of mining with suitable examples.
Ans) Mining is the process of obtaining precious minerals, metals, and other geological elements from the crust of the earth. Mining can also refer to the actual act of mining. This is a significant economic activity that supplies raw materials to a variety of different industries, including the generation of energy, as well as construction and manufacturing.
There are a few different approaches to mining, the most common of which are surface mining and underground mining. The following are two common mining techniques:
Surface Mining: Surface mining is the extraction of minerals and ores that are near the earth's surface. It is also called open-pit mining or strip mining. This method involves removing the top layer of soil and rocks to expose the mineral or ore deposits underneath. Heavy machinery, such as bulldozers, trucks, and excavators, are used to remove the overburden and extract the mineral or ore. Surface mining is used to extract minerals such as coal, iron, copper, and gold. For example, in Australia, the Super Pit gold mine is a large open-pit gold mine that uses surface mining techniques to extract gold ore.
Underground Mining: Underground mining is the extraction of minerals and ores that are located deep underground. This method involves digging tunnels or shafts to access the mineral or ore deposits, which are then extracted using specialized mining equipment. Underground mining is used to extract minerals such as coal, silver, and copper. For example, in the United States, the Resolution Copper Mine in Arizona is an underground copper mine that uses block caving, a type of underground mining method, to extract copper ore.
Both surface mining and underground mining have their advantages and disadvantages. Surface mining is generally faster and cheaper than underground mining, but it can have significant environmental impacts, such as soil erosion, habitat destruction, and water pollution. Underground mining is more expensive and requires more technical expertise, but it can be less disruptive to the environment and can extract minerals that are inaccessible by surface mining methods.
In conclusion, mining is the process of extracting valuable minerals, metals, and other geological materials from the earth's crust. There are several methods of mining, including surface mining and underground mining. Surface mining involves removing the top layer of soil and rocks to expose the mineral or ore deposits underneath, while underground mining involves digging tunnels or shafts to access the mineral or ore deposits. Both methods have advantages and disadvantages and are chosen based on the type of mineral or ore being extracted and the environmental and economic considerations of the mining operation.
7. Discuss various factors that influence the industrial location with suitable examples.
Ans) The location of an industrial plant is a crucial factor that affects the success and profitability of the business. There are several factors that influence the decision-making process of industrial location. Some of the factors are discussed below with suitable examples:
Availability of Raw Materials: Industries require a steady and uninterrupted supply of raw materials to function effectively. Hence, the availability of raw materials plays a vital role in industrial location decisions. For example, the iron and steel industry is located near iron ore mines, coalfields, and limestone deposits. The Tata Iron and Steel Company in Jamshedpur, India, is located near the Chhattisgarh-Jharkhand-Odisha iron ore belt.
Availability of Labour: Industries require a large workforce to operate smoothly. The availability of skilled and unskilled labour is another crucial factor that influences industrial location. Industries are often located in areas where there is a large pool of labour with the required skills. For example, the textile industry in India is concentrated in the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, and Uttar Pradesh, where there is an abundant supply of skilled and unskilled labour.
Infrastructure: Industries require access to reliable and efficient infrastructure, such as transportation, communication, and power supply. The availability of infrastructure plays a critical role in industrial location decisions. For example, the electronics industry is located in areas with access to reliable power supply and telecommunications infrastructure. Silicon Valley in California, USA, is a prime example of an industrial cluster that has developed around the availability of advanced infrastructure.
Market Demand: The availability of a market for the products manufactured by the industry is an essential factor that influences industrial location. The proximity of the industry to the market reduces transportation costs and makes the products more affordable. For example, the automobile industry is located near major urban centers where there is a large demand for cars.
Government Policies: Government policies such as tax incentives, subsidies, and regulations can also influence industrial location decisions. Governments often provide incentives to attract industries to underdeveloped regions and boost economic growth. For example, the Chinese government has set up Special Economic Zones to attract foreign investment and boost economic development in underdeveloped regions.
In conclusion, the location of an industrial plant is influenced by various factors such as availability of raw materials, availability of labour, infrastructure, market demand, and government policies. These factors are interrelated and often considered together while making industrial location decisions. The optimal location of an industry depends on a balance between these factors, and a careful analysis of these factors can lead to better decision-making and improved profitability for the industry.
Write Short notes on the following. Each question carries 5 marks.
a) System analysis approach
Ans) System analysis approach is a problem-solving methodology that is used to study and understand complex systems. This approach involves breaking down a system into its constituent parts, analysing how these parts interact with each other, and identifying opportunities for improvement.
