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BLI-222: Information Sources and Services

BLI-222: Information Sources and Services

IGNOU Solved Assignment Solution for 2023-24

If you are looking for BLI-222 IGNOU Solved Assignment solution for the subject Information Sources and Services, you have come to the right place. BLI-222 solution on this page applies to 2023-24 session students studying in BLIS courses of IGNOU.

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Assignment Code: BLI-222/TMA/Jul.2023/Jan.2024

Course Code: BLI-222

Assignment Name: Information Sources and Services

Year: 2023-2024

Verification Status: Verified by Professor

Note: Answer all questions.

I) Answer all the questions in not more than 500 words each. (4X10= 40 Marks)

Q1) Why do we need to evaluate reference books in an academic library? Discuss the check points to be included in the evaluation of encyclopaedia in a library.

Ans) The evaluation of reference books, particularly encyclopaedias, in an academic library is essential for ensuring that the collection meets the information needs of users, maintains relevance, and adheres to quality standards.

Reference books play a crucial role in supporting academic research, providing quick information, and serving as foundational resources for students and faculty. The evaluation process helps in assessing the credibility, accuracy, and currency of these resources, contributing to the overall effectiveness of the library's reference collection.

Quality Assurance: Evaluation serves to verify that the reference collection continues to uphold a high quality standard. It assists in the identification of information that may be erroneous or out of current, which may lead people astray.

Relevance: The academic setting is always changing, which means that new information is always required. The academic community should perform regular evaluations to ensure that reference books continue to meet the needs of the curricula and research interests of the community.

Budget Optimization: The funds available for library operations are limited. Evaluation assists in finding reference items that are unnecessary or underutilised, which enables librarians to reallocate funds to obtain resources that are more pertinent to their work.

User Satisfaction: By regularly assessing reference books, libraries can better understand user preferences and needs. This information contributes to a user-centric approach in collection development, enhancing overall user satisfaction.

Collection Development: Evaluation is an essential component in the process of collection growth. It assists in making educated decisions about whether reference materials should be kept, updated, or replaced depending on the utility and relevance of the information they provide.

Check Points for Evaluating Encyclopaedias:

Authority of Contributors: Examine the credentials and expertise of the contributors. Well-known experts or scholars in the respective fields enhance the credibility of the encyclopaedia.

Scope and Coverage: Assess the scope of the encyclopaedia and ensure that it aligns with the academic programs offered by the institution. A comprehensive coverage of subjects enhances the utility of the resource.

Currency of Information: Encyclopaedias should be regularly updated to reflect the latest developments in various fields. Check for the publication date and frequency of updates to ensure the information is current.

Accuracy: Evaluate the accuracy of the information provided. Cross-verify facts and data with other reputable sources to confirm the reliability of the encyclopaedia.

Organization and Format: A well-organized and easily navigable format enhances the usability of an encyclopaedia. Evaluate the clarity of presentation, indexing, and cross-referencing features.

Breadth vs. Depth: Consider whether the encyclopaedia provides a balance between breadth (covering a wide range of topics) and depth (providing in-depth information on specific subjects).

Inclusion of Multimedia: Evaluate whether the encyclopaedia incorporates multimedia elements such as images, maps, charts, and videos, enhancing the richness of content.

Accessibility: Ensure that the encyclopaedia is easily accessible to users. Assess the ease of locating information, whether through a well-structured index, table of contents, or a user-friendly digital interface.

User Reviews and Feedback: Consider user reviews and feedback, both from the academic community and scholarly reviews. User opinions provide valuable insights into the practical utility of the encyclopaedia.

Cost-Effectiveness: Evaluate the cost of acquiring or subscribing to the encyclopaedia in relation to its content, features, and the library's budget.

Q2) Describe the steps involved in conducting computer-based literature search.

Ans) Conducting a computer-based literature search is a systematic process that involves several steps to effectively retrieve relevant information from electronic databases.

Define Research Question or Topic: Clearly articulate the research question or topic you want to investigate. This will guide the search and help in identifying relevant keywords and concepts.

Identify Keywords and Synonyms: Generate a list of keywords and synonyms related to your research question. These terms will be used in constructing search queries to retrieve relevant literature.

