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BHIC-107: History of India – IV (c. 1206 – 1550)

BHIC-107: History of India – IV (c. 1206 – 1550)

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2021-22

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Assignment Code: BHIC-107 / ASST / TMA / 2021 - 22

Course Code: BHIC-107

Assignment Name: History Of India - IV (c. 1206-1550)

Year: 2021 -2022 (July 2021 and January 2022 Sessions)

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


Note: There are three Sections in the Assignment. You have to answer all questions in the Sections.


Assignment - I


Answer the following in about 500 words each.


Q1. How will you define iqta? What changes were introduced in the iqta system by Muhammad Tughlaq and Firuz Tughlaq? 20

Ans) Iqṭa, in the Islamic empire of the Caliphate, land granted to army officials for limited periods in lieu of a regular wage. It has sometimes been erroneously compared to the fief of medieval Europe. The iqṭa system was established in the 9th century AD to relieve the state treasury when insufficient tax revenue and little booty from campaigns made it difficult for the government to pay army salaries.


The Iqta System

The land of the empire was divided into various big and small portions called Iqtas, and these Iqtas were distributed to his soldiers, officials, and nobles under the Iqta System. An Iqta was formerly based on a person's pay. It then became hereditary under Firoz Shah Tughlaq. Iqta is a term that refers to land or land revenue that is assigned to a person under particular conditions. The owners of these Iqtas were the Sultan's trusted agents. Large Iqtas and Small Iqtas were the two types of Iqtas. Provincial governors, who also had administrative responsibilities, were the holders of huge Iqta. The holders of minor Iqtas, on the other hand, were small armies with no administrative obligations.


The revenue income of these assignments was unknown in the early years of the Sultanate's creation, and the size of the assignee's contingent was unknown. During Muhammad Tughlaq's reign, the endeavour at central involvement achieved a pinnacle. During Muhammad Tughlaq's reign, budgetary responsibilities were partially transferred from muqtis or walis to central administrators. The iqta of Amroha, according to Ibn Battuta, was divided between two officers: an amir (perhaps in control of the army and administration) and a wali-ul kharaj (in charge of revenue collection). To prevent officers from defrauding the officers, Muhammad Tughlaq also ordered that the salaries of soldiers maintained by iqta-holders be paid by the diwan-i wizarat. The endeavour at central involvement achieved a pinnacle under Muhammad Tughlaq's reign. In the Islamic empire of the Caliphate, iqta was a sort of land given to army leaders in place of a regular wage for a set period of time. It's sometimes confused for a mediaeval European fief. Due to a shortage of tax revenue and scant booty from conquests, the iqa system was created in the 9th century AD to relieve the state budget of the burden of paying army salaries.


During Muhammad Tughlaq's reign, budgetary responsibilities were partially transferred from muqtis or walis to central administrators. The iqta of Amroha, according to Ibn Battuta, was divided between two officers: an amir (perhaps in control of the army and administration) and a wali-ul kharaj (in charge of revenue collection). To prevent officers from defrauding the officers, Muhammad Tughlaq also ordered that the salaries of soldiers maintained by iqta-holders be paid by the diwan-i wizarat. During Muhammad Tughlaq's reign, the state treasury paid the iqta holders' troops in cash. This may have enraged the commanders and caused Muhammad Tughlaq political troubles. As a result, Firuz Tughlaq decided to make compromises. He increased the nobles' cash salary and had fresh revenue estimations (mahsul) produced, which were called jama. The successors of Firuz made no attempt to re-establish central control. Administrative duties and revenue assignments were integrated under the Lodis, and these were no longer referred to as iqta but rather as sarkars and parganas. Under Sikandar Lodi, a system of sub-assignments became popular (1489-1517). Sub-assignments were made by the principal assignees to their subordinates, who in turn made sub-assignments to their soldiers.


Q2. Critically examine the working of the local administration under the Vijayanagara empire. 20

Ans) When the nayaka and ayagar systems came into prominence during the Vijaynagara period, the institutions of nadu (territorial assembly), sabha, and ur (village assemblies) did not totally disappear.


1. The Nayankara System

The nayankara system was a prominent feature of the Vijaynagara political structure. The title of nayaka or amaranayaka was given to military chiefs or warriors. It's difficult to categorise these fighters based on a specific job, ethnic identity, set of responsibilities, or set of rights and advantages.


N. K. Sastri distinguished between nayakas who lived before 1565 and those who lived after 1565. The former were completely reliant on the rulers, but the latter were only somewhat independent. Later, he changed his mind, pointing out that before 1565, the nayakas were military leaders with military fiefs. A military commander or leader (nayaka) was given the title of amaranayankara if he had a certain number of men under his command. These nayakas had revenue rights over amaram (land or territory). The area of land so alienated under this tenure in the Tamil region and also in the Vijaynagara empire was roughly 3/4th. The nayakas' responsibilities and actions included, among other things, providing gifts to temples, repairing and building tanks, reclaiming wasteland, and collecting dues from temples.