Steps in the System Analysis Approach
Defining the System: The first step is to define the system that is being studied. This involves identifying the inputs, processes, and outputs of the system.
Collecting Data: The next step is to collect data about the system. This can involve conducting interviews, surveys, or observations to gather information about how the system works.
Analysing the Data: The data collected is then analysed to identify patterns and trends. This helps to identify areas where the system is performing well and areas where there is room for improvement.
Identifying Opportunities for Improvement: Based on the analysis, opportunities for improvement are identified. This can involve making changes to the system's inputs, processes, or outputs.
Implementing Changes: Finally, changes are implemented to improve the system. This can involve making changes to the system's design, processes, or policies.
The approach known as system analysis can be helpful in a range of sectors, including medicine, business, and engineering, amongst others. It offers a methodical strategy for problem-solving and contributes to the process of determining the underlying causes of issues. This methodology helps to find chances for change that may not be evident using standard ways of problem-solving by examining complicated systems, which is one of the many benefits of using this approach. In conclusion, the system analysis technique is a problem-solving process that entails dismantling a system, gathering data, interpreting the data, determining areas in which improvements may be made, and putting those improvements into action. It is a useful instrument for determining the underlying causes of issues and improving complicated systems in a wide variety of industries and areas..
b) Territorial division of labour
Ans) Territorial division of labour refers to the specialization of different regions in the production of specific goods or services. This division of labour is based on regional or local comparative advantages, such as access to natural resources, skilled labour, or technological innovation. The concept is an important part of economic geography and helps to explain how regions specialize in particular industries.
Territorial division of labour can be seen in various industries and sectors. For example, certain regions may be specialized in the production of agricultural products due to favourable climate and soil conditions. Similarly, some regions may be specialized in the production of manufacturing goods due to access to raw materials, skilled labour, and transportation infrastructure. The process of territorial division of labour can have both positive and negative effects on regions. On the positive side, it can lead to increased economic growth and development through the exploitation of local comparative advantages. It can also lead to increased specialization and efficiency in production, as firms and workers become specialized in specific industries.
On the other hand, the territorial division of labour may sometimes have unintended consequences. For instance, it might result in economic disparities across areas due to the fact that certain regions may be left behind if they do not possess comparative advantages in specific industries. This can cause some regions to fall more behind than others. Additionally, it may result in the concentration of economic power in particular regions, which in turn may result in uneven development and social inequality. To summarise, the concept of territorial division of labour refers to the practise of distinct regions specialising in the production of particular goods or services. It is founded on the concept of regional comparative advantages and has the potential to have both good and negative effects on the regions involved. This idea is essential to the study of economic geography because it helps to explain how different locations specialise in different types of industries.
c) Work participation rate
Ans) The Work Participation Rate (WPR) is a measure of the percentage of the population that is engaged in work. It is an important indicator of the level of economic activity in a country and is used to measure the labour force's size. It is calculated as the percentage of the total working-age population that is employed or seeking employment. The WPR is a more comprehensive measure than the unemployment rate, which only considers those who are actively seeking employment but cannot find work. The WPR includes those who are employed, as well as those who are unemployed but actively seeking work. It also includes those who are not in the labour force, such as students, retirees, and homemakers.
The WPR can vary widely across different countries and regions due to factors such as cultural norms, government policies, and economic conditions. For example, in developed countries with aging populations, the WPR tends to be lower due to a larger percentage of retirees. In contrast, in developing countries with younger populations, the WPR tends to be higher due to a larger percentage of young people entering the workforce. The WPR is an important measure for policymakers as it provides insights into the level of economic activity and the potential for growth in a country. It can also be used to identify areas where there is a need for job creation and to target policies that promote employment opportunities. Additionally, a high WPR is often associated with better economic outcomes, such as higher GDP per capita and a lower poverty rate.
In conclusion, the Work Participation Rate is a crucial measure of economic activity in a country. It is a comprehensive measure that considers those who are employed, unemployed but seeking work, and those not in the labour force. The WPR can vary widely across different countries and regions and is an important measure for policymakers to identify areas for job creation and promote employment opportunities.
d) Resource appraisal
Ans) Resource appraisal is the process of assessing and evaluating the availability and potential usefulness of resources within an organization. Resources can be anything that an organization utilizes to achieve its goals, including financial capital, human capital, physical assets, and intellectual property. The aim of resource appraisal is to determine the current and future value of these resources, their strengths and weaknesses, and how they can be leveraged to improve organizational performance.
The first step in resource appraisal is to identify the resources available to the organization. This can be achieved by analysing financial statements, reviewing personnel files, assessing physical assets such as buildings and equipment, and examining intellectual property such as patents, trademarks, and copyrights. Once these resources have been identified, the next step is to evaluate their potential usefulness to the organization.