Select Relevant Databases: Choose appropriate databases based on subject area. Common academic databases include PubMed, IEEE Xplore, Scopus, Web of Science, and others. Different databases cover different disciplines, so select those most relevant to the research.

Construct Search Queries: Develop search queries using the identified keywords and synonyms. Boolean operators (AND, OR NOT) can be used to combine or exclude terms. Consider using truncation (*) and quotation marks for phrase searching.

Refine Search Strategies: Refine the search strategies based on initial search results. Analyse the relevance of retrieved articles and adjust the search queries to improve precision and recall.

Use Filters and Advanced Search Options: Utilize filters and advanced search options provided by databases to narrow down results. Common filters include publication date, document type, language, and study type. Advanced search features enable more specific and targeted queries.

Review Search Results: Examine the search results to identify potentially relevant articles. Pay attention to titles, abstracts, and keywords. One may need to review several pages of results to ensure comprehensive coverage.

Access Full Text: Access the full text of relevant articles. Some databases provide direct links to full-text articles, while others may only provide abstracts. Utilize library resources to obtain full-text access to articles if needed.

Use Citation Searching: Conduct citation searching to find additional relevant articles. This involves identifying articles that have cited a particular paper of interest. Some databases provide citation indices that can be used for this purpose.

Organize and Manage Citations: Use reference management tools such as EndNote, Mendeley, or Zotero to organize and manage citations. These tools help in creating bibliographies, citing sources, and keeping track of the literature reviewed.

Evaluate the Quality of Sources: Assess the quality and reliability of the sources one find. Consider factors such as the reputation of the journal, the author's credentials, and the research methodology used.

Document Search Process: Keep a record of search process, including the databases used, search queries, and filters applied. This documentation is essential for transparency and reproducibility in research.

Iterative Searching: Carry out searches in an iterative manner whenever necessary. As one goes through the process of reviewing the relevant material, new keywords and ideas could come to light, necessitating further research so that the subject can be thoroughly examined.

Stay Updated: It is important to stay up to date on new papers that are pertinent to the study subject, thus you should set up alerts or notifications. The ability to generate alerts based on search criteria is offered by several databases.

Write a Search Methodology: When writing a research paper or report, make sure to include a comprehensive explanation of your search process. This makes the research process more transparent and enables others to do their own versions of the search.

Q3) Explain the importance of institutions as sources of information. Describe different types of institutions.

Ans) Institutions play a crucial role as sources of information, serving as repositories of knowledge, facilitating research and education, and contributing to the overall development of societies.

Knowledge Repositories: The act of storing knowledge and information is a function that is typically performed by establishments such as libraries, archives, and museums. They collect, organise, and preserve a wide variety of resources, including books, manuscripts, antiques, and digital resources, in order to make them available for use by both the current generation and those to come in the future.

Research and Innovation: Universities, research institutions, and laboratories are vital sources of information for advancing scientific and academic research. These institutions generate new knowledge through research activities, publish scholarly articles, and contribute to the dissemination of cutting-edge information.

Educational Resources: Students and teachers alike can benefit greatly from the wealth of knowledge that can be found in educational institutions such as schools, colleges, and universities. They allow access to a variety of critical materials for education, including academic publications, multimedia tools, and textbooks.

Cultural Heritage Preservation: Cultural institutions, such as museums and archives, contribute to the preservation of cultural heritage. They house historical documents, artifacts, artworks, and other items that provide insights into the history, traditions, and identity of a society.

Policy and Governance: Government institutions play a critical role in providing information related to policies, laws, and governance. Government publications, official reports, and public records are valuable sources for understanding legal frameworks, public policies, and administrative decisions.

Media and Communication: Primary sources of up-to-date information include a variety of news outlets in the media, such as newspapers, television networks, and internet news platforms. They convey news, analysis, and commentary, so influencing public opinion and provide citizens with information about recent events and ongoing concerns.

Professional Associations: Professional associations and societies act as information hubs within specific fields. They publish journals, organize conferences, and provide platforms for professionals to share knowledge, best practices, and advancements within their respective disciplines.

Healthcare Institutions: Information concerning health is augmented by contributions from hospitals, clinics, and other types of medical research facilities. They also communicate information regarding diseases, treatments, and general public health in addition to conducting medical research and publishing scholarly articles.

