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BHIE-142: Applied Econometrics

BHIE-142: Applied Econometrics

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2022-23

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Assignment Code: BHIE-142/AST/TMA/ 2022-2023

Course Code: BHIE-142

Assignment Name: History of Modern East Asia: Japan

Year: 2022-2023

Verification Status: Verified by Professor


There are three Assignments given below. You have to answer all questions in the Sections.




Answer the following questions in about 500 words each.


Q1) Discuss the important characteristics of the classical period in Japan.

Ans) The Yamato state established Heian as its capital in 794. This is considered to be the start of Japan's "classical age," during which the fundamental elements of Japanese culture were developed. The Heian period runs from 794, when the capital was established at Heian-kyo, to 1185, when the warrior regimes came into control. The longest of the conventional divisions of Japanese history is this lengthy 400-year span.


During this time, Buddhism allowed Chinese influence to be assimilated, modified, and utilised to build an imperial polity where the emperor had direct political authority. The state adopted Buddhism as its religion. The elites embraced the Chinese language, and as a result, Chinese philosophy and literature were introduced and began to play a significant role in intellectual life.


An imperial state modelled after the Tang dynasty state in China but modified to Japanese concepts was created during the Heian period, which bears the name of the capital and was itself modelled after Chang'an, the Chinese capital. Although there was only one monarch, unlike in China, he or she was revered as heavenly. The bureaucracy in China was robust and well-developed; yet, whereas the Japanese possessed bureaucratic organisations, positions were filled by hereditary nobility. The ritsuryo system, which refers to both the military organisation and the tax collecting system, was created through the development of rules and regulations. Each province in the partitioned nation would be headed by a governor.


Although imperial power was created, direct imperial rule was short-lived. Starting in 794, the Fujiwara family rose to prominence. As regents and through the marriage of their daughters to Japanese monarchs, they used this authority. The dichotomy between legitimacy and power is a notable and recurring theme in Japanese history. The Emperor was still the rightful monarch, the source of authority, but the Fujiwara family, led by Fujiwara-no-Michinaga, actually wielded the power.


The Culture of the Heian Period

The Heian civilization was an aristocratic society founded and maintained by a small number of courtiers roughly a thousand. This civilization created a highly developed and refined aesthetic theory in the 10 and eleventh century. However, material existence was incredibly straightforward and Spartan. Rice, vegetables, and barely any meat or fish were consumed in the diet. Exclusively in the ninth century was tea brought across from China, and even then, it was only used medicinally. The primary mode of transportation was the oxcart. Simple ships were unable to go across the oceans securely and were forced to follow the coastline.


Buddhism was adopted as the state religion. The entirety of the previous, widely practised religion known as Shinto was incorporated into Buddhism. The connections between the two are intricate. When the phrase Shinto was employed in traditional Japan, it only ever signified "popular religious practise." Under the influence of Buddhism, which is known as "the way of the Buddha," the word came to imply "the way of the gods." As Shinto and Buddhism were more connected, Shinto gods, or kami, began to be associated with the Buddha.


Buddhism evolved into new movements like Zen, Jodo, and Nichiren as it moved from the elites to the masses. By the 13th century, Buddhism was no longer just practised by the aristocracy but was also a part of everyday people's political and religious lives. Monasteries were significant gathering places for monks and lay followers, occasionally at odds with the governing authorities.


Q2) In what ways did the Meiji Restoration lead to the creation of modern Japan?

Ans) The Meiji Restoration began in 1868, when the Emperor regained control from the bakufu. Two of the important "outside lords," Satsuma and Choshu, led a coalition of daimyos that was responsible for this. By Imperial Edict in January 1868, Tokugawa Yoshinobu's abdication was declared. The lengthy Tokugawa era of control officially ended with this. The new government's goals were written forth in the Charter Oath, which the Court revealed in April. In October 1868, the Emperor chose the Chinese characters "enlightened rule" or "Meiji" as the name by which his reign, which lasted from 1868 to 1912, would be known.