This evaluation involves analysing the strengths and weaknesses of each resource, and determining how they can be leveraged to improve organizational performance. For example, a company may have a highly skilled workforce that can be leveraged to develop new products and services. Alternatively, a company may have a large amount of cash on hand that can be used to fund expansion initiatives or make strategic investments.
Once the resources have been evaluated, the next step is to prioritize them based on their potential value to the organization. This involves determining which resources are critical to achieving organizational goals, and which can be leveraged for incremental improvements. Prioritization also involves assessing the risks associated with each resource, and determining how they can be managed to minimize their impact on organizational performance.
Resource appraisal is an ongoing process, as the value and usefulness of resources can change over time. Organizations must continually monitor and reassess their resources to ensure they remain aligned with their strategic objectives. By conducting regular resource appraisals, organizations can identify areas where they need to invest more resources, as well as areas where they can reduce costs and streamline operations, ultimately improving their overall performance and competitive advantage.
e) Tribes and forest rights
Ans) Tribes have a long history of living in and depending on forests for their livelihood and cultural identity. However, their rights to these forests have often been ignored or violated by governments and other actors. In recent years, there has been increased recognition of the importance of securing forest rights for indigenous and tribal communities, not only for their well-being but also for the sustainable management of forests.
The recognition of tribal and Indigenous Forest rights is essential for several reasons. First, it recognizes their traditional knowledge and practices in managing forests sustainably. Tribal communities have developed unique ecological knowledge, based on centuries of living in and depending on forests. This knowledge includes the identification of different forest species, the use of traditional ecological practices such as shifting cultivation, and the maintenance of local biodiversity. By recognizing and respecting these practices, tribal communities can continue to manage forests sustainably, thereby promoting conservation and climate change mitigation.
Second, securing tribal and Indigenous Forest rights can also promote social justice and reduce poverty. Tribal communities have historically faced marginalization, discrimination, and displacement from their ancestral lands, which has resulted in poverty and social exclusion. Recognizing their rights to forests can help to address these issues by providing secure tenure, access to natural resources, and opportunities for economic development and cultural preservation.
Finally, recognizing the forest rights of tribal communities can also promote good governance and participatory decision-making. By involving tribal communities in decision-making processes, governments can ensure that their voices and interests are heard, and that forest management policies are equitable and effective.
In conclusion, securing the forest rights of tribal communities is essential for sustainable forest management, social justice, poverty reduction, and good governance. Governments, civil society organizations, and other actors must work together to ensure that these rights are recognized and respected, and that tribal communities are empowered to manage forests sustainably and preserve their cultural heritage.
f) Wholesale and retail trade
Ans) Wholesale and retail trade are two fundamental components of the distribution chain. Wholesale trade refers to the sale of goods in large quantities to retailers, manufacturers, and other businesses, whereas retail trade refers to the sale of goods to consumers in smaller quantities. Both wholesale and retail trade play essential roles in the distribution of goods and services to consumers, and they often work in tandem to ensure that products are efficiently and effectively delivered to the end customer.
Wholesale trade involves purchasing goods from manufacturers or producers in large quantities, often at discounted prices. These goods are then sold to retailers or other businesses, who in turn sell them to consumers. Wholesale trade plays a vital role in the distribution chain, as it allows retailers to purchase goods at a lower cost than they would be able to obtain them directly from the manufacturer. This can lead to increased profits for retailers, which can be passed on to consumers in the form of lower prices.
Retail trade, on the other hand, involves the sale of goods to consumers in smaller quantities. Retailers purchase goods from wholesalers or directly from manufacturers and then sell them to consumers in physical stores or online. Retail trade is essential for providing consumers with access to a wide range of products, as well as providing a platform for businesses to interact with their customers. Retailers also provide a range of services, including product promotion, customer service, and after-sales support, which can help to enhance the customer experience.
Both wholesale and retail trade are impacted by a range of factors, including consumer demand, economic conditions, and technological advancements. The rise of e-commerce, for example, has transformed the retail industry by allowing consumers to purchase products online and have them delivered directly to their homes. This has led to increased competition among retailers and wholesalers, as well as the need for businesses to adapt to changing consumer preferences and behaviour.
In conclusion, wholesale and retail trade are two essential components of the distribution chain. They work together to ensure that goods and services are efficiently and effectively delivered to consumers, while also providing opportunities for businesses to generate profits and enhance the customer experience. Understanding the dynamics of these industries is crucial for businesses looking to succeed in today's competitive marketplace.
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