Technology and Innovation Hubs: Institutions in the technology sector, including research and development centres and innovation hubs, contribute to information on technological advancements. They publish research papers, patents, and technical documentation, fostering progress in various industries.

Financial and Economic Institutions: Financial institutions, central banks, and economic research organizations provide information related to economic trends, financial markets, and policy decisions. Reports and publications from these institutions are valuable for businesses, policymakers, and researchers.

Legal Institutions: Courts, legal libraries, and legal research institutions are essential sources of legal information. They house legal documents, case law, statutes, and legal literature, supporting the legal profession and the administration of justice.

Environmental and Scientific Institutions: Institutions focused on environmental research and conservation contribute valuable information about ecosystems, climate change, and sustainable practices. They publish research findings, reports, and guidelines for environmental stewardship.

Q4) While analysing marketing opportunities, discuss the various factors that affect external environment of an organisation?

Ans) Understanding the external environment in which an organisation functions is essential for performing an in-depth analysis of the marketing opportunities available to that organisation. The external environment is influenced by a number of elements, and in order for marketers to discover opportunities and problems, they need to evaluate these factors.

Economic Factors: The state of the economy, as measured by factors such as inflation, interest, and currency rates, as well as overall economic stability, has a substantial bearing on the purchasing power of consumers and the patterns of their expenditures. Consumers are more likely to increase their spending and confidence when the economy is doing well.

Social and Cultural Factors: Societal and cultural trends influence consumer behaviour and preferences. Factors such as demographics, lifestyle changes, cultural values, and social norms play a crucial role in shaping market opportunities. For example, a shift toward healthier lifestyles may create opportunities for businesses in the health and wellness industry.

Technological Factors: Advancements in technology have a profound impact on industries. Businesses need to assess technological trends, innovations, and disruptions that may present opportunities or threats. Embracing new technologies can lead to a competitive advantage.

Political and Legal Factors: The policies of the government, the laws that it imposes, and the political stability all have an impact on the operations of businesses. Marketers have a responsibility to be aware of any and all regulatory requirements, trade regulations, and political unrest that may have an effect on the market. Alterations to regulations can present businesses with either opportunities or challenges, depending on how they are implemented.

Environmental Factors: Growing environmental awareness has led to increased scrutiny of business practices. Sustainability, eco-friendly initiatives, and corporate social responsibility are becoming integral to consumer preferences. Organizations that align with environmental values may find new market opportunities.

Competitive Factors: Understanding market dynamics requires a solid foundational knowledge of the competitive environment. This includes the number of competitors, their relative strengths, the distribution of market share, and competing strategies. It is possible for strategic decisions to be informed by the discovery of gaps in the market or areas of weakness in competitors.

Market Trends: Identifying and understanding market trends is essential for anticipating shifts in consumer behaviour and preferences. Analysing trends in product innovation, marketing channels, and distribution methods can help organizations stay ahead of the curve.

Supplier and Distributor Relationships: The relationships with suppliers and distributors impact the supply chain and the availability of resources. Organizations need reliable and efficient supplier and distribution networks to ensure the smooth flow of products and services to the market.

Consumer Behaviour: Understanding consumer behaviour is foundational for successful marketing. Factors such as buying motivations, decision-making processes, and preferences inform the development of targeted marketing strategies. Behavioural insights help in crafting messages that resonate with the target audience.

Global Factors: Globalization has interconnected markets, and businesses often operate on a global scale. Factors such as international trade, geopolitical events, and global economic conditions can impact market opportunities for multinational companies.

Regulatory Environment: Industry-specific regulations and compliance requirements influence marketing strategies. Staying abreast of regulatory changes helps organizations adapt to legal frameworks and avoid potential risks.

Public Opinion and Perception: Public opinion, influenced by media, social platforms, and public relations efforts, can shape market perceptions. Understanding how a brand is perceived in the public eye is crucial for building a positive reputation.

II) Answer the following questions in not more250 words each.(6X5= 30 marks)

Q1) Explain how S. R. Ranganathan has categorised documents in a library.