Some members of the nobility, particularly the hans of Satsuma, Choshu, Hizen, and Tosa, carried out the restoration, or ishin, as the event is known. A portion of the samurai and wealthy country people who considered the restrictions of the Tokugawa system to be more onerous backed it. When external pressure made it harder for the Bakufu to maintain its position, these organisations asserted themselves because they wanted to share power with the Bakufu.


These factions were able to unite behind the Imperial Court and demand that the Tokugawa restore the Emperor's authority as a result of foreign pressure to open the treaty ports and the Bakufu's wavering. The loyalists who sincerely wanted a functioning Imperial Court supported them in this demand. The han, especially Satsuma and Choshu, who were initially at odds with one another, and each led their own factions, eventually banded together, and used the court to overthrow the Tokugawa Bakufu.

Tokutomi Soho, a well-known Meiji scholar, made the case that it was not Meiji leaders but rather the environment that contributed to the development of modern Japan. He believed that the rise of rural leaders, whose strength rested on a prosperous and productive economy but who were denied political influence, signalled the beginning of the end of feudal Japan. Yoshinobu, the 15th and final Tokugawa shogun, lived a tranquil life after retiring. In his memoirs, which he wrote in 1915, he made the case that the forces of Imperial loyaltyism were instigators of the restoration.


When internal repression and an aggressive foreign policy forced the Marxists to reconsider the structure of the contemporary Japanese state in the 1920s, they produced an analysis of the Meiji Restoration that had a significant impact on society.


Numerous thorough and academic studies were created, and the opinions fell into two main categories: 

  1. The Labour-Farmer group viewed the restoration as essentially a bourgeois revolution that put an end to feudalism and created the framework for the growth of capitalism.

  2. The other group, whose name was derived from the lectures or series they created. The "koza" faction maintained that the Meiji Restoration did not bring in an effective capitalism revolution but rather an absolutist one. This was founded on the "Emperor System," which derived its power from feudal relationships that had persisted in rural areas.


The political platforms of the Marxists were intimately correlated with their ideas. If feudalism had gone, it would not be necessary to battle the Emperor, which would result in the party's proscription, but if it were still significant, it would be required to undermine the Emperor system, which would result in the party's proscription.





Answer the following questions in about 250 words each. 10x3


Q1) Discuss the formation of political parties in Japan.

Ans) The generally accepted claim is that the Tokugawa era had an undemocratic political system with tightly controlled political power. The Shogun symbolised a depersonalised source of power that was exerted through discussion, not as an arbitrary ruler. These obviously only applied to a tiny segment or class of society, but because power was not used arbitrarily in modern Japan, a constitutional government could be adopted.


The rulers of the Meiji Restoration made up the oligarchy. Regional ties and the fact that they had guided the nation through the transition from the Tokugawa to the Meiji periods were what linked these people together. The two dominating regions were Satsuma and Choshu, which also provided the majority of the people who served in the government, military, Privy Council, House of Peers, and other institutions. The Meiji leaders, often known as genro or elder statesmen, used the influence that the Imperial House represented.


The Meiji constitution established the House of Representatives, which was predominated by anti-oligarchy politicians. Many of these individuals had once belonged to the oligarchy but had left. Both political parties and the Peoples' Rights Movement saw their participation. Building up its own parties was something that the Meiji aristocracy was against. At first, some people including Ito Hirobumi and Inoue Kaoru wanted to start their own party, but the majority opposed them.


Former samurai and the rural elite backed the Jiyuto, but the party's leaders were worried by the rise in violence during this Peoples' Rights Movement era. The first Diet convened in November 1890, and from then until the first party cabinet was formed in 1898, a power struggle between the parties and the oligarchic clique, or hanbatsu, characterised the time. Periodically new pro-government organisations were created. The issue these two organisations faced was that, according to the Meiji constitution, political parties could only exercise influence by rejecting the budget, which would result in the continuation of the budget from the previous year.