To protect themselves from risks, the Vijaynagara monarchs attempted to obtain more control over coastal marketplaces that dealt in horse trading. They tried to dominate the acquisition of high-quality horses by paying a premium for them. They also established powerful garrisons manned by dependable men. The Telugu nayaks were thus a source of power for the Vijaynagara empire on the one hand, and adversaries on the other.


The Ayagar System

Autonomous local institutions, particularly in the Tamil region, suffered a setback during the Vijaynagara period. Local territorial divisions in Karnataka changed during the Vijaynagara period as well, but the ayagar system persisted and spread throughout the macro-region. As a result of the waning authority of nadu and nattar, it spread throughout the Tamil country during the 15th and 16th centuries. The ayagars were a group of families that worked as village servants or bureaucrats. Headmen (reddi or gauda, maniyam), accountants (karnam senabhova), and watchmen were among them (talaiyari). They were granted a piece of land or a plot of land in a community.


They had to pay a fixed rent on occasion, but these plots were often manya or tax-free because no regular customary tax was levied on their agricultural revenue. Direct payments in kind were made in unusual situations for services rendered by village functionaries. Other village servants were compensated by assigning plots of land to those who provided crucial services and abilities to the village society (like washerman and priest). Leather workers, whose products included leather bags used in lift irrigation devices (kiapila or mohte), potter, blacksmith, carpenter, and waterman, were village servants who provided basic goods and services. The ayagar system is unique in that it supplied village workers holding certain offices with a special allocation of land income and specific monetary payments for the first time.



Assignment – II

Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.


Q3. What are inshas? Write briefly on the importance of insha literature. 10

Ans) "Insha" is an Arabic word that signifies "construction" or "creation." In classical Arabic literature, such as the Quran, it has been used in this manner. It came to denote "composition" over time, referring to the prose composition of letters, memoranda, and state papers. Gradually, the term "Insha" developed to signify an area of knowledge that allowed one to distinguish the strengths and flaws of prose production of letters and papers as a distinct type of writing from conventional treatises and books.


Insha Literature

Rather than using prose in scholarly treatises, "Insha" writing is primarily concerned with the expression of one's innermost feelings. Insha writing evolved into an art form, with comprehensive norms and regulations that a well-lettered person was expected to acquire, as well as artful and well-written epistolography, which was considered a form of Adab. Verbal puns, puzzles, riddles, and a mannered, sophisticated style of writing are among the methods used in Insha.


Generally speaking, "Rasail" literature can be divided into two categories: tauqi'at and muhawarat. Tauqi'at is made up of rulers' and officials' commands and directions, while Muhawarat is made up of letters and correspondence. If the addressee has a higher social position, the letters are termed Murafa'a, and if the addressee has a lower social rank, the letters are called ruq'a. Murasala letters are those in which both the addressee and the writer are of equal standing.


Many thinkers, like Amir Husrau, Khwaja-i-Jahan Mohammad Gawan, and Abul Fazl, established a paradigm of Insha writing that has been followed by generations of Insha writers. Many collections of Insha writing have been compiled in honour of great Insha writing. Munshaat -i- Namakin, which dates from the early Mughal period, is one of the largest collections of Insha texts.


Q4. Discuss the chief features of Balban’s theory of kingship. 10

Ans) The following were the main features of Balban's kingship theory:

1) His royal goal was divine. As God's vicegerent, he declared himself king. As the earth's shadow of God, he claimed the title of king. As a result, he placed himself and his actions above ‘scrutiny,' implying that he did not receive his power and might from the nobility or people, but from God.

2) He believed in the sovereignty's exterior splendour. He kept his distance from the masses because he was above common men and nobility, and he even refused to speak directly to commoners.

3) He maintained absolute decorum in the courtroom. He used to show up at court dressed in full ‘regalia' and royal regalia.

4) There was a clear distinction made between high-born and low-born people. Interacting with a low-born person was frowned upon.

5) Balban traced his ancestors back to the fabled Persian warrior Afrasiab, who was described in Firdausi's Shahnama.

6) He imitated Persian customs and way of life to emphasise the great ideals of kingship. Before he became Sultan, his first two sons were called Mahmud and Muhammad, and Persian court etiquette and rites were adopted. He was adamant about sijda (prostate) and paibos (feet-kissing). In the courtroom, no one dares to speak freely or make crude comments. During royal festivities, the court was magnificently decorated to the point where it was a topic of conversation among the common people, according to Barani.

7) Balban's kingdom was distinguished solely by his emphasis on justice. He appointed barids (intelligence officers) to keep him up to date on his officers' operations.


Q5. Write a note on the development of paintings under the Delhi Sultans. 10

Ans) In comparison to its architecture, the Sultanate period's painting history is hazy. This is mostly due to the lack of any surviving examples throughout at least the first hundred years of the Delhi Sultanate's existence.


The following three genres of painting will be explored separately: a) Murals; b) Calligraphy; and c) Manuscript illustration.