Ans) S. R. Ranganathan, a renowned Indian librarian and mathematician, proposed a classification system for documents in a library known as the Colon Classification. In this system, he categorized documents based on facets, which represent specific aspects or attributes of the subject matter. The facets are organized in a hierarchical order, allowing for a systematic arrangement of knowledge.

Personality Facet (Who): Documents are classified based on the individuals or entities associated with the content. This facet considers the authors, contributors, or entities responsible for the creation of the document.

Matter Facet (What): This facet focuses on the subject matter or content of the document. It involves classifying documents based on the topics, themes, or subjects covered in the material.

Energy Facet (How): Documents are classified according to the methods, techniques, or processes involved in the creation or treatment of the content. This facet addresses the practical aspects of how the information is presented.

Space Facet (Where): Classification based on the geographical or spatial context of the document. This facet considers the location or setting relevant to the content.

Time Facet (When): Documents are classified based on the chronological or temporal aspects of the content. This facet considers the time or historical context associated with the information.

Q2) What do you understand by the term “secondary sources of information”? List their different types and give one example of each type.

Ans) Secondary sources of information refer to materials that interpret, analyse, or comment on primary sources. These sources are created by someone who did not directly experience or participate in the events or phenomena being discussed. They provide an interpretation or commentary based on primary sources, making them one step removed from the original information.

Books: Books that synthesize information, analyse topics, or provide an overview of a subject are considered secondary sources. For example, a history book that discusses the causes and effects of a specific event.

Journal Articles: Articles published in academic journals often review, analyse, or discuss research findings. A review article that summarizes and analyses studies on a particular topic is a secondary source.

Review Articles: These articles summarize and analyse existing research on a specific topic. For instance, a literature review in a scientific journal that examines various studies on climate change.

Documentaries: Audiovisual materials, such as documentaries, provide a visual interpretation or analysis of events, issues, or historical periods. A documentary on wildlife conservation, for example, offers an analysis of conservation efforts.

Encyclopaedias: Encyclopaedias compile information on various topics. While they may include some primary sources, the articles themselves, providing an overview or analysis, are considered secondary sources. An article in an encyclopaedia on the Industrial Revolution, for instance, is a secondary source.

Newspaper Analysis: Newspaper articles that analyse events, trends, or issues are secondary sources. An op-ed piece discussing the economic impact of a new policy is an example.

Q3) Discuss how information gatherers act as sources of information.

Ans) Information gatherers play a vital role as sources of information by actively collecting, organizing, and disseminating data and knowledge. These individuals or entities act as intermediaries between primary sources of information and end-users, facilitating the flow of information in various fields.

Collection of Data: Information gatherers systematically collect data from diverse sources, including primary documents, databases, surveys, and other repositories. This process involves selecting, organizing, and preserving information for future use.

Organization and Cataloguing: They employ classification and cataloguing systems to organize information, making it easily accessible. This involves assigning metadata, keywords, or descriptors to enhance searchability.

Curation and Synthesis: Information gatherers curate content by selecting and compiling relevant information on specific topics. They often synthesize data from various sources to create comprehensive and coherent resources.

Verification and Evaluation: Before disseminating information, gatherers verify its accuracy and evaluate its reliability. This quality control ensures that the information provided is trustworthy and credible.

Dissemination Channels: Information gatherers employ various channels for disseminating information, such as libraries, archives, websites, databases, and publications. They make information accessible to diverse audiences, including researchers, students, policymakers, and the public.

Adaptation to User Needs: Recognizing the diverse needs of users, information gatherers adapt their services to cater to different audiences. This may involve creating user-friendly interfaces, developing educational materials, or offering specialized resources.

Continuous Updates: In dynamic fields, information gatherers continually update their collections to reflect the latest developments. This ensures that users have access to current and relevant information.

Reference Services: Information gatherers often provide reference services, assisting users in locating information, navigating resources, and conducting effective research. Librarians, archivists, and information professionals are examples of individuals who offer reference services.

Q4) Explain how information generators and information compilers act as sources of information.

Ans) Information generators and information compilers play distinct yet complementary roles as sources of information in various fields.

Information Generators: The development and production of original data, content, or knowledge falls within the purview of information generators, which can be either organisations or people. This method requires carrying out activities such as research, experiments, and surveys, amongst other things, in order to generate fresh information.