Q2) Write a note on the process of Japanese imperialist expansion in the early twentieth century.

Ans) Before discussing Japan's viewpoint, it would be helpful to quickly discuss the nature of imperialism. J. Hobson's 1902 thesis on imperialist expansion was noteworthy. He claimed that countries like Great Britain had extra manufacturing capacity, thus surplus capital had to look elsewhere. Bankers and financiers wanted to expand control and construct an empire. Lenin showed that imperialism was a product of monopoly capitalism when surplus capital couldn't be absorbed by the home market and capitalists sought larger profits in colonies or zones of influence, which were politically protected markets.


Joseph Schumpeter and others have looked beyond economics to explain expansion and imperialism. Carlton Hayes says nations grow to boost their prestige. Schumpeter said capitalism was a rational economic system, hence expansion was pre-capitalist. A militarist, landowning aristocracy encouraged expansion, showing that capitalism was undeveloped. Schumpeter was debating about Germany.


Japanese Marxist historians mainly agree. Scholars like Inoue Kiyoshi have noted that the Meiji administration was absolutist, meaning no single class could dominate the political order. The bureaucracy, landlords, and emerging bourgeoisie used the Emperor System ideology to subdue the populace. This country's dominance structure also extended overseas. The Russo-Japanese war ushered Japan towards modern capitalism. Japan no longer reacted to Western pressure but became a collaborator of the imperialist countries. Japan fought the Russo-Japanese war in part to help the West exploit Asia.


Marius Jansen argues that imperialism was socially acceptable in the 19th century. The Japanese adopted Darwinist views that a perpetual struggle for life was unavoidable, and that Japan must expand her frontiers to ensure her survival. He contends that early Japanese imperialism was driven by economic and military compulsions. After WWI, Japanese industry battled with Western corporations, and economics drove Japan's expansion.


Q3) Discuss the political and economic implications of the Allied occupation of Japan.

Ans) Under the Potsdam Declaration of 26 July 1945, the Allies seized Japan. President Harry Truman designated General Douglas MacArthur Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers. MacArthur administered Japan through the Japanese government, which was not disbanded. The Japanese Foreign Ministry's Central Liaison Office handled SCAP directives. This allowed the Japanese to change or delay SCAP policy. Initial Post-Surrender Policy for Japan on August 29, 1945, outlined SCAP policy. Policy had two goals:

  1. First, it wanted to assure Japan wouldn't threaten U.S. or global security again.

  2. Two, a democratic, responsible government.


To achieve these goals, the U.S. aimed to deconstruct Japan's militarism and expansionism, which led to war and internal repression. The U.S. thought large business and the military exercised disproportionate power over the system, and they disseminated an Emperor-based ideology through government control, creating a pliant and docile people.


Political Implications

The Emperor's position was the first issue. Whether or not he ought to be held accountable for the conflict was up for discussion. The Emperor was never put on trial, despite the fact that many of the Japanese leaders were prosecuted and killed. Numerous groups within the Allied forces wished to make Hirohito, the Emperor, accountable for the deaths and mistreatment of thousands of Allied soldiers. The left wing in Japan also favoured ending the Emperor system, which had propelled the country towards fascism.


Economic Implications

The Occupation powers made significant changes to the economy as well. Japan had reportedly lost one-fifth of its resources when it capitulated. Much of the heavy and chemical industries' productive potential was still there despite significant losses in industrial machinery and the destruction of many factories. Due to the economy being redirected to producing for the war effort, there was a severe shortage of products for the general public. Although there was not the kind of famine that existed in China or the Philippines, which had endured under Japanese rule, life in the cities was difficult due to inflation and a scarcity of food.