1. Murals

The most notable single mention to painting in the Delhi Sultanate occurs in the context of past rulers' un-Islamic practises, which prompted Firuz Tughlaq to impose a ban (Tarikh-i Firuzshahi by Afif). It reveals the existence of a continuing history of figural painting on the walls of Delhi's palaces, which Firuz Tughlaq attempted to abolish.


2. Calligraphy

In the Islamic era, calligraphy was the most revered art form, and it was used as a decorative feature on both stone and paper. A calligraphy was positioned above the illuminator and painter in the hierarchy of craftsmen. The calligraphy 358 Religious Ideas and Visual Culture of the Quran, on the other hand, became one of the most important types of book art, with copies of the Quran being created on a grand scale. The Quran's earliest known copy is from 1399.


3. Manuscript Illustration

Manuscript illustration during the Sultanate period is a contentious topic. On terminology and provenance, there is minimal agreement among academics. As a result, determining the characteristics of Sultanate manuscript pictures is a difficult task. On the contrary, while a large number of illustrated Persian and Awadhi manuscripts from the period between 1400 and the Mughals' arrival are now known, some of these manuscripts appear to have been produced at provincial courts.



Assignment – III


Answer the following questions in about 100 words each.


Q6. Literature in the regional languages of North India 6

Ans) During the mediaeval period, Hindi was developed in numerous forms. Brajbhasha, Awadhi, Rajasthani, Maithili, Bhojpuri, Malwi, and other Hindi dialects were among them. The literature of the Hindi language flourished in various languages throughout our time. A blended variety of Hindi known as Khari Boli (originally meaning a rough, harsh, and raw speech) was also forming alongside these dialects. The desires of the common people were unimportant to the bards who wrote this literature. The Rajasthani dialect of Hindi was used to write the majority of the bardic poetical narratives. In an early language of Hindi, Buddhist siddhas and later Nathpanthi yogis created sacred poetry.


Q7. Tu rkan-i Chihilgani 6

Ans) The Turkan-i Chihilgani (Barani refers to them as bandagan Turk Chihilgan; a group of 'forty' Turkish slave commanders) were founded by Iltutmish and used their erudition, unwavering fortitude, devotion, unshakable faithfulness, and adroitness to consolidate his embryonic Sultanate. These Turkish slaves were treated with great care. They were purchased by Iltutmish for a significant sum of money. They were renowned for their bravery and chivalry, as well as their domain management skills. Minhaj names twenty-five people from the 'group of forty.' Certain of them are referred to as Muizzi by Minhaj, meaning that Iltutmish received them from his instructor Muizuddin bin Sam. These slave officers were educated in Persian, Arabic, and Shariat and were well-trained in the art of battle.


Q8. Agrarian relations during the 13-14th centuries 6

Ans) An examination of the pre-1200 agrarian structure is required to determine the type and extent of change in agrarian relations since the formation of the Delhi Sultanate. When Ghazi Malik, the governor of Dipalpur, wanted to put pressure on Rana Mal Bhatti, one of the region's rais (rajas) went to his territory and demanded the entire year's revenue in cash right away; when the Rana refused, Ghazi tortured the muqaddams (village headmen) and chaudhuris, according to Afif. The episode demonstrates that members of the conquered nobility, wherever they were present, were held liable for collecting and paying land revenue at least until the early 14th century. The government, like the village headmen and chaudhuris, had the right to collect it directly.


Q9. Factors for the rise of bhakti movement 6

Ans) The Brahmins' influence and reputation were diminished by the arrival of Islam and the rise of Turkish political rule. As a result, the groundwork for nonconformist movements was laid. The Brahmins had convinced the populace that the pictures and idols in the temples were not just symbols of God, but actual gods with divine power who could be swayed by Brahmans. The Brahmins were stripped of their temple wealth and state patronage by the conquering Turks.


As a result, the Brahmins suffered materially as well as ideologically. The nathpanthis, a non-conformist sect, were the first to benefit from the Rajput-Brahman alliance's decreasing dominance. This sect appears to have peaked towards the start of the Sultanate period. The Brahmans' loss of authority and influence, as well as the changing political environment, paved the way for the formation of popular monotheistic and other bhakti movements in North India.


Q10. Patterns and forms of mausoleums 6

Ans) According to Burton-Page, the mausoleum typology is just too complex for anything but the most cursory consideration. The chhatr, a single dome supported on pillars, is the most basic design; those spanning a square or octagonal space are the most prevalent, while the hexagonal layout is also known. "There is likely a continuance of an eschatological thought in the usage of the umbrella in both Buddhist and Hindu burial customs." The next form is the baradari, which has a square roof with twelve pillars. It is also widely used in secular settings. Gujarat is known for having this style of addition, with screened walls on both the inner chamber and the surrounding verandah. The square chamber with a dome is the most common type of masonry mausoleum, while the octagonal form dates back to the 14th century.

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