Institutions of research, laboratories, government agencies, academic scholars, and companies are all examples of these types of organisations. The fundamental sources of data and insights are largely derived from the contributions made by information generators, who produce new stuff that has not been previously evaluated or synthesised.

Information Compilers: Compilers of information, on the other hand, are organisations or persons that are tasked with the responsibility of acquiring, organising, and synthesising information that already exists from a variety of sources. They are primarily concerned with collecting, curating, and presenting information in a format that is organised and easily accessible rather than generating new data themselves.

Compilations of information can be found in places such as libraries, databases, encyclopaedias, and specific kinds of reports, among other places. Compilers bring value to their work by developing exhaustive resources, typically with the intention of making knowledge more approachable and comprehensible to a larger audience.

Q5) What are the negative influences of the information generated by mass media?

Ans) The negative influences of the information generated by mass media are the following:

Sensationalism: Mass media often emphasizes sensational and dramatic content to capture attention. This can lead to the distortion of facts, sensationalizing events, and prioritizing entertainment value over accuracy.

Misinformation: Inaccurate or misleading information can be disseminated quickly through mass media channels. This can result in the spread of rumours, false narratives, and conspiracy theories, eroding public trust in credible sources.

Bias and Subjectivity: Media outlets may have inherent biases based on ownership, political affiliations, or other factors. This bias can influence the framing of news stories, presenting information in a way that aligns with certain perspectives while marginalizing others.

Impact on Mental Health: Continuous exposure to negative news, particularly incidents of violence, disasters, and crises, can contribute to heightened stress, anxiety, and fear among individuals. The constant bombardment of distressing content can adversely affect mental health.

Erosion of Privacy: Mass media's focus on sensational stories and the increasing trend of invasive reporting can compromise individuals' privacy. Personal information may be exposed without consent, leading to potential harm and ethical concerns.

Cultural Influence: Mass media, especially through entertainment content, can shape cultural norms and values. While this can be positive, it may also contribute to the spread of stereotypes, reinforce harmful social norms, or lead to cultural homogenization.

Echo Chambers and Polarization: Social media, a significant component of mass media, can create echo chambers where individuals are exposed to information that aligns with their existing beliefs. This can contribute to polarization and hinder constructive dialogue between different perspectives.

Overemphasis on Entertainment: In pursuit of higher ratings and audience engagement, media outlets may prioritize entertainment over substantive news. This can lead to a lack of coverage on important issues, hindering the public's understanding of complex topics.

Q6) List the basic information literacy skills necessary for undergraduate and graduate students.

Ans) The basic information literacy skills necessary for undergraduate and graduate students are follows:

Undergraduate Students:

a) Information Retrieval: Ability to use library catalogues, databases, and search engines to locate relevant information. Understanding of keywords, Boolean operators, and advanced search techniques.

b) Source Evaluation: Capacity to critically evaluate information sources for credibility, authority, accuracy, relevance, and timeliness. Differentiation between scholarly, peer-reviewed articles and popular sources.

c) Citation and Academic Integrity: Understanding of citation styles (APA, MLA, Chicago) and the importance of giving credit to original authors. Adherence to academic integrity standards and avoidance of plagiarism.

d) Effective Reading Strategies: Skimming and scanning texts to identify key points. Active reading and note-taking skills.

e) Database Navigation: Familiarity with academic databases relevant to their field of study. Ability to use database features for advanced searches and access to full-text articles.

Graduate Students:

a) Literature Review: Conducting a comprehensive literature review to identify gaps in existing research. Synthesizing and critically analysing scholarly articles.

b) Advanced Research Methods: Knowledge of advanced research methodologies and experimental design. Ability to design and conduct original research.

c) Data Management: Understanding of data management principles and practices. Competence in organizing, analysing, and interpreting research data.

d) Publication Ethics: Awareness of ethical considerations in research and scholarly publishing. Adherence to publication guidelines and standards.

e) Advanced Citation Styles: Proficiency in using citation styles for complex sources. Understanding of citation management tools like EndNote or Zotero.

f) Information Synthesis: Synthesizing information from diverse sources to develop a coherent and well-supported argument. Ability to integrate multiple perspectives into research.

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