Answer the following questions in about 100 words each. 6x5


Q1) Intellectual Currents in Tokugawa Period

Ans) Ieyasu rose to prominence by his military prowess and Confucian morals, according to popular mythology. Ancient Confucian ideas governed the governmental structure, economy, interpersonal interactions, and ethics during the Tokugawa era. Neo-Confucian schools developed in China in the eleventh century to challenge Buddhism. The neo-Confucian theories of Zhu Xi were conveyed to Japan by a Zen monk named Fujiwara Seika, and they were formalised by Hayashi Razan, who formed the Shoheiko school in 1797.


Buddhist practise was closely regulated, and sects were maintained apart. Everyone belonged to a sect since births were recorded in temple records, and funerals were done in accordance with Buddhist rites. Buddhist temples were wealthy but had little influence. Shinto sects also had a significant impact. Some claimed that Shinto gods had manifested as Buddhist deities. Ieyasu was praised for being a combination of Buddhist and Shinto gods.


Q2) Sericulture in Japan

Ans) After rice, raw silk was the second most significant agricultural product. Most sericulture production began as a side-line to grain farming. Due to expanding demand, raw silk production tripled between 1914 and 1929. Innovations were carried out in summer-fall culture: Japan's spring was once cocoon season. This coincided with rice and crop productivity. Due to dual labour demand, cocoon production was limited.


Summer-fall culture innovations:

  1. New approach delays silkworm hatching.

  2. Artificial hatching was developed.

  3. Low-death-rate hybrid worms were created.


These became the summer-fall technology that improved output. Farmers benefited from this new technology. Most importantly, idle summer and autumn labour was now used. It could be used twice a year. In 1920, this method was used for 50% of cocoon manufacturing. By 1929, about 40% of farming families were cocoon producers. Reeling Mills demanded female labour. Mostly rural women helped. During the war, silk prices stayed high, dipped during the pest-war recession, and then recovered. By 1930, Japan's exports to the U.S. fell. When rice prices fell, silk prices also fell, hurting Japanese farmers.

Q3) Japan and the Indian National Army

Ans) Japan supported Indian independence movements in India. India was never included in the Greater Co-Prosperity Sphere's original design. Japanese anti-colonial organisations were funded because they wanted the British to leave India. Subhash Chandra Bose worked for the Indian National Congress for a very long time. Bose was eligible to join the Indian Civil Service but left after becoming eligible in 1921. He joined the Indian National Congress because he wanted to strive for Indian independence. The threat of war in the 1940s, as fascism gained strength throughout the world, persuaded many people to accept British cooperation in the battle against fascism and delay calls for independence. Bose made the decision to attack the British Empire at this time.


Q4) Development of Trade Unions in Japan

Ans) Takano Fusataro organised the first Japanese workers union in San Francisco in 1890 and in Japan in 1897. Gompers inspired Takano. Early trade union philosophers emphasised peace and cooperation. Katayama insisted feudal links between labour and capitalists be eliminated. Despite its moderation, the government suppressed them within three years, prompting organisers to act politically. The Meiji Government ruthlessly suppressed but improved labour conditions to reduce social discontent. The government banned socialist groups. Insect Society was outlawed because the word society indicated socialism. In 1882, when there were 50 factories, the bureaucracy began examining labour conditions. Reports and studies on minimum factory standards were not made law. The first factory law was passed in 1911 against business houses' protests, although it was watered down and provided industry sufficient time before its implementation.


Q5) Rise of Militarism in Japan

Ans) The military was in charge of running the government and handling state matters from the very beginning of the Meiji era. In the government's decision-making process, military chiefs were crucial. In reality, from 1885 to 1945, there were almost half as many military chiefs as prime ministers. Additionally, many military chiefs frequently served as both the home and foreign ministers. Even in a cabinet constituted by the main political party, the ministry was always held by senior military officers. The Meiji constitution, which was adopted in 1889, established a parliamentary system in which the elected members of the Diet took part in making decisions. They did not, however, have a deciding influence because the Emperor had a wide range of authority. The Diet, which had no authority over the military as well, had no authority over any of the executive organs that worked for the Emperor and could carry out their plans without it